United States Senate elections, 1804 and 1805

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United States Senate elections, 1804 and 1805

← 1802/03 Dates vary by state 1806/07 →

11 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Tricolour Cockade.svg Federalist Cockade.svg
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 22 seats 9 seats
Seats before 25 9
Seats won 9 2
Seats after 27 7
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Seats up 7 4

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1804 and 1805 were elections that expanded the Democratic-Republican Party's overwhelming control over the United States Senate. The Federalists went into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (9 out of 34, or 27%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

As these elections were prior to the ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 9th Congress (1805–1807)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (27)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (7)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 34

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
F8
Unknown
F9
Unknown
DR25
Unknown
DR24
Retired
DR23
Ran
DR22
Ran
DR21
Ran
DR20
Ran
DR19
Ran
F7
Ran
F6
Ran
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 9th Congress

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27
Gain
DR26
Gain
DR25
Hold
DR24
Hold
DR23
Hold
DR22
Hold
DR21
Re-elected
DR20
Re-elected
DR19
Re-elected
F7
Re-elected
F6
Re-elected
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 8th Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1804 or before March 4, 1805; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong Jr. Democratic-Republican 1800 (Special)
1801
1802 (Resigned)
1803 (Appointed)
Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 1 seat.
New senator elected February 23, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Smith (Democratic-Republican) 121
Unopposed[1][2]
New York
(Class 1)
Theodorus Bailey Democratic-Republican 1803 Resigned January 16, 1804 to become Postmaster of New York City.
New senator elected February 25, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Armstrong Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 85
Jacob Radcliff (Federalist) 4
Egbert Benson (Federalist) 3[3][4]
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Samuel J. Potter Democratic-Republican 1802 Died October 14, 1804.
New senator elected October 29, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Howland (Democratic-Republican)
Asher Robins
"by a majority of 20"[5]
Delaware
(Class 2)
William H. Wells Federalist 1799 (Special)
1799
Resigned November 6, 1804.
New senator elected November 13, 1804.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
James A. Bayard (Federalist) 15
Unopposed[6]
New York
(Class 1)
John Armstrong Jr. Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Resigned to become U.S. Minister to France.
New senator elected November 23, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel Latham Mitchill (Democratic-Republican) 83.3%
Rufus King (Federalist) 15.6%
David Thomas (Democratic-Republican) 1.1%[7]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Andrew Moore Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed) Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 1 seat.
New senator elected December 4, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia
(Class 2)
William B. Giles Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed) Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 2 seat.
New senator elected December 4, 1804.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Andrew Moore (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Pierce Butler Democratic-Republican 1802 (Special) Resigned November 21, 1804.
New senator elected December 6, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Gaillard (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 9th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1805; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1805. James A. Bayard (Federalist) 15
Caesar A. Rodney (Democratic-Republican) 9
James Sykes (Democratic-Republican) 1[8]
Georgia Abraham Baldwin Democratic-
Republican
1799 Incumbent re-elected November 14, 1804. Abraham Baldwin (Democratic-Republican) Unanimous[9]
Kentucky John Brown Democratic-
Republican
1792 (new seat)
1792
1798
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804 on the seventh ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Buckner Thruston (Democratic-Republican) 44
John Adair 43
John Brown (Democratic-Republican) Eliminated[10]
Massachusetts Timothy Pickering Federalist 1803 (Special) Incumbent re-elected February 6, 1805 on the third ballot. Timothy Pickering (Federalist) 102
William Eustis 99[11]
New Hampshire Simeon Olcott Federalist 1801 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 28, 1804.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nicholas Gilman (Democratic-Republican) 85
Timothy Farrar (Federalist) 70[12]
New Jersey Jonathan Dayton Federalist 1798 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Aaron Kitchell (Democratic-Republican) 36
Jonathan Dayton (Federalist)[13]
North Carolina Jesse Franklin Democratic-
Republican
1798 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804 on the fifth ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner would later reject his election and never take the seat.
A new election was held the next year, see below.
Montfort Stokes (Democratic-Republican)
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican)
Benjamin Smith
Thomas Blount Eliminated
Stephen Cabarrus Eliminated[14]
Rhode Island Christopher Ellery Democratic-
Republican
1801 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Fenner (Democratic-Republican)
Christopher Ellery (Democratic-Republican)
"by a majority of 16"[15]
South Carolina Thomas Sumter Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent elected December 6, 1804. Thomas Sumter (Democratic-Republican) 101
Henry Middleton 21
William Hill 4
Joseph Blyth 2
R. Anderson 1
Pierce Butler 1
Samuel Farrow 1
John Gaillard 1
"Horry" 1
John Ward 1
"Lost" 1[16]
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early September 23, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Daniel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 35
Jenkin Whiteside 1[17]
Virginia William B. Giles Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Resigned)
1804 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected December 7, 1804. William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.][18]

Special elections during the 9th Congress

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1805 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 3)
John Breckinridge Democratic-Republican 1800 Resigned August 7, 1805 to become U.S. Attorney General.
New senator elected November 8, 1805.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Adair (Democratic-Republican) 45
John Pope 35[19]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant Montfort Stokes (DR) had been elected in 1804, see above, but rejected the position.
New senator elected December 22, 1805.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Turner (Democratic-Republican) 122
Thomas Davis (Federalist) 51
Stephen Cabarrus 1
Blank 1[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "New York 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1804. 35. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1804. 10.
  2. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  3. ^ "New York 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing The Albany Register (Albany, NY). February 7, 1804.
  4. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Rhode Island 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018. , citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 19, 1804.
  6. ^ "Delaware 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1804. 9.
  7. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Delaware 1805 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1805. 41.
  9. ^ "Georgia 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing The Enquirer (Richmond, VA). December 6, 1804.
  10. ^ "Kentucky 1804 U.S. Senate, Ballot 7". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing Kentucky Gazette and General Advertiser (Lexington, KY). November 27, 1804.
  11. ^ "Massachusetts 1805 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018. , citing The Providence Phoenix (Providence, RI). February 9, 1805.
  12. ^ "New Hampshire 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing Oracle Post (Portsmouth, NH). December 11, 1804.
  13. ^ "New Jersey 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 13, 1804.
  14. ^ "North Carolina 1804 U.S. Senate, Ballot 5". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 9, 2018. , citing Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina State Gazette (Raleigh, NC). December 3, 1804.
  15. ^ "Rhode Island 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018. , citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 19, 1804.
  16. ^ "South Carolina 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018. , citing Original Election Returns. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.
  17. ^ "Tennessee 1803 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1803. 27. Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia, PA). October 18, 1803. White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  18. ^ "Virginia 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018. , citing The Enquirer (Richmond, VA). December 15, 1804.
  19. ^ "Kentucky 1805 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018. , citing The Enquirer (Richmond, VA). December 6, 1805.
  20. ^ "North Carolina 1805 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 9, 2018. , citing Legislative Papers. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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