United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795

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United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795
United States
← 1792/93 Dates vary by state 1796/97 →

10 of the 30 seats in the United States Senate
(plus special elections)

16 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Federalist Cockade.svg Tricolour Cockade.svg
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 16
(as Pro-Administration)
13
(as Anti-Administration)
Seats after 19 10
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 3
Seats up 5
(as Pro-Administration)
5
(as Anti-Administration)
Races won 8 2

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1794 and 1795 were elections that had the formation of organized political parties in the United States, with the Federalist Party emerging from the Pro Administration coalition, and the Democratic-Republican Party emerging from the Anti-Administration coalition.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 4th Congress (1795–1797)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (20)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 30

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Note: There were no political parties in the 3rd Congress. Members are informally grouped here into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

After the April 24, 1794 special election in Pennsylvania.

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 A9
Ran
A10
Ran
A11
Ran
A12
Unknown
A13
Unknown
V1 P16
Retired
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12
Ran
P13
Ran
P14
Unknown
P15
Retired
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Results of the elections

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 DR1
Gain
from A
DR2
Gain
from A
V1 F8
Gain
from A
F7
Gain
from A
F6
Gain
from A
F5
Gain
from P
  F4
Gain
from P
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 F1
Gain
from P
F2
Gain
from P
F3
Gain
from P
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR5
Changed
DR4
Changed
DR3
Changed
DR2
Changed
DR1
Changed
DR6
Changed
DR7
Changed
DR8
Changed
DR9 DR10 F20
Gain
F19 F18 F17 F16
Majority →
F6
Changed
F7
Changed
F8
Changed
F9
Changed
F10
Changed
F10
Changed
F12 F13 F14 F15
F5
Changed
F4
Changed
F3
Changed
F2
Changed
F1
Changed
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 3rd Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1795; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Albert Gallatin Anti-Administration 1793 (Special) Incumbent disqualified February 28, 1794.
New senator elected March 31, 1794.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Federalist in the next Congress.
James Ross (Federalist) 51.72%
Robert Coleman (Unknown) 40.23%
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 1.15%
Not voting 6.7%
Virginia
(Class 1)
James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 11, 1794 to become U.S. Minister to France.
New senator elected November 18, 1794.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Democratic-Republican in the next Congress.
Stevens Thomson Mason (Anti-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia
(Class 2)
John Taylor Anti-Administration 1792 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 11, 1794.
New senator elected November 18, 1794.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Democratic-Republican in the next Congress.
Henry Tazewell (Anti-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant George Read (P) had resigned September 18, 1793 to become Chief Justice of Delaware.
New senator elected February 7, 1795.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner would become a Federalist in the next Congress.
Henry Latimer (Pro-Administration) 15
John Dickinson (Anti-Administration) 14[2]

Races leading to the 4th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1795; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Stephen Mitchell Pro-Administration 1793 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee retired.
New senator's election date unknown.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia James Gunn Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected November 13, 1794 to a new party.
Federalist gain.
James Gunn (Federalist) 36
Edward Telfair 12
William Few 3[3]
Kentucky John Edwards Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1794 on the second ballot.
Federalist gain.
Humphrey Marshall (Federalist) 28
John Breckinridge 22[4]
Maryland John Henry Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1795 to a new party.
Federalist gain.
John Henry (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire John Langdon Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-election date to a new party unknown.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Langdon (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York Rufus King Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1795 to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Rufus King (Federalist) 47
Thomas Tillotson 30
John Lawrence (Federalist) 1[5]


North Carolina Benjamin Hawkins Anti-Administration 1789 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1795 on the fifth ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Timothy Bloodworth (Democratic-Republican)
John Leigh
Alfred Moore
Nathaniel Macon Withdrew
John Skinner Withdrew
Charles Johnson Withdrew
William Lenoir[6]
Pennsylvania Robert Morris Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 26, 1795.
Federalist gain.
William Bingham (Federalist) 58
Peter Muhlenberg 35[7]
South Carolina Ralph Izard Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1794 on the second ballot.
Federalist gain.
Jacob Read (Federalist)
John Hunter[8]
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Administration 1791 (New state) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1794.
Federalist gain.
Elijah Paine (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Elections during the 4th Congress

There were no elections in 1795 after March 4.

See also

References

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. 
  2. ^ "Delaware 1795 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018. , citing South-Carolina State Gazette, and Timothy and Mason's Daily Advertiser (Charleston, SC). March 16, 1795.
  3. ^ "Georgia 1794 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018. , citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 13, 1794.
  4. ^ "Kentucky 1794 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018. , citing Election of United States Senators by the General Assembly (typed manuscript). Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort.
  5. ^ "New York 1795 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1795. 32-33. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1795. 15.
  6. ^ "North Carolina 1795 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Legislative Papers. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.
  7. ^ "Pennsylvania 1795 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018. , citing Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia, PA). February 26, 1795.
  8. ^ "South Carolina 1794 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018. , citing Rogers, George C. Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston (1758-1812). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1962. 268.

Exernal links

  • "Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present" – via Senate.gov. 
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