United States Senate elections, 1808 and 1809

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United States Senate elections, 1808 and 1809

← 1806/07 Dates vary by state 1810/11 →

12 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Tricolour Cockade.svg Federalist Cockade.svg
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 seats 7 seats
Seats before 28 6
Seats won 8 4
Seats after 27 7
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 9 3

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1808 and 1809 were elections that had the Federalist Party gain one seat in the United States Senate, and which coincided with the 1808 presidential election. The Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 34, or 18%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 11th Congress (1809–1811)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (26)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (7–8)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 34

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27 DR26 DR25 DR24 DR23 DR22 DR21 DR20 DR19
DR28 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27
Hold
DR26
Hold
DR25
Hold
DR24
Re-elected
DR23
Re-elected
DR22
Re-elected
DR21
Re-elected
DR20
Re-elected
DR19
F7
Gain
F6
Hold
F5
Re-elected
F4
Re-elected
F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1808 or before March 4, 1809; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
John Quincy Adams Federalist 1803 Incumbent resigned June 8, 1808, having broken with his party and lost re-election to the next term.
New senator elected June 9, 1808, having already won election to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
James Lloyd (Federalist) 179
William Gray 127[1]
Ohio
(Class 1)
John Smith Democratic-
Republican
1803 Incumbent resigned April 25, 1808, despite surviving an expulsion trial in the Senate.
New senator elected December 12, 1808.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Return Meigs (Democratic-Republican) 43
Nathaniel Massie 22
Alexander Campbell 3
James Pritchard 2[2]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Samuel Maclay Democratic-
Republican
1802 Incumbent resigned January 4, 1809, believing he would lose re-election.
New senator elected January 9, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Michael Leib (Democratic-Republican) 89
George Latimer (Federalist) 12
Joseph Hemphill (Federalist) 11
William Jones 4
John D. Coxe 4[3]

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1809; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796
1797
1803
Incumbent re-elected in 1809. James Hillhouse (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware Samuel White Federalist 1801 (Appointed)
1803
Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1809. Samuel White (Federalist) 17
Andrew Gray Democratic-Republican 10[4]
Maryland Samuel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1802 Incumbent re-elected November 14, 1809. Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 53
John Eager Howard]] (Federalist) 29
John Thompson Mason (Federalist) 1
John H. Nicholson (Federalist) 1
Benjamin Stoddert (Federalist) 1
blank (Federalist) 2[5]
Massachusetts John Quincy Adams Federalist 1803 Incumbent lost re-election as a Democratic-Republican.
New senator elected June 2, 1808.
Federalist hold.
Incumbent resigned and winner was elected to finish the remaining term, see above
James Lloyd (Federalist) 248
John Quincy Adams (Democratic-Republican) 213
Laban Wheaton (Federalist) 1[6]
New Jersey John Condit Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Appointed)
1803 (Special)
Incumbent lost renomination.[7]
New senator elected November 3, 1808 on the second ballot.[7]
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Lambert (Democratic-Republican) 27
John Doughty 23
Ebenezer Elmer 3
John Condit (Democratic-Republican) Eliminated
George C. Maxwell Eliminated
Henry Southard Eliminated
William McCullough Eliminated[7]
New York Samuel L. Mitchill Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 7, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Obadiah German (Democratic-Republican) 52.4%
David Brooks (Federalist) 34.7%
Samuel L. Mitchill (Democratic-Republican) 12.9%[8]
Ohio Return Meigs Democratic-
Republican
1808 (Special) Incumbent elected December 10, 1808. Return Meigs (Democratic-Republican) 49
Alexander Campbell (Democratic-Republican) 17
James Pritchard 4[2]
Pennsylvania Samuel Maclay Democratic-
Republican
1808 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 13, 1808 and subsequently elected to finish the remaining term, see above.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Michael Leib (Democratic-Republican) 90
Joseph Hemphill (Federalist) 24
John D. Coxe (Constitutional) 11
Not voting 1[9]
Rhode Island Benjamin Howland Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 5, 1808.
Federalist gain.
Francis Malbone (Federalist)
Nathaniel Hazard (Democratic-Republican)
"by a majority of six"[10]
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1797 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1799 (Special)
1803
Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Incumbent was appointed to begin the term and was later elected to finish the term.
Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont Jonathan Robinson Democratic-
Republican
1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1808. Jonathan Robinson (Democratic-Republican) 109
Daniel Chipman (Federalist) 97
scattering 3[11]
Virginia Andrew Moore Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Resigned)
1804 (Special)
Incumbent retired.[12]
New senator elected in 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Richard Brent (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed[12]

