United States Senate elections, 1802 and 1803

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United States Senate elections, 1802 and 1803

← 1800/01 Dates vary by state 1804/05 →

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Tricolour Cockade.svg Federalist Cockade.svg
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Seats before 17 15
Seats after 22 9
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 6
Seats up 2 9
Races won 7 3

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1802 and 1803 were elections for the United States Senate which had the Democratic-Republican Party assume an overwhelming control thereof.

As these election were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16
Ran
Majority → DR17
Ran
F7
Ran
F8
Ran
F9
Ran
F10
Ran
F11
Ran
F12
Ran
F13
Unknown
F14
Unknown
F15
Retired
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the elections

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16
Re-elected
Majority → DR17
Re-elected
F7
Re-elected
F8
Re-elected
F9
Hold
V1
Fed loss
DR22
Gain
DR21
Gain
DR20
Gain
DR19
Gain
DR18
Gain
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 1st session, October 17, 1803

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
F8 F9 DR25
Gain
DR24
Gain
DR23
Gain
DR22
Hold
DR21 DR20 DR19
F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Unless noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 7th Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1803; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1801 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 5, 1802.
Winner elected February 11, 1802.
Democratic-Republican hold.
DeWitt Clinton (Democratic-Republican) 82
Matthew Clarkson 45[1]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
James Sheafe Federalist 1800 Incumbent resigned June 14, 1802.
Winner elected June 17, 1802.
Federalist hold.
William Plumer (Federalist) 86
Nicholas Gilman 70
Nahum Parker 2[2]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
John E. Colhoun Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent died October 26, 1802.
Winner elected November 4, 1802.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pierce Butler (Democratic-Republican) 103
Thomas Edwards 3
R. Anderson 1
John Douglass 1
E. More 1
Pickens 1
A. B. Stark 1
Tucker 1
B. Waring 1
Nothing 1
blank 11[3]

Races leading to the 8th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1803; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 Incumbent re-elected October 27, 1802. James Hillhouse (Federalist) 117
Ephraim Kirby 53
Oliver Ellsworth (Federalist) 2
Nathaniel Smith 1[4]
Delaware Samuel White Federalist 1801 (Appointed) Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1803. Samuel White (Federalist) 20
George Read (Democratic-Republican) 9[5]
Maryland John E. Howard Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected November 17, 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 46
John Eager Howard (Federalist) 30[6]
Massachusetts Jonathan Mason Federalist 1800 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 7, 1803 on the fourth ballot.
Federalist hold.
John Quincy Adams (Federalist) 105
Thompson J. Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 70
Nicholas Tillinghast (Federalist) 9
Timothy Pickering (Federalist) 6[7]
New Jersey Aaron Ogden Federalist 1801 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
Joseph Bloomfield (Democratic-Republican) 26
Aaron Ogden (Federalist) 26[8]
New York Gouverneur Morris Federalist 1800 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 1, 1803 on the 2nd ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Theodorus Bailey (Democratic-Republican) 59
John Woodworth (Democratic-Republican) 57
Gouverneur Morris (Federalist) eliminated on 1st ballot[9]
Pennsylvania James Ross Federalist 1794 (Special)
1797
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 14, 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Maclay (Democratic-Republican) 59.46%
Isaac Weaver (Democratic-Republican) 25.23%
William Maclay (Democratic-Republican) 9.91%
Not voting 5.41%
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Federalist 1796 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel J. Potter (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed[10]
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Legislature did not elect until September 22, 1803, after the term began, see below.[citation needed]
Democratic-Republican loss.
None.
Vermont Nathaniel Chipman Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican), 111
Abel Spencer (Federalist), 79
Scattering, 6.[11]
Virginia Stevens Mason Democratic-
Republican
1794 (Special)
1796
Incumbent re-elected in 1803. Stevens Mason (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Special elections during the 8th Congress

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1803 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Ohio
(Class 1)
New seat Ohio joined the Union in 1803.
Winner elected April 1, 1803.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Smith (Democratic-Republican)
Ohio
(Class 3)
New seat Ohio joined the Union in 1803.
Winner elected April 1, 1803.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Worthington (Democratic-Republican)
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.[citation needed]
Predecessor re-elected late September 22, 1803 on the 4th ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 19
Daniel Smith 17[12]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
John Condit Democratic-Republican 1803 (Appointed) Legislature had failed to elect.
Condit was then appointed September 1, 1803 to continue the term.
He was then elected November 3, 1803.
John Condit (Democratic-Republican)
Unanimous[13][14]
Virginia
(Class 1)
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1792 (Special)
1793
Predecessor Stevens T. Mason (DR) had died May 10, 1803, having just begun the new term.
Interim appointee served from June 4, 1803, and did not seek election to finish the term.
Winner elected December 7, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Abraham B. Venable (Democratic-Republican)
Unanimous[15]

Early race leading to the Congress-after-next

In this general election, the winner was seated on March 4, 1805; ordered by state.

