United States Senate elections, 1868 and 1869

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United States Senate elections, 1868 and 1869
United States
← 1866 / 1867 Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
1870 / 1871 →

25 of the 66 (8 vacant)/74 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
34 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 39 seats 10 seats
Seats before 57 9
Seats won 17 5
Seats after 57 9
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 17 5

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

The United States Senate elections of 1868 and 1869 were elections which had the Republican Party maintain their majority in the United States Senate. However, six former Confederate states were also readmitted separately from the general election, each electing two Republicans. This increased the Republicans' already overwhelming majority to the largest amount of seats ever controlled by the party.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 41st Congress (1869–1871)

  • Majority Party: Republican (57)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (9)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Vacant: (8)
  • Total Seats: 74

Change in Senate composition

Beginning of 1868

D3 D2 D1 V4 V3 V2 V1
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 V5
Readmitted
V6
Readmitted
V7
Readmitted
V8
Readmitted
V9
Readmitted
R44 R45 V17
Readmitted
V16
Readmitted
V15
Readmitted
V14
Readmitted
V13
Readmitted
V12
Readmitted
V11
Special
V10
Readmitted
R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority → R33
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V18 V19 V20 V21

After the readmission of the Confederate states

D3 D2 D1 V4 V3 V2 V1
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9
Gain
R57
Gain
R56
Gain
R55
Gain
R54
Gain
R44 R45 R46
Gain
R47
Gain
R48
Gain
R49
Gain
R50
Gain
R51
Gain
R52
Gain
R53
Gain
R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority →
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V5 V6 V7 V8

Before the elections

After July 16, 1868 readmission of South Carolina.

D3 D2 D1 V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2
Seceded
V1
D4 D5
Unknown
D6
Retired
D7
Retired
D8
Retired
D9
Retired
R57
Retired
R56
Retired
R55
Unknown
R54
Unknown
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R48
Ran
R49
Ran
R50
Ran
R51
Ran
R52
Ran
R53
Unknown
R43
Ran
R42
Ran
R41
Ran
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority →
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V5 V6 V7 V8

Result of the elections

D3 D2 D1 V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2
Seceded
V1
D4 D5
Hold
D6
Hold
D7
Gain
D8
Gain
D9
Gain
R57
Gain
R56
Gain
R55
Gain
R54
Hold
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
R48
Hold
R49
Hold
R50
Hold
R51
Hold
R52
Hold
R53
Hold
R43
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority →
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V5 V6 V7 V8
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Elections during the 40th Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1868 or in 1869 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 2)
James Guthrie Democratic 1865 Incumbent resigned due to failing health.
Winner elected February 19, 1868.
Democratic hold.
Thomas C. McCreery (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
Vacant since March 3, 1867 when Senator-elect Philip F. Thomas failed to qualify. Winner elected March 7, 1868.
Democratic gain.
George Vickers (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida
(Class 1)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Stephen Mallory (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 17, 1868.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run for election to the next term, see below.
Adonijah Welch (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Vacant since July 11, 1861 when William K. Sebastian (D) was expelled. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 22, 1868.
Republican gain.
Alexander McDonald (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Vacant since July 11, 1861 when Charles B. Mitchel (D) was expelled. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 23, 1868.
Republican gain.
Benjamin F. Rice (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida
(Class 3)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when David Levy Yulee (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 25, 1868.
Republican gain.
Thomas W. Osborn (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Vacant since February 4, 1861 when Judah P. Benjamin (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 8, 1868.
Republican gain.
John S. Harris (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Vacant since February 4, 1861 when John Slidell (D) resigned. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 9, 1868.
Republican gain.
William P. Kellogg (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Alabama
(Class 2)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Clement Claiborne Clay (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 13, 1868.
Republican gain.
Willard Warner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 13, 1868.
Republican gain.
George E. Spencer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant since March 6, 1861 when Thomas Bragg (D) resigned. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 14, 1868.
Republican gain.
Joseph Abbott (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Vacant since March 11, 1861 when Thomas Clingman (D) resigned. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 14, 1868.
Republican gain.
John Pool (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant since November 10, 1860 when James Chesnut, Jr. (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 15, 1868.
Republican gain.
Thomas J. Robertson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Vacant since November 11, 1860 when James Henry Hammond (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 16, 1868.
Republican gain.
Frederick A. Sawyer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 1)
James A. Bayard, Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
1863
1864 (Resigned)
1867 (Appointed)
Incumbent appointee elected January 19, 1869 to finish the term.[1]
Winner did not run for election to the next term, see below.
James A. Bayard, Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 41st Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1869; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California John Conness Republican 1862 or 1863 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1868.
Democratic gain.
Eugene Casserly (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut James Dixon Republican 1856
1863
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
William Buckingham (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware James A. Bayard, Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
1863
1864 (Resigned)
1867 (Appointed)
1869 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1869.
Democratic hold.
Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Adonijah Welch Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
Abijah Gilbert (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana Thomas A. Hendricks Democratic 1862 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868.
Republican gain.
Daniel D. Pratt (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Lot M. Morrill Republican 1861 (Special)
1863
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1869.
Republican hold.
Hannibal Hamlin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland William P. Whyte Democratic 1868 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Democratic hold.
William T. Hamilton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Charles Sumner Republican 1851 (Special)
1857
1863
Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Charles Sumner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Zachariah Chandler Republican 1857
1863
Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Zachariah Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Alexander Ramsey Republican 1863 Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Alexander Ramsey (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Jefferson Davis (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Missouri John B. Henderson Republican 1862 (Appointed)
1862
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868.
Republican hold.
Carl Schurz (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Thomas Tipton Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Thomas Tipton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nevada William M. Stewart Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected in 1869. William M. Stewart (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Frederick T. Frelinghuysen Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1867 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1869.
Democratic gain.
John P. Stockton (Democratic)
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Edwin D. Morgan Republican 1863 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected January 19, 1869.
Republican hold.
Reuben E. Fenton (Republican)
Henry C. Murphy (Democratic)
Henry S. Randall (Democratic)
Ohio Benjamin Wade Republican 1851
1856
1863
Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1868.
Democratic gain.
Allen G. Thurman (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Charles R. Buckalew Democratic 1863 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected January 19, 1869.
Republican gain.
John Scott (Republican) 58.65%
William A. Wallace (Democratic) 38.35%
Hiester Clymer (Democratic) 0.75%
Rhode Island William Sprague IV Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected in 1868. William Sprague IV (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee David T. Patterson Democratic 1866 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected early in October 22, 1867 for the term beginning March 4, 1869.
Republican gain.
William G. Brownlow (Republican) 63
William B. Stokes (Republican) 39[2]
Texas Vacant since March 23, 1861 when Louis Wigfall (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Vermont George F. Edmunds Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1866 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1868. George F. Edmunds (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia Vacant since January 2, 1864 when Joseph Segar (U) was not seated.[3] Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
West Virginia Peter G. Van Winkle Republican 1863 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
Arthur I. Boreman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin James R. Doolittle Republican 1857
1863
Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
Matthew H. Carpenter (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 41st Congress

