United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801

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United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801

← 1798/99 Dates vary by state 1802/03 →

10 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Federalist Cockade.svg Tricolour Cockade.svg
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 21 (65.6%) 11 (34.4%)
Seats after 17 (54.8%) 14 (45.2%)
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 3
Seats up 7 3
Races won 3 6

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1800 and 1801 were elections for the United States Senate that, coinciding with their takeover of the White House, led to the Democratic-Republican Party taking control of the United States Senate. Although the Federalists began the next (7th) Congress with a slim majority, they lost their majority shortly thereafter due to mid-year special elections.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the November 6, 1800 special election in New York.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Ran
DR10
Ran
DR11
Retired
F21
Retired
F20
Retired
F19
Unknown
F18
Ran
F17
Ran
Majority →
F16
Ran
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the elections

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Re-elected
DR10
Hold
DR11
Gain
DR12
Gain
DR13
Gain
DR14
Gain
V1
F loss
F17
Gain
Majority →
F16
Re-elected
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 7th Congress

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 F17
Majority →
F16
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Later in the 7th Congress (end of 1801)

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14
Hold
DR15
Hold
DR16
Gain
Majority →
DR17
Gain
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14
Hold
DR18
Gain
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
New York
(Class 1)
James Watson Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 19, 1800, to become Naval Officer of the Port of New York.
New senator elected April 3, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Gouverneur Morris (Federalist) 79 (56.8%)
Peter Gansevoort (Democratic-Republican) 59 (42.4%)
Thomas Morris 1 (0.7%)[1]
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Samuel Dexter Federalist 1799
1796
Incumbent resigned May 30, 1800 to become U.S. Secretary of War.
New senator elected June 6, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Dwight Foster (Federalist) 158 (100%)[2]
New York
(Class 3)
John Laurance Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 1800.
New senator elected November 6, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Armstrong (Democratic-Republican) 141 (98.7%)
Peter Gansevoort (Democratic-Republican) 2 (1.3%)[3]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Benjamin Goodhue Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent resigned November 8, 1800.
New senator elected November 14, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Jonathan Mason (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland
(Class 3)
James Lloyd Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 1, 1800.
New senator elected December 12, 1800.
Federalist hold.
William Hindman (Federalist) 49 (55.1%)
Richard T. Earle (Democratic-Republican) 40 (44.9%)[4]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
James Schureman Federalist 1799 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 16, 1801.
New senator elected February 28, 1801.
Federalist hold.
Aaron Ogden (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1801; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Uriah Tracy Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in May 1801. Uriah Tracy (Federalist) 131
Asher Miller (Democratic-Republican) 30
Roger Griswold (Federalist) 10
Ephraim Kirby (Democratic-Republican) 6
Chauncey Goodrich 3
Stephen T. Hosmer 1[5]
Georgia James Gunn Federalist 1789
1794
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected November 19, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 58
Thomas P. Carnes (Federalist) 9[6]
Kentucky Humphrey Marshall Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected November 20, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Breckinridge (Democratic-Republican) 68
John Adair (Federalist) 13[7]
Maryland William Hindman Federalist 1797 (Special) Legislature failed to elect.
Incumbent was later appointed to begin the next term.
None.
New Hampshire John Langdon Democratic-
Republican
1788
1794 or 1795
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected June 21, 1800.
Federalist gain.
James Sheafe (Federalist) 83
John Langdon (Democratic-Republican) 12
Other 38[8]
New York John Armstrong Democratic-
Republican
1800 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1801. John Armstrong (Democratic-Republican) 76
Unanimous[9]
North Carolina Timothy Bloodworth Democratic-
Republican
1795 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected November 27, 1800.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Stone (Democratic-Republican) 94
William R. Davie (Federalist) 72
Richard D. Spaight 8
Matthew Locke (Democratic-Republican) 1[10]
Pennsylvania William Bingham Federalist 1795 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 18, 1801.[11]
Democratic-Republican gain.
Peter Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 50.0%
George Logan (Democratic-Republican) 48.9%
William Jones (Democratic-Republican) 1.0%
South Carolina Jacob Read Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1800 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John E. Colhoun (Democratic-Republican) 75
John Ward (Federalist) 73[12]
Vermont Elijah Paine Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected October 21, 1800. Elijah Paine (Federalist) 108
S. R. Bradley (Democratic-Republican) 68
N. Niles 3
Chamberlain 2
Hall 1[13]