This election involved a Class 2 seat.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early September 23, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Daniel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 35
Jenkin Whiteside 1[16]

New Jersey (special)

The New Jersey legislature had failed to elect by March 4, 1803. The governor appointed John Condit (DR) September 1, 1803 to continue the term. Condit was then unanimously elected November 3, 1803 to finish the term. No vote totals were recorded.[17]

Ohio

Ohio joined the Union in 1803. New Democratic-Republican senators were elected April 1, 1803. Official records indicate that John Smith and Thomas Worthington were elected, and that Smith received the "long" term, while Worthington received the "short" one. They do not indicate if there were other candidates, or what the vote totals were.[18]

Vermont

Federalist Senator Nathaniel Chipman lost re-election to Democratic-Republican Israel Smith. Smith received 102 votes in the Vermont House of Representatives and 9 from the Governor and Council.[11] Spencer received 75 votes from the House and 4 from the Governor and Council.[11]

Virginia

Two-term Democratic-Republican incumbent Stevens Mason was re-elected in 1803.

Virginia (special)

Democratic-Republican Senator Stevens T. Mason died May 10, 1803, having just begun the new term. John Taylor (DR) was appointed but chose not to run to finish the term. Abraham B. Venable (DR) was elected December 7, 1803 as the unanimous choice of the Virginia General Assembly. No vote totals were recorded.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ "New York 1802 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing The Poughkeepsie Journal (Poughkeepsie, NY). February 16, 1802.
  2. ^ "New Hampshire 1802 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Courier of New Hampshire (Concord, NH). June 24, 1802. The Providence Gazette (Providence, RI). July 3, 1802.
  3. ^ "South Carolina 1802 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Original Election Returns. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia. The Carolina Gazette (Charleston, SC). December 16, 1802. National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser (Washington, DC). December 22, 1802.
  4. ^ "Connecticut 1802 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing American Mercury (Hartford, CT). November 4, 1802.
  5. ^ "Delaware 1803 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1803. 13-14.
  6. ^ "Maryland 1802 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Votes and Proceedings of the Maryland State Senate, 1802. 10.
  7. ^ "Massachusetts 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). February 5, 1803. The Independent Chronicle (Boston, MA). February 7, 1803. Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). February 9, 1803. Hampshire Gazette (Northampton, MA). February 9, 1803. Boston Gazette (Boston, MA). February 10, 1803. Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). March 1, 1803. Frederick-Town Herald (Fredericktown, MD). March 5, 1803.
  8. ^ "New Jersey 1802 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Middlebury Mercury (Middlebury, VT). December 15, 1802.
  9. ^ "New York 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1803. 39-40.
  10. ^ "Rhode Island 1802 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 31, 2018. , citing The Providence Phoenix (Providence, RI). November 2, 1802.
  11. ^ a b c "Bennington: October 25, 1802". City Gazette. Charleston, South Carolina. November 20, 1802. p. 2 – via GenealogyBank.com. (Subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ "Tennessee 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 1, 2018. , citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1803. 21-22.
  13. ^ "New Jersey 1803 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 8, 1803.
  14. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=112577
  15. ^ a b "Richmond: December 10, 1803". Wilmington, North Carolina: Wilmington Gazette. December 27, 1803. p. 4. (Subscription required (help)). Mr. Taylor having declined to serve longer, Abraham B. Venable, esq., was on Wednesday last unanimously elected by the General Assembly in the room of Mr. Taylor. 
  16. ^ "Tennessee 1803 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1803. 27. Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia, PA). October 18, 1803. White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  17. ^ New Jersey Legislature (1804). Minutes and Proceedings of the Joint Meeting, November 3, 1803. Trenton, NJ: Sherman, Mershon & Thomas. p. 44. 
  18. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901. Columbus, Ohio: Century Publishing Co. p. 96 – via Google books. 

Sources

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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