Special elections during the next Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1809 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1797 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1799 (Special)
1803
1809 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected April 11, 1809. Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 23
John Sevier 16[13]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Daniel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1799 (Resigned)
1803
Incumbent resigned March 31, 1809.
New senator elected April 11, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was subsequently re-elected early to the following Congress, see below.
Jenkin Whiteside (Democratic-Republican) 22
James Winchester 16
John Sevier 1[14]
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Francis Malbone Federalist 1808 Newly seated incumbent died.
New senator elected June 26, 1809.
Federalist hold.
Christopher G. Champlin (Federalist) Unanimous[15]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Stanley Griswold Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee retired.
New senator elected December 12, 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Alexander Campbell (Democratic-Republican)
Richard S. Thompson 29
James Pritchard
Thomas Worthington 1
David Findlay 1[16]
Georgia
(Class 3)
John Milledge Democratic-
Republican
1806 (Special)
1806
Incumbent resigned November 14, 1809.
New senator elected November 27, 1809 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Charles Tait (Democratic-Republican) 40
Elijah Clarke 32
Thomas Flournoy 31[17]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
John Condit Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Appointed)
1803 (Special)
1809 (Lost)
1809 (Appointed)
Incumbent appointee elected November 2, 1809. John Condit (Democratic-Republican) Unanimous[18]

Early race leading to the Congress-after-next

In this general election, the winner was seated on March 4, 1811; ordered by state.

This election involved a Class 2 seat.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee Jenkin Whiteside Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected early October 28, 1809. Jenkin Whiteside (Democratic-Republican) 39
Unopposed.[19]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing The Freeman's Journal and Philadelphia Mercantile Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). June 13, 1808.
  2. ^ a b Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901. Columbus, Ohio: Century Publishing Co. p. 97 – via Google books. 
  3. ^ "Pennsylvania 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 3, 2018. , citing Journal of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, 1808. 174-176.
  4. ^ "Delaware 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing United States' Gazette (Philadelphia, PA). January 14, 1809.
  5. ^ "Maryland 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing The Hornet (Fredericktown, Md.). November 29, 1809.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 3, 2018. , citing The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA). June 11, 1808.
  7. ^ a b c "New Jersey 1808 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018. , citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 9, 1808.
  8. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Senate Election - 13 December 1808" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Rhode Island 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing United States' Gazette (Philadelphia, PA). January 14, 1809.
  11. ^ "Vermont 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing Weekly Wanderer (Randolph, VT). November 7, 1808.
  12. ^ a b "Virginia 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing United States' Gazette (Philadelphia, PA). January 16, 1809.
  13. ^ "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018. 
  14. ^ "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing The Minerva (Raleigh, NC). May 4, 1809. The Star (Raleigh, NC). May 4, 1809. National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser (Washington, DC). May 5, 1809. The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). May 10, 1809. Norwich Courier (Norwich, CT). May 17, 1809. White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  15. ^ "Rhode Island 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 19, 2018. , citing Newport Mercury (Newport, RI). July 1, 1809.
  16. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901. Columbus, Ohio: Century Publishing Co. pp. 97–98 – via Google books. 
  17. ^ "Georgia 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing The Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger (Savannah, GA). December 5, 1809.
  18. ^ "New Jersey 1809 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2018. , citing New Jersey Privy Council Records, 1809. 176.
  19. ^ "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018. , citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1809. 115.

External links

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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