There were no elections in 1869 during this Congress after March 4.

Complete list of races

New York

The election in New York was held on January 19, 1869 by the New York State Legislature. Republican Edwin D. Morgan had been elected in February 1863 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1869. At the State election in November 1867, 17 Republicans and 15 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1868-1869) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1868, Democrat John T. Hoffman was elected Governor, and 75 Republicans and 53 Democrats were elected for the session of 1869 to the Assembly. The 92nd New York State Legislature met from January 5 to May 11, 1869, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 16, Assemblyman John H. Selkreg presided. All 92 legislators were present. They nominated Ex-Governor Reuben E. Fenton for the U.S. Senate. The incumbent U.S. Senator Edwin D. Morgan was very keen on his re-election, but was voted down. Speaker Truman G. Younglove had held back the appointments to the standing Assembly committees until after the caucus, and subsequent election, of a U.S. Senator, and was accused by the Morgan men to have made a bargain to favor the Fenton men with appointments after the election was accomplished. After the caucus, comparing notes, the assemblymen discovered that some of the most important committee chairmanships had been promised to a dozen different members by Speaker Younglove.

1869 Republican caucus for United States Senator result
Candidate First ballot Second ballot
Reuben E. Fenton (50) 52
Edwin D. Morgan (42) 40
blank (1)

Note: On the first ballot, 93 votes were cast, one too many, and it was annulled without announcing the result. The above stated result transpired unofficially. The blank vote caused some debate if the result was really invalidated by it, but it was finally agreed to take a second ballot.

The caucus of the Democratic State legislators met on January 18. State Senator Henry C. Murphy was again nominated, like in 1867.

In the Assembly, Republicans DeWitt C. Hoyt (Saratoga Co.) and James O. Schoonmaker (Ulster Co.); and Democrats James Irving (NYC), Lawrence D. Kiernan (NYC), Harris B. Howard (Rensselaer Co.), James B. Pearsall (Queens), John Tighe (Albany Co.) and Moses Y. Tilden (Columbia Co.); did not vote.

In the State Senate, Republicans Matthew Hale (16th D.) and Charles Stanford (15th D.); and Democrats Cauldwell, Thomas J. Creamer, Michael Norton (5th D.) and John J. Bradley (7th D.); did not vote.

Reuben E. Fenton was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1869 United States Senator election result
House Republican Democratic Democratic
State Senate
(32 members)
Reuben E. Fenton 15 Henry C. Murphy 10 Henry S. Randall 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
Reuben E. Fenton 73 Henry C. Murphy 46

Notes:

  • The vote for Ex-Secretary of State Randall was cast by Henry C. Murphy.
  • The votes were cast on January 19, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 20 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Pennsylvania

The election in Pennsylvania was held on January 19, 1869. John Scott was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[4] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 19, 1869, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1869. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[4][5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Scott 78 58.65
Democratic William A. Wallace 51 38.35
Democratic Hiester Clymer 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 3 2.26
Totals 133 100.00%

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Byrd and Wolff, page 90
  2. ^ Coulter, E. Merton. "William G. Brownlow: Fighting Parson of the Southern Highlands". p. 347. 
  3. ^ Segar was not seated on the premise that the Union-friendly legislature was illegitimate despite having seated his predecessor based credentials from the same legislature. In reality, the Senate refused because it did not want to set a precedent for easing reentry of Confederate states. See "Musical Chairs (1861–1869)". United States Senate. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 19 January 1869" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  5. ^ "PA US Senate - 1869". OurCampaigns. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
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