United States Senate elections, 1862 and 1863

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United States Senate elections, 1862 and 1863
United States
← 1860 / 1861 Various dates 1864 / 1865 →

22 of the 48 (20 vacant)/68 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 29 seats 30 seats
Seats before 31 11
Seats won 32 10
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 1
Seats up 10 5

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Unionist Unconditional Unionist
Last election New Party New Party
Seats before 6 Steady
Seats won 5 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 4 Steady

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

The United States Senate elections of 1862 and 1863 were elections during the American Civil War in which Republicans increased their control of the U.S. Senate. The Republican Party gained three seats, bringing their majority to 66% of the body. Also caucusing with them were Unionists and Unconditional Unionists. As many Southern states seceded in 1860 and 1861, and members left the Senate to join the Confederacy, or were expelled for supporting the rebellion, seats were declared vacant. To establish a quorum with fewer members, a lower total seat number was taken into account.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 38th Congress (1863–1865)

  • Majority Party: Republican (31), later rose to 33
  • Minority Party: Democratic (10)
  • Other Parties: Unionist (4), later dropped to 3; Unconditional Unionist (3), later rose to 4
  • Vacant: 20, later rose to 22
  • Total Seats: 48, later rose to 50

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7
No race
V8
No race
V9
No race
V10
No race
D1 D2 D3 D4
U3 U2 U1 D11
Ran
D10
Retired
D9
Unknown
D8
Ran
D7
Ran
D6 D5
U4
Running
U5
Retired
U6
Unknown
R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Unknown
R28
Retired
R27
Ran
R26
Ran
R25
Ran
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
Ran
R23
Ran
R24
Ran
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4
V17 V18 V19 V20

As a result of the elections

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7
No race
V8
No race
V9
No race
V10
No race
D1 D2 D3 D4
U4
Hold
U3 U2 U1 D10
Gain
D9
Hold
D8
Hold
D7
Re-elected
D6 D5
U5
Hold
UU1
Gain
R32
Gain
R31
Gain
R30
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R28
Hold
R27
Hold
R26
Re-elected
R25
Re-elected
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4
V17 V18 V19 V20

Beginning of the next Congress

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 D1 D2 D3 D4
U4 U3 U2 U1 D10
Gain
D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
UU3
Gain
UU2
Changed
UU1 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4
V17 V18 V19 V20
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
UU# Unconditional Unionist
U# Unionist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Elections during the 37th Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1862 or in 1863 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Michigan
(Class 2)
Kinsley S. Bingham Republican 1858 Incumbent died October 5, 1861.
Winner elected January 17, 1862.
Republican hold.
Jacob M. Howard (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Benjamin Stark Democratic 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired September 12, 1862 when successor elected.
Winner elected September 12, 1862.
Democratic hold.
Benjamin F. Harding (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
James F. Simmons Republican 1841
1847 (Lost)
1856
Incumbent resigned August 15, 1862 before the Senate could vote to expel him.
Winner elected December 1, 1862.
Republican hold.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Samuel G. Arnold (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois
(Class 2)
Orville H. Browning Republican 1861 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected January 12, 1863.
Democratic gain.
William A. Richardson (Democratic)
Orville H. Browning (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana
(Class 1)
Joseph A. Wright Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired January 14, 1863 when successor elected.
Winner elected January 14, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
David Turpie (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Richard S. Field Republican 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired January 14, 1863 when successor elected.
Winner elected January 14, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
James W. Wall (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 38th Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1863; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California Milton Latham Democratic 1860 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected as a Democrat in 1862 or 1863.
Winner changed party to Republican after the election.
Republican gain.
John Conness (Democratic)
Milton Latham (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut James Dixon Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected in 1863. James Dixon (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware James A. Bayard, Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
Incumbent re-elected in 1863. James A. Bayard, Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Florida Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Stephen Mallory (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1868.
None.
Indiana David Turpie Democratic 1863 (Special) Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1862.
Democratic hold.
Thomas A. Hendricks (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine Lot M. Morrill Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1863. Lot M. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Anthony Kennedy Unionist 1856 or 1857 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1862 or 1863.
Unionist hold.
Reverdy Johnson (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Charles Sumner Republican 1851 (Special)
1857
Incumbent re-elected in 1863. Charles Sumner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Zachariah Chandler Republican 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1863. Zachariah Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Henry Mower Rice Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1863.
Republican gain.
Alexander Ramsey (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Jefferson Davis (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Missouri John B. Henderson Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1862.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
John B. Henderson (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey James Walter Wall Democratic 1863 (Special) Incumbent had been elected to finish the previous term, but lost election to the next term.
Winner elected in 1862 or 1863.
Democratic hold.
William Wright (Democratic)
James Walter Wall (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Preston King Republican 1857 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected February 3, 1863.
Republican hold
Edwin D. Morgan (Republican)
Erastus Corning (Democratic)
John Adams Dix (Democratic)
Fernando Wood (Democratic)
Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic)
Ohio Benjamin Wade Republican 1851
1856
Incumbent re-elected in 1863. Benjamin Wade (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania David Wilmot Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 13, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Charles R. Buckalew (Democratic) 50.38%
Simon Cameron (Republican) 48.87%
William D. Kelley (Republican) 0.75%
Rhode Island Samuel G. Arnold Republican 1862 (Special) Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1862.
Republican hold.
William Sprague IV (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Vacant since March 4, 1862 when Andrew Johnson (D) resigned to become Military Governor of Tennessee. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1866.
None.
Texas Vacant since March 23, 1861 when Louis Wigfall (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Vermont Solomon Foot Republican 1850
1856
Incumbent re-elected in 1862. Solomon Foot (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia Waitman T. Willey Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1863.
Unionist hold.
Lemuel J. Bowden (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Wisconsin James R. Doolittle Republican 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1863. James R. Doolittle (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 38th Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1863 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
West Virginia
(Class 1)
New state West Virginia admitted to the Union June 19, 1863.
Winner elected August 4, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
Peter G. Van Winkle (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia
(Class 2)
New state West Virginia admitted to the Union June 19, 1863.
Winner elected August 4, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
Waitman T. Willey (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri
(Class 3)
Robert Wilson Unconditional Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected November 13, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist hold.
B. Gratz Brown (Unconditional Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races

