United States Senate elections, 1812 and 1813

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United States Senate elections, 1812 and 1813

← 1810/11 Dates vary by state 1814/15 →

12 of the 36 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
19 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 seats 7 seats
Seats before 30 6
Seats won 8 4
Seats after 28 8
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 2
Seats up 10 2

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1812 and 1813 were elections that, coinciding with President James Madison's re-election, had the Democratic-Republican Party lose two seats but still retain an overwhelming majority in the United States Senate. As in recent elections, the minority Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 36, or 16.7%) that if they had won every one of the elections, they would still not have controlled a majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Composition after September 1812 elections in the new state of Louisiana.

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
DR28
Retired
DR27
Retired
DR26
Retired
DR25
Retired
DR24
Unknown
DR23
Unknown
DR22
Ran
DR21
Ran
DR20
Ran
DR29
Retired
F7
Ran
F6
Ran
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the elections

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
V1
DR Loss
DR27
Hold
DR26
Re-elected
DR25
Re-elected
DR24
Hold
DR23
Hold
DR22
Hold
DR21
Hold
DR20
Hold
V2
F Loss
F6
Gain
F5
Re-elected
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 12th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1812 or before March 4, 1813; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural senator elected September 3, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Allan Magruder (Democratic-Republican)
Jean Destréhan (Democratic-Republican)
James Brown 16
Eligius Fromentin 5
Livingston 3[1]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural senator elected September 3, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Thomas Posey Democratic-
Republican
1812 (Appointed) Jean Destréhan had resigned October 1, 1812 without having qualified.
Interim successor appointed October 8, 1812.
Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected February 4, 1813 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Brown (Democratic-Republican) 26
Thomas Posey (Democratic-Republican) 14
F. Skipwith Eliminated[2]

Races leading to the 13th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1813 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1813. Chauncey Goodrich (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia Charles Tait Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1813. Charles Tait (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky John Pope Democratic-
Republican
1806 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 12, 1813 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jesse Bledsoe (Democratic-Republican) 56
Stephen Ormsby 51
Anthony Butler Eliminated
Isham Talbot Eliminated[3]
Louisiana Allan B. Magruder Democratic-
Republican
1812 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Eligius Fromentin (Democratic-Republican) 25
Thomas Posey 13
Richard Butler 6
Blank[4]
Maryland Philip Reed Democratic-
Republican
1806 (Special)
1806
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire Charles Cutts Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect after 12 ballots.
Federalist loss.
Jedediah Kilburn Smith 89
John Goddard 83
Charles Cutts (Federalist) 3
David L. Morril 1[5]
New York John Smith Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
1807
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 2, 1813.
Federalist gain.
Rufus King (Federalist) 51.5%
James W. Wilkin (Democratic-Republican) 46.2%
John Smith (Democratic-Republican) 2.3%[6]
North Carolina Jesse Franklin Democratic-
Republican
1799
1804 (Lost)
1806
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Stone (Democratic-Republican) 100
A.D. Murphy (Democratic-Republican) 83
Thomas Davis (Democratic-Republican) 12[7]
Ohio Alexander Campbell Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 6, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jeremiah Morrow (Democratic-Republican) 63
Calvin Pease 18[8]
Pennsylvania Andrew Gregg Democratic-
Republican
1806 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 8, 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Abner Lacock (Democratic-Republican) 63
Daniel Montgomery, Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 26
James Brady (Independent) 22
Isaac Weaver (Democratic-Republican) 6
Not voting 5[9]
South Carolina John Gaillard Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
1806
Incumbent re-elected. John Gaillard (Democratic-Republican) 118
Henry Middleton 37
James Gowdy 1[10]
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Democratic-
Republican
1791
1795 (Lost)
1801 (Special)
1806
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected October 21, 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Dudley Chase (Democratic-Republican)
Royall Tyler (Democratic-Republican) 94
Scattering 4[11]

Special elections during the 13th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1813 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
James Lloyd (F) Federalist 1808 (Special)
1809
Resigned May 1, 1813.
New senator elected May 5, 1813.
Federalist hold.
Christopher Gore (Federalist) 381
William King 10
Scattering 102[12]
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1807 (Special)
1812
Incumbent resigned May 13, 1813 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
New senator elected May 13, 1813.
Federalist hold.
David Daggett (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected May 21, 1813.
Federalist gain.
Robert Henry Goldsborough (Federalist) 53
Edward Lloyd (Democratic-Republican) 35[13]
Delaware
(Class 2)
James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special)
1805
1811
Resigned March 3, 1813.
New senator elected May 21, 1813.
Federalist hold.
William H. Wells (Federalist) 14
George Monro (Democratic-Republican) 10
Richard Bassett (Federalist) 1[14]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Charles Cutts Federalist 1810 (Special)
1813 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected June 10, 1813 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Jeremiah Mason (Federalist) 129
Charles Cutts (Federalist) 39
John Goddard Eliminated
Scattering 4[15]
Georgia
(Class 2)
William Bulloch Democratic-
Republican
1813 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 6, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Wyatt Bibb (Democratic-Republican) 79
J. Macintosh 39[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing American Watchman; and Delaware Republican (Wilmington, DE). October 14, 1812.
  2. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing The Louisiana Gazette and New-Orleans Advertiser (New Orleans, LA). December 3, 1812.
  3. ^ "Kentucky 1813 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing Muskingum Messenger (Zanesville, OH). January 27, 1813.
  4. ^ "Louisiana 1813 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Courrier de la Louisiane (New Orleans, LA). January 22, 1813.
  5. ^ "New Hampshire 1812 U.S. Senate, Ballot 12". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Concord Gazette (Concord, NH). December 29, 1812.
  6. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. August 8, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  7. ^ "North Carolina 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing The Star (Raleigh, NC). December 11, 1812.
  8. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901 with Notes and Sketches of Senators and Representatives and Other Historical Data and Incidents. Columbus, Ohio: The XX. Century Publishing Co. p. 98 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ "Pennsylvania 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Journal of the Pennsylvania State Senate, 1812. 41-43.
  10. ^ "South Carolina 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing City Gazette and Commercial Advertiser (Charleston, SC). December 10, 1812.
  11. ^ "Vermont 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Columbian Phenix: or, Providence Patriot (Providence, RI). October 31, 1812.
  12. ^ "Massachusetts 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing The Virginia Patriot (Richmond, VA). June 11, 1813.
  13. ^ "Maryland 1813 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). May 25, 1813.
  14. ^ "Delaware 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1813. 12.
  15. ^ "New Hampshire 1813 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Portsmouth Oracle (Portsmouth, NH). June 12, 1813.
  16. ^ "Georgia 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Liberty Hall (Cincinnati, OH). December 14, 1813.

External links

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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