United States Senate elections, 1890 and 1891

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
United States Senate elections, 1890 and 1891
United States
← 1888 / 1889 Dates vary by state 1892 / 1893 →

28 of the 85 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

43 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 47 37
Seats won 12 14
Seats after 43 39
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 2
Seats up 16 12

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Populist Independent
Seats before 0 0
Seats won 1 1
Seats after 1 1
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 1
Seats up 0 0

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1890 and 1891 were elections in which the Republican Party lost four seats in the United States Senate, though still retaining a slim majority. That majority was increased, however, upon the admission of two more states with Republican senators.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 52nd Congress (1891–1893)

  • Majority Party: Republican (46)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (37)
  • Other Parties: Populist (2)
  • Total Seats: 85

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the admission of Montana's new senators in January 1890.

D1 D2
D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3
D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30
Ran
D29
Ran
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
Ran
D25 D24 D23
D33
Ran
D34
Ran
D35
Ran
D36
Retired
D37
Retired
R47
Retired
R46
Ran
R45
Ran
R44
Ran
R43
Ran
Majority →
R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Ran
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R32
Ran
R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23
R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3
R1 R2

After the class 3 elections

D1 D2
D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3
D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22
D32
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D25 D24 D23
D33
Hold
D34
Hold
D35
Hold
D36
Hold
D37
Gain
D38
Gain
D39
Gain
V1
D Loss
I1
Gain
P1
Gain
Majority → R43
New seat
R33
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Hold
R42
Hold
R32
Re-elected
R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23
R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3
R1 R2

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35 D36 V1
D seated late
V2
D elected late
V3
D died
Later D
I1
Later P
P1 V3
D died
Later R
R46
New seat
R45
New seat
Majority →
R35 R36 R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44
New seat
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1 R2 R3 R4
Key:
D# Democratic
I# Independent
P# Populist
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Elections during the 51st Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1890 or in 1891 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Montana
(Class 1)
New state Montana admitted to the Union November 8, 1889.
First senator elected January 1, 1890.[1]
His election was challenged based on the legitimacy of the nascent state legislature.
The Senate resolved the dispute in his favor April 16, 1890 and he was seated that day.[2]
Republican gain.
Wilbur F. Sanders (Republican)
William A. Clark (Democratic)
Montana
(Class 2)
New state Montana admitted to the Union November 8, 1889.
First senator elected January 2, 1890.[1]
His election was challenged based on the legitimacy of the nascent state legislature.
The Senate resolved the dispute in his favor April 16, 1890 and he was seated that day.[2]
Republican gain.
Thomas C. Power (Republican)
Martin Maginnis (Democratic)
Kentucky
(Class 2)
James B. Beck Democratic 1876
1882
1888
Incumbent died May 3, 1890.
Winner elected May 26, 1890.
Democratic hold.
John G. Carlisle (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wyoming
(Class 2)
New state Wyoming admitted to the Union July 10, 1890.
First senator elected November 15, 1890.
Republican gain.
Joseph M. Carey (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wyoming
(Class 1)
New state Wyoming admitted to the Union July 10, 1890.
First senator elected November 18, 1890.
Republican gain.
Francis E. Warren (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Idaho
(Class 2)
New state Idaho admitted to the Union July 3, 1890.
First senator elected December 18, 1890.
Republican gain.
George L. Shoup (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Idaho
(Class 3)
New state Idaho admitted to the Union July 3, 1890.
First senator elected December 18, 1890.
Republican gain.
William J. McConnell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 52nd Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1891; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama James L. Pugh Democratic 1880 (Special)
1884
Incumbent re-elected in 1890. James L. Pugh (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas James K. Jones Democratic 1885 Incumbent re-elected in 1891. James K. Jones (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
California Leland Stanford Republican 1885 Incumbent re-elected in 1891. Leland Stanford (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado Henry M. Teller Republican 1885 Incumbent re-elected in 1891. Henry M. Teller (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Orville H. Platt Republican 1879
1885
Incumbent re-elected in 1891. Orville H. Platt (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Wilkinson Call Democratic 1879
1885
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
None.
Georgia Joseph E. Brown Democratic 1880 (Special)
1885
Incumbent retired due to illness.
Winner elected on an unknown date.
Democratic hold.
John B. Gordon (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Idaho William J. McConnell Republican 1890 McConnell was elected only to finish the term, see above, and thereafter retired.
Winner elected December 18, 1890.
Republican hold.
Fred Dubois (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois John A. Logan Republican 1885 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1890.
Democratic gain.
John M. Palmer (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana Daniel W. Voorhees Democratic 1877 (Appointed)
1879 (Special)
1885
Incumbent re-elected in 1891. Daniel W. Voorhees (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa William B. Allison Republican 1872
1878
1884
Incumbent re-elected March 5, 1890.[3] William B. Allison (Republican) 79 votes
S.T. Bestow (Democratic) 63 votes
William Larrabee (Republican) 8 votes[3]
Kansas John Ingalls Republican 1873
1879
1885
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1891.
Populist gain.
William A. Peffer (Populist)
John Ingalls (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Joseph Blackburn Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected in 1890. Joseph Blackburn (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana James B. Eustis Democratic 1890 or 1891 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1891.
Democratic hold.
Edward Douglass White (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Ephraim Wilson Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected in 1890.
Incumbent winner died February 24, 1891, before the beginning of the next term and seat remained vacant until November 19, 1891.
Ephraim Wilson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri George G. Vest Democratic 1879
1885
Incumbent re-elected in 1891. George G. Vest (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada John P. Jones Republican 1879
1885
Incumbent re-elected in 1891. John P. Jones (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Henry W. Blair Republican 1879
1885 (Appointed)
1885 (Special)
Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1891.
Republican hold.
Jacob Gallinger (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York William M. Evarts Republican 1885 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected January 21, 1891.
Democratic gain.
David B. Hill (Democratic) 81 votes
William M. Evarts (Republican) 79 votes
North Carolina Zebulon Vance Democratic 1879
1884
Incumbent re-elected in 1890. Zebulon Vance (Democratic)
North Dakota Gilbert A. Pierce Republican 1889 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1891.
Republican hold.
Henry C. Hansbrough (Republican)
Gilbert A. Pierce (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio Henry B. Payne Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 15, 1890[4]
Democratic hold.
Calvin S. Brice (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon John H. Mitchell Republican 1885 Incumbent re-elected in 1890. John H. Mitchell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania J. Donald Cameron Republican 1877 (Special)
1879
1885
Incumbent re-elected January 20, 1891. J. Donald Cameron (Republican) 144 votes
Chauncey F. Black (Democratic) 94 votes
Others 12 votes, see below
South Carolina Wade Hampton III Democratic 1884 Incumbent lost re-election.
re-elected in 1890.
Democratic hold.
John L. M. Irby (Democratic)
Wade Hampton III (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Dakota Gideon C. Moody Republican 1889 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected February 16, 1891.[5]
Independent gain.
Winner later became a Populist.
James H. Kyle (Independent) 75 votes
Bartlett Tripp 8 votes
Norman B. Campbell 1 vote[5]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Justin S. Morrill Republican 1866
1872
1878
1884
Incumbent re-elected in 1890. Justin S. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Washington Watson C. Squire Republican 1889 Incumbent re-elected in 1891. Watson C. Squire (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin John C. Spooner Republican 1885 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1890.
Democratic gain.
William F. Vilas (Democratic)
John C. Spooner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Election during the 52nd Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1891 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California
(Class 1)
George Hearst Democratic 1887 Incumbent died February 28, 1891.
Winner was elected March 19, 1891.
Republican gain.
Charles N. Felton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
Incumbent re-elected May 26, 1891.[6]
Democratic gain.
Wilkinson Call (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races