Special elections during the next Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated after March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Ray Greene Federalist 1797 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1801.
New senator elected May 6, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Christopher Ellery (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Samuel Livermore Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned June 12, 1801.
New senator elected June 17, 1801.
Federalist hold.
Simeon Olcott (Federalist) 97
John Langdon 56
Others 4[14]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Elijah Paine Federalist 1794
1800
Incumbent resigned September 1, 1801.
New senator elected October 14, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Stephen R. Bradley (Democratic-Republican) 102
William Chamberlain (Federalist) 85
Nathaniel Niles (Democratic-Republican) 1[15]
Maryland
(Class 3)
William Hindman Federalist 1800 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee did not run to finish the term
New senator elected November 12, 1801 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican) 60
William Winder (Federalist) 26[16]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Charles Pinckney Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned June 6, 1801.
New senator elected December 3, 1801.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Sumter (Democratic-Republican) 90
John Rutledge (Federalist) 47
Thomas Evans 1[17]
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Peter Muhlenberg Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1801.
New senator elected December 17, 1801.[18]
Democratic-Republican hold.
George Logan (Democratic-Republican) 63.6%
Joseph Hiester (Federalist) 28.0%
Other 8.4%

See also

References

  1. ^ "New York 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1800. 265. The Albany Centinel (Albany, NY). April 4, 1800. Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). April 10, 1800. The Centinel of Liberty, or George-town and Washington Advertiser (Georgetown, DC). April 15, 1800.
  2. ^ "Massachusetts 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018. , citing Hampshire Gazette (Northhampton). June 11, 1800. The Kentucky Gazette (Lexington, KY). July 3, 1800.
  3. ^ "New York 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1800. 10, 11. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1800. 8. American Citizen and General Advertiser (New York, NY). November 10, 1800. The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 11, 1800. Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser (Savannah, GA). November 19, 1800. Universal Gazette (Washington, DC). November 20, 1800.
  4. ^ "Maryland 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018. , citing Votes and Proceedings of the Maryland State Senate, 1800. 26. Connecticut Gazette, and the Commercial Intelligencer (New London, CT). December 24, 1800. Mattern, David B., J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross and Susan Holbrook Perdue, ed. The Papers of James Madison, Congressional Series. Vol. 17. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1991. 435-436.
  5. ^ "Connecticut 1801 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Connecticut Gazette, and the Commercial Intelligencer (New London, CT). May 17, 1801. Impartial Journal (Stonington, CT). June 2, 1801. The Bee (New London, CT). June 3, 1801. The Bee (Hudson, NY). November 16, 1802.
  6. ^ "Georgia 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser (Savannah, GA). November 25, 1800.
  7. ^ "Kentucky 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing The Palladium: A Literary and Political Weekly Repository (Frankfort, KY). November 25, 1800.
  8. ^ "New Hampshire 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing The Ninth State: New Hampshire's Formative Years. 182.
  9. ^ "New York 1801 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing The Albany Centinel (Albany, NY). January 30, 1801.
  10. ^ "New York 1801 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Legislative Papers for 1800. Box 176. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh. Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina Weekly Advertiser (Raleigh, NC). December 2, 1800.
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=345434
  12. ^ "South Carolina 1800 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser (Washington, DC). December 15, 1800.
  13. ^ "Vermont 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1800. 265. The Albany Centinel (Albany, NY). April 4, 1800. Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). April 10, 1800. The Centinel of Liberty, or George-town and Washington Advertiser (Georgetown, DC). April 15, 1800.
  14. ^ "New Hampshire 1801 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Courier of New Hampshire (Concord, NH). June 18, 1801.
  15. ^ "New Hampshire 1801 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Spooner's Vermont Journal (Windsor, VT). October 20, 1801.
  16. ^ "Maryland 1801 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018. , citing The Albany Gazette (Albany, NY). November 21, 1796.
  17. ^ "South Carolina 1801 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing The Augusta Chronicle and Gazette of the State (Augusta, GA). December 12, 1801.
  18. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=345554
  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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