New York

The New York election was held February 3, 1863 by the New York State Legislature.

Republican Preston King had been elected in February 1857 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1863.

At the State election in November 1861, 22 Republicans and 10 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1862–1863) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1862, Democrat Horatio Seymour was elected Governor; and a tied Assembly of 64 Republicans and Democrats each was elected for the session of 1863. In December, in the 15th Senate District, Republican William Clark was elected for the session of 1863 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Democrat John Willard. The 86th New York State Legislature met from January 6 to April 25, 1863, at Albany, New York.

The election of a Speaker proved to be difficult in the stalemated Assembly. The Democrats voted for Gilbert Dean, the Republicans for Henry Sherwood, of Steuben Co. The Republicans, led by Chauncey M. Depew, became worried about the U.S. Senate election, due to occur on the first Tuesday in February. If the Assembly was not organized by then, the seat would become vacant, and could remain so until the next elected Assembly met in 1864.[1] The Republicans, with a majority of 14 on joint ballot, were anxious to fill the seat, to have a maximum of support for President Abraham Lincoln in the U.S. Senate during the ongoing American Civil War. Theophilus C. Callicot, a Democratic assemblyman from Brooklyn, approached Depew to propose a deal: the Republicans should vote for Callicot as Speaker, and Callicot would help to elect the Republican candidate to the U.S. Senate. Depew put the proposition before the Republican caucus, and they accepted. On January 16, Sherwood and Dean withdrew. The Republicans then voted for Callicot, the Democrats for Eliphaz Trimmer, of Monroe Co.. The Democrats, whose intention it was to prevent the election of a U.S. Senator,[2] managed to postpone the vote for Speaker by filibustering for another ten days, but on January 26, Callicot was elected Speaker on the 92nd ballot (vote: Callicot 61, Trimmer 59, 3 Democrats were absent and 3 Republicans were paired). Thus the Assembly was organized to begin the session of 1863, three weeks late but in time for the U.S. Senate election.[3]

The caucus of Republican[4] State legislators met on February 2, State Senator Alexander H. Bailey presided. They nominated Ex-Governor Edwin D. Morgan (in office 1859-1862) for the U.S. Senate. The incumbent Senator Preston King was voted down.

1863 Republican caucus for United States Senator result
Office Candidate Informal
ballot
First
ballot
Second
ballot
U.S. Senator Edwin D. Morgan 25 39 50
Preston King 19 16 11
Daniel S. Dickinson 15 11 13
Charles B. Sedgwick 11 7 1
David Dudley Field 7 5 2
Henry J. Raymond 6 8 9
Ward Hunt 4
Henry R. Selden 1
blank 1

The caucus of the Democratic State legislators met on the evening of February 2, State Senator John V. L. Pruyn presided. They did not nominate any candidate, instead adopting a resolution that "each Democratic member of the Legislature be requested to name for that office such person as he deems proper." They met again on the morning of February 3, and nominated Congressman Erastus Corning. The vote in an informal ballot stood: 28 for Corning, 21 for Fernando Wood, and 18 scattering. Wood's name was however withdrawn and Cornings nomination was made unanimous.

In the Assembly, Edwin D. Morgan received the votes of the 64 Republicans, and Erastus Corning the votes of 62 Democrats. Bernard Hughes (Dem.), of New York City, voted for Ex-Mayor of New York Fernando Wood, and Speaker Callicot voted for John Adams Dix. Thus the vote was tied, and no choice made. Speaker Callicot, although elected by the Republicans, refused to vote for the Republican caucus nominee, insisting in his vote for Dix who had been U.S. Senator and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury as a Democrat, but was now a Union General in the Civil War. A second ballot was then taken, and the Republicans took Callicot's hint, and voted for Dix who was nominated by the Assembly. Thus Callicot kept his part of the bargain, knowing that, on joint ballot, the Republican State Senate majority will outvote the Democrats, and elect their candidate. It was just necessary that the Assembly nominate somebody, so that it became possible to proceed to a joint ballot.

In the State Senate, Edwin D. Morgan was nominated.

Both Houses of the Legislature then proceeded to a joint ballot.

Edwin D. Morgan was declared elected after a joint ballot of the State Legislature.

House Republican Democrat Also ran
State Senate
(32 members)
Edwin D. Morgan 23 Erastus Corning 7
State Assembly
(128 members)
first ballot
Edwin D. Morgan 64 Erastus Corning 62 John Adams Dix 1 Fernando Wood 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
second ballot
Erastus Corning 63 John Adams Dix 65
State Legislature
(160 members)
joint ballot
Edwin D. Morgan 86 Erastus Corning 70 John Adams Dix 1 Daniel S. Dickinson 1

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held January 13, 1863. Charles Buckalew was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[5]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on January 13, 1863 to elect a Senator as follows:

State Legislature Results[5][6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Charles R. Buckalew 67 50.38
Republican Simon Cameron 65 48.87
Republican William D. Kelley 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

See also

References

  1. ^ In 1819, 1825 and 1839, no U.S. Senator could be elected because nobody was nominated by either the Assembly or the State Senate due to stalemated votes.
  2. ^ IMPORTANT FROM ALBANY.; A New Phase In the Struggle for the Speakership. Withdrawal of Mr. Sherwood from the Contest. Mr. Callicott, of Kings, Democrat, Nominated by the Republicans. Filibustering by the Democrats to Prevent a Vote in NYT on January 17, 1863
  3. ^ IMPORTANT FROM ALBANY; MR. CALLICOTT ELECTED SPEAKER in NYT on January 27, 1863
  4. ^ The newspapers used at the time the terms "Republican", "Republican Union" and "Union" synonymously. Many, but not all, of these legislators had been elected on a Union ticket nominated by Republicans and War Democrats. The word Union also referred to those who supported the incumbent federal administration during the Civil War as opposed to both the Southern "Confederates", and the Anti-War Democrats, headed by Governor Horatio Seymour.
  5. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 13 January 1863" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  6. ^ "PA US Senate - 1863". OurCampaigns. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
  • The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough, Stephen C. Hutchins and Edgar Albert Werner, 1867 (see pg. 568 for U. S. Senators; pg. 443 for State Senators 1863; pg. 496ff for Members of Assembly 1863)
  • Members of the 38th United States Congress
  • Result state election 1861 in The Tribune Almanac for 1862 compiled by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune
  • Result state election 1862 in The Tribune Almanac for 1863 compiled by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune
  • IMPORTANT FROM ALBANY.; Nomination of Ex-Governor Morgan for United States Senator by the Union Caucus. The Democrats Decline to Make a Nomination in NYT on February 3, 1863
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE; SENATE; ...The Adjourned Democratic Caucus in NYT on February 4, 1863
  • IMPORTANT FROM ALBANY.; EX-Governor Morgan Elected U.S. Senator in NYT on February 4, 1863
  • Result in the Senate: Journal of the Senate (86th Session) (1863; pg. 95f)
  • Result in the Assembly: Journal of the Assembly (86th Session) (1863; pg. 151f and 154)
  • Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006 from the Wilkes University Election Statistics Project
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