Idaho

In July 1890, Idaho became a state. In November, Fred Dubois helped engineer a plan for the Idaho Legislature to effectively elect three people to the U.S. Senate: Governor George Shoup to the Class 2 seat up for election in 1894, state constitutional convention member William J. McConnell to serve for the remainder of the Fifty-first United States Congress, ending in March 1891, and Dubois himself to succeed McConnell and serve a full six-year term in the Class 3 seat beginning in March 1891.

New York

The New York election was held January 20 and 21, 1891, by the New York State Legislature.

Republican William M. Evarts had been elected to this seat in 1885, and his term would expire on March 3, 1891.

At the State election in November 1889, 19 Republicans and 13 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1890-1891) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1890, 68 Democrats and 60 Republicans were elected for the session of 1891 to the Assembly. The 114th New York State Legislature met from January 6 to April 30, 1891, at Albany, New York.

The Democratic caucus met on January 19, 74 State legislators attended, and State Senator John C. Jacobs presided. Governor David B. Hill was nominated by acclamation.

The Republican caucus met immediately after the Democratic caucus ended, Assemblyman James W. Husted presided. They re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator William M. Evarts unanimously.

On January 20, both Houses of the State legislature took ballots separately. The incumbent U.S. Senator Evarts was the choice of the State Senate, Governor Hill the choice of the Assembly. On January 21, both Houses met in joint session, and comparing nominations, found that they disagreed and proceeded to a joint ballot. Governor Hill was elected by a majority of 2, every member of the Legislature being present.

House Democratic Republican
State Senate
(32 members)
David B. Hill 13 William M. Evarts 19
State Assembly
(128 members)
David B. Hill 65 William M. Evarts 58
Joint ballot
(160 members)
David B. Hill 81 William M. Evarts 79

The seat became vacant on March 4, 1891. David B. Hill remained in office as Governor of New York until December 31, 1891, and took his seat only on January 7, 1892, missing actually only one month of session. There were no special sessions during the 52nd United States Congress and the regular session began only on December 7, 1891. Hill served a single term, and remained in the U.S. Senate until March 3, 1897. In January 1897, Hill was defeated for re-election by Republican Thomas C. Platt who had been a U.S. Senator briefly in 1881.

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held on January 20, 1891. J. Donald Cameron was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[7]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 20, 1891. Incumbent Republican J. Donald Cameron, who was elected in an 1877 special election and re-elected in 1879 and 1885, was a successful candidate for re-election to another term. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican J. Donald Cameron (Inc.) 144 56.69
Democratic Chauncey F. Black 94 37.01
Republican Austin L. Taggart 7 2.76
Republican Theodore L. Flood 3 1.18
Democratic J. C. Sibley 1 0.39
Republican Harry White 1 0.39
N/A Not voting 4 1.57
Totals 254 100.00%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Congressional Series of United States Public Documents". Government Printing Office. 1893. p. 64. 
  2. ^ a b Taft, et al., p. 727.
  3. ^ a b Clark, p. 221.
  4. ^ Taylor & Taylor, p. 111, vol II.
  5. ^ a b "SENATOR JAMES H. KYLE". The New York Times. February 17, 1891. p. 5. 
  6. ^ "CALL DECLARED ELECTED". The New York Times. May 26, 1891. p. 1. 
  7. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 20 January 1891" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 

References

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Senate_elections,_1890_and_1891&oldid=801066336"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate_elections,_1890_and_1891
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "United States Senate elections, 1890 and 1891"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA