United States Senate elections, 1814 and 1815

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United States Senate elections, 1814 and 1815
United States
← 1812 / 1813 Dates vary by state 1816 / 1817 →

12 of the 36 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
19 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Tricolour Cockade.svg Federalist Cockade.svg
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 28 seats 8 seats
Seats before 26 10
Seats won 5 5
Seats after 22 11
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 1
Seats up 8 4

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1814 and 1815 were elections that had the Democratic-Republican Party lose a seat but still retain an overwhelming majority in the United States Senate. Unlike in recent elections, the minority Federalists had gone into the elections with a change of regaining their long-lost majority had they swept almost all the seats. However, only one seat switched parties. Two seats held by Democratic-Republicans were left unfilled until long after the next Congress began.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Composition after June 1814 election in New Hampshire.

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
F9 F10 DR25 DR25 DR24 DR23 DR22 DR21 DR20
F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Re-elected
Majority → DR19
Hold
F9
Re-elected
F10
Re-elected
F11
Gain
V1* V2* V3* DR22
Hold
DR21
Hold
DR20
Hold
F8
Re-elected
F7
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Note:
  • V1 (Maryland, seat): Legislature failed to elect. A Democratic-Republican was later elected, until long after this Congress began.
  • V2 (Tennessee seat): Incumbent Democratic-Republican retired. Seat was unfilled until a Democratic-Republican was later elected, long after this Congress began.
  • V3 (Virginia class 2 seat): Incumbent Democratic-Republican (who was not up for election) resigned at the end of the previous Congress. A Democratic-Republican was later elected, long after this Congress began.
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1814 or before March 4, 1815; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Michael Leib Democratic-
Republican
1808
1809 (Special)
Incumbent resigned to become Postmaster of Philadelphia.
New senator elected February 24, 1814.[1]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was never seated due to a failure to qualify.
Jonathan Roberts (Democratic-Republican) 70.69%
Thomas Sergeant (Democratic-Republican) 19.83%
Horace Binney (Federalist) 6.90%[1]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Nicholas Gilman Democratic-
Republican
1804
1810
Incumbent died May 4, 1814.
New senator elected June 24, 1814.
Federalist gain.
Thomas W. Thompson (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio
(Class 1)
Thomas Worthington Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Class 3)
1807 Retired
1810 (Special)
Incumbent resigned to become Governor of Ohio.
New senator elected December 10, 1814 to finish the term ending March 4, 1815.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph Kerr (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
George M. Bibb Democratic-
Republican
1811 Incumbent resigned to return to private practice.
Interim Senator was appointed August 30, 1814.
New senator elected December 16, 1814 to finish the term ending March 4, 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was never seated due to a failure to qualify.
William T. Barry (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
David Stone Democratic-
Republican
1800
1807 Resigned
1812
Incumbent resigned.
New senator elected December 24, 1814 after 11 ballots.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was never seated due to a failure to qualify.
Francis Locke, Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 19.92%
Thomas Davis (Unknown) 18.01%
James W. Clarke (Democratic-Republican) 17.63%
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican) 16.48%
John Stanly (Federalist) 16.09%
James Mebane (Democratic-Republican) 5.94%
Israel Pickens (Democratic-Republican) 3.83%[2]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Richard Brent Democratic-
Republican
1808 Incumbent died December 30, 1814.
New senator elected January 2, 1815, having already won election to the next term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Barbour (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Jesse Bledsoe Democratic-
Republican
1813 Incumbent resigned.
New senator elected February 2, 1815 to finish term ending March 4, 1819.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Isham Talbot (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1815; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Samuel Dana Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1814. Samuel Dana (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Outerbridge Horsey Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1814. Outerbridge Horsey (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Samuel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1802
1808
Legislature failed to elect.
A winner would not be elected until 1816.[3]
Democratic-Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Christopher Gore Federalist 1813 (Appointed) Appointee elected to full term in 1815. Christopher Gore (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey John Lambert Democratic-
Republican
1808 or 1809 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New senator elected February 1, 1815.[4]
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Wilson (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Obadiah German Democratic-
Republican
1809 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New senator elected February 7, 1815.[5]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Nathan Sanford (Democratic-Republican) 68.5%
James Emott (Federalist) 30.8%
Philetus Swift (Democratic-Republican) 0.8%[5]
Ohio Joseph Kerr Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1815.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Ruggles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania Jonathan Roberts Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 13, 1814.[6] Jonathan Roberts (Democratic-Republican) 71.79%
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 27.35%
Jared Ingersoll (Federalist) 0.85%[6]
Rhode Island William Hunter Federalist 1811 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1814. William Hunter (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1797 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1799 (Special)
1803
1809
Incumbent retired.
Unknown reason seat was unfilled until after the term began.
Democratic-Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Jonathan Robinson Democratic-
Republican
1807 (Special)
1809
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected October 25, 1814
Federalist gain.
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist), 111
Jonathan Robinson (Democratic-Republican), 83
John Strong (Democratic-Republican), 7
Scattering, 1.[7]
In addition to winning a majority in the legislature, Tichenor also unanimously received the 12 votes of the Governor and Council.[8]
Virginia Richard Brent Democratic-
Republican
1808 Unknown if incumbent sought re-election, but after the election he died.
New senator elected in 1814 or 1815.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Barbour (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the next Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1815 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant For unknown reasons, a Senator was not elected until after the term began.[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New senator elected October 10, 1815 to finish the term ending March 4, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
George W. Campbell (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Jesse Wharton Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Appointed) George W. Campbell (DR) had resigned February 11, 1814 to become U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.
Interim Senator was appointed March 17, 1814, but did not run to finish the term.
New senator elected October 10, 1815 to finish the term ending March 4, 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Williams (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Francis Locke, Jr. Democratic-
Republican
1800
1812
Incumbent resigned, having failed to qualify.
New senator elected December 5, 1815 after 5 ballots.[9]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Nathaniel Macon (Democratic-Republican) 35.82%
John Branch, Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 20.92%
Thomas Love (Democratic-Republican) 16.31%
James Mebane (Democratic-Republican) 9.57%
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican) (7.80%)[9]

See also

Notes

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov

References

  1. ^ a b "PA US Senate - Special Election". Our Campaigns. October 19, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "NC US Senate - Special Election". Our Campaigns. January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2015. 
  3. ^ "MD US Senate". Our Campaigns. August 29, 2004. Retrieved February 27, 2015. 
  4. ^ "NJ US Senate". Our Campaigns. April 1, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "PA US Senate". Our Campaigns. February 16, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2015. 
  7. ^ "Tuesday, October 25th: Senator". Vermont Watchman. Montpelier, VT. October 27, 1814. p. 3. (Subscription required (help)). 
  8. ^ "Tuesday, October 25th: Senator".
  9. ^ a b "NC US Senate - Special Election". Our Campaigns. January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2015. 
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