United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791

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United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791

← 1788/89 Dates vary by state 1792/93 →

9 of the 26 seats in the United States Senate, plus special elections
14 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 19 seats 7 seats
Seats before 18 6
Seats after 17 8
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Seats up 7 2
Races won 8 2

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Elected Majority faction

Pro-Administration

The United States Senate elections of 1790 and 1791 were the second series of elections of Senators in the United States. In these elections, terms were up for the nine Senators in Class 1. As of these elections, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported President George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party.

As these elections were prior to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Before the elections

After the June 25, 1790 elections in Rhode Island.

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6
Ran
A7
Ran
P19
Unknown
P18
Ran
P17
Ran
P16
Ran
P15
Ran
P14
Ran
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Ran
P3 P2 P1

Results of the elections

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6
Re-elected
A7
Gain
V1
A Loss
P18
Hold
P17
Hold
P16
Re-elected
P15
Re-elected
P14
Re-elected
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Re-elected
P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6 A7 A8
Gain
V1 P17 P16 P15 P14
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
P3 P2 P1
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

General and special elections during the 1st Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated before March 4, 1791; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
New senator elected June 7, 1790.
Pro-Administration gain.
Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
New senator elected June 7, 1790.
Anti-Administration gain.
Joseph Stanton, Jr. (Anti-Administration)
Virginia
(Special: Class 1)
John Walker Pro-Administration 1790 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
New senator elected November 9, 1790.
Anti-Administration gain.
James Monroe (Anti-Administration)
New Jersey
(Special: Class 2)
William Paterson Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned November 13, 1790 to become Governor of New Jersey.
New senator elected November 13, 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
Philemon Dickinson (Pro-Administration)

Races leading to the 2nd Congress

In these general elections, the winners were seated March 4, 1791; ordered by state.

All of these elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Oliver Ellsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected on an unknown date. Oliver Ellsworth (Pro-Administration)
Delaware George Read Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected October 23, 1790. George Read (Pro-Administration) Unanimous[2]
Maryland Charles Carroll Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. Charles Carroll (Pro-Administration)
Massachusetts Tristram Dalton Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1790 on the third ballot.
Pro-Administration hold.
George Cabot (Pro-Administration) 87
Nathaniel Gorham 36
Charles Jarvis 20
Samuel Holten 4
Tristram Dalton (Pro-Administration) Eliminated[3]
New Jersey Jonathan Elmer Pro-Administration 1788 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
John Rutherfurd (Pro-Administration)
New York Philip Schuyler Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 19, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Aaron Burr (Anti-Administration)
Philip Schuyler (Pro-Administration)
Egbert Benson (Pro-Administration)[4]
Pennsylvania William Maclay Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect a successor, leaving the seat vacant.
Anti-Administration loss.
None.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1791. Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Virginia James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1791. James Monroe (Anti-Administration)

Special and general elections in 1791 during the 2nd Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated after March 4, 1791, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William S. Johnson Pro-Administration 1788 Resigned March 4, 1791.
New senator elected June 13, 1791.
Pro-Administration hold.
Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration)
Vermont
(Class 1)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
New senator elected October 17, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Stephen R. Bradley (Anti-Administration)
Vermont
(Class 3)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
New senator elected October 17, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Moses Robinson (Anti-Administration)

Connecticut

Connecticut (Special)

Delaware

Maryland

New Jersey

New Jersey (Special)

New York

The election in New York was held January 19, 1791 by the New York State Legislature.

Incumbent Philip Schuyler term would expire March 3, 1791.

At the State election in April 1790, nominal Federalist majorities were elected to both houses of the 14th New York State Legislature, but many Federalists were friendly to the Democratic-Republican Governor George Clinton, party lines not being drawn very strictly then.

The incumbent Philip Schuyler ran for re-election as the candidate of the Federalist Party. New York State Attorney General Aaron Burr was the candidate of the Democratic-Republican Party, but was at that time a rather moderate politician, opposing the ultras of both parties.

Burr was the choice of both the State Senate and the State Assembly, and was declared elected. Schuyler was defeated despite the nominal majority of his party. Many of the Federalists took the opportunity to show their disapproval of both Schuyler's haughtiness and the financial policies of Alexander Hamilton, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and Schuyler's son-in-law. Besides, the Livingston faction of the Federalist Party felt betrayed after the election of Rufus King over their candidate James Duane in 1789, and now allied themselves with Clinton and later became Democratic-Republicans.

Office House Democratic-Republican candidate Federalist candidate
U.S. Senator State Senate (23 members) Aaron Burr 12 Philip Schuyler 4
State Assembly (65 members) Aaron Burr Philip Schuyler

Obs.: Burr had a majority of 5 votes in the Assembly, but the exact number of votes is unclear.

Pennsylvania

In 1791, the legislature failed to elect due to a disagreement on procedure.[5] The seat would remain vacant until 1793.[5]

Rhode Island

Vermont

Stephen R. Bradley and Moses Robinson were elected by the Vermont House of Representatives and Governor and Council in January 1791, anticipating Vermont's admission to the union.[6] Vermont was admitted as the 14th state on March 4, 1791.[7] The Senate had adjourned on March 3, at the completion of the 1st United States Congress; the 2nd United States Congress held a one-day session on March 4, and was not scheduled to convene again until October 24.[8]

As a result of this Congressional schedule Bradley and Robinson had not been seated when the Vermont House of Representatives convened in early October, 1791.[7] At this legislative session, some members suggested that the January election of Bradley and Robinson had been premature, since Vermont had not yet been admitted to the union.[7] Bradley and Robinson volunteered to resign the credentials of their January elections; on October 17, the Governor and Council voted again, and selected Bradley and Robinson.[7] The House of Representatives then voted a second time, and also selected Bradley and Robinson.[7] No vote totals were recorded.[7]

Bradley was selected for the "short term" (Class 1), which expired on March 3, 1795.[9] Robinson received the "long term" (Class 3), which expired on March 3, 1797.[10]

Virginia

Virginia (Special)

See also

References

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. 
  2. ^ "Delaware 1790 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018. , citing General Advertiser (Philadephia). October 30, 1790.
  3. ^ "Massachusetts 1790 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018. , citing The Massachusetts Centinel (Boston, MA). June 23, 1790.
  4. ^ "New York 1791 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018. , citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1791. 23-24. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1791. 12. The New-York Journal, and Patriotic Register (New York, NY). January 24, 1791.
  5. ^ a b http://staffweb.wilkes.edu/harold.cox/sen/PaSen1788.pdf
  6. ^ Walton, Eliakim Persons (1876). Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont. IV. Montpelier, VT: J. and J. M. Poland. pp. 4–6. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont.
  8. ^ De Puy, W. H. (1892). American Revisions and Additions to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. III. Chicago, IL: R. S. Peale Company. pp. 1547–1548. 
  9. ^ Dodge, Prentiss Cutler (1912). Encyclopedia of Vermont Biography. Burlington, VT: Ullery Publishing Company. pp. 28–29. 
  10. ^ Encyclopedia of Vermont Biography.

External links

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
  • The New York Civil List compiled in 1858 (see: pg. 114 for State Senators 1790-91; page 165f for Members of Assembly 1790-91)
  • History of Political Parties in the State of New-York by Jabez Delano Hammond (pages 50ff)
  • The Life and Times of Aaron Burr by James parton (1866, pages 177ff)
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