United States Senate elections, 1810 and 1811

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United States Senate elections, 1810 and 1811
United States
← 1808 / 1809 Dates vary by state 1812 / 1813 →

11 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Tricolour Cockade.svg Federalist Cockade.svg
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 seats 7 seats
Seats before 26 8
Seats won 10 1
Seats after 27 7
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 1
Seats up 9 2

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1810 and 1811 were elections that had the majority Democratic-Republican Party gain one seat in the United States Senate. The minority Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (7 out of 34, or 20.6%) that they had won all of the elections, they would still not have controlled a majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Composition after June 1810 special election in New Hampshire.

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
F8 DR26 DR25 DR24 DR23 DR22 DR21 DR20 DR19
F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
Re-elected
DR27
Gain*
DR26
Hold
DR25
Hold
DR24
Re-elected
DR23
Re-elected
DR22
Re-elected
DR21
Re-elected
DR20
Re-elected
DR19
Re-elected
F7
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Note:
  • DR27 (Massachusetts seat): Incumbent Federalist lost re-election, but successor Democratic-Republican was elected late in 1811, after this Congress began.
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 11th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1810 or before March 4, 1811; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 1)
Samuel White Federalist 1801 (Appointed)
1796 (Special)
1803
1809
Incumbent died November 4, 1809.
Winner elected January 12, 1810.
Federalist hold.
Outerbridge Horsey (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Nahum Parker Democratic-Republican 1807 Incumbent resigned June 1, 1810.
Winner elected June 21, 1810.
Federalist gain.
Charles Cutts (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 (Special)
1797
1803
1809
Incumbent resigned June 10, 1810.
Winner elected December 4, 1810.
Federalist hold.
Samuel W. Dana (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio
(Class 1)
Return J. Meigs, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 (Special)
1809
Incumbent resigned December 8, 1810 to become Governor of Ohio.
Winner elected December 15, 1810 .
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Worthington (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Thomas Sumter Democratic-Republican 1801 (Special)
1809
Incumbent resigned December 16, 1810.
Winner elected December 19, 1810 .
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was subsequently elected to the next full term (See below).
John Taylor (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 12th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1811 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special)
1805
Incumbent re-elected in 1811. James A. Bayard (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia William H. Crawford Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1810 or 1811. William H. Crawford (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Henry Clay Democratic-Republican 1810 (Appointed) Appointee retired to run for U.S. House of Representatives.
Winner elected in 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
George M. Bibb (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts Timothy Pickering Federalist 1803 (Special)
1804 or 1805
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner was elected late June 29, 1811 due to partisan deadlock in the Massachusetts Senate.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Nicholas Gilman Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent re-elected in 1811. Nicholas Gilman (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey John Condit Democratic-Republican 1803 (Appointed)
1803 (Special)
1809 (Left)
1809 (Appointed)
1809 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in November 1810. John Condit (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina James Turner Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent re-elected in 1811. James Turner (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Elisha Mathewson Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jeremiah B. Howell (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 20, 1810. John Taylor (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Jenkin Whiteside Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1810 or 1811. Jenkin Whiteside (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia William B. Giles Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Special)
1804
Incumbent re-elected in 1811. William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the 12th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1811 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Jenkin Whiteside Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Resigned October 8, 1811.
Winner elected October 8, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
George W. Campbell (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Christopher G. Champlin Federalist 1809 (Special) Resigned October 12, 1811.
Winner elected October 28, 1811.
Federalist hold.
William Hunter (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

See also

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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