1798 and 1799 United States Senate elections

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United States Senate elections, 1798 and 1799

← 1796/97 Dates vary by state 1800/01 →

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 22 10
Seats after 23 9
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 5 6
Races won 5 6

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1798 and 1799 were held at the middle of President John Adams's administration and had no net change in political control of the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 6th Congress (1799–1801)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (22)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (9)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 31

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the January 19, 1798 election in Delaware.

DR6
Ran
DR5
Ran
DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7
Ran
DR8
Ran
DR9
Unknown
DR10
Retired
F22
Retired
F21
Retired
F20
Ran
F19
Ran
F18
Ran
F17
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the elections

DR6
Re-elected
DR5
Re-elected
DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7
Re-elected
DR8
Hold
DR9
Hold
DR10
Hold
F22
Hold
F21
Hold
F20
Re-elected
F19
Re-elected
F18
Re-elected
F17
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 V1
Died
F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 5th Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1799; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
New York
(Class 1)
Philip Schuyler Federalist 1789
1797
Incumbent resigned January 3, 1798 due to ill health.
New senator elected January 11, 1798.
Federalist hold.
Winner later resigned, see below.
John Sloss Hobart (Federalist) 100
John Addison 25
John Armstrong 4
John Taylor 2
James Watson 2
James Cocliram[1] 1[2]
Delaware
(Class 2)
John Vining Federalist 1792 Incumbent resigned January 19, 1798.
New senator elected January 19, 1798.
Federalist hold.
Winner died August 11, 1798, see below.
Joshua Clayton (Federalist) 14
James Sykes (Democratic-Republican) 10[3]
New York
(Class 1)
William North Federalist May 1798 (Appointed) Interim appointee served until winner qualified.
New senator elected August 24, 1798.
Federalist hold.
James Watson (Federalist) 87
John Taylor 57[4]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
John Hunter Democratic-Republican 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned November 26, 1798.
New senator elected December 6, 1798.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New senator also elected to next term, see below.
Charles Pinckney (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Daniel Smith Democratic-Republican October 1798 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor qualified.
New senator elected December 12, 1798.
Winner qualified upon retirement from other Senate seat on March 3, 1799.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 17
William Cocke (Democratic-Republican) 28[5]
Daniel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 15
Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 1
John Overton 1[6]
Delaware
(Class 2)
Joshua Clayton Federalist 1798 Died August 11, 1798.
New senator elected January 17, 1799.
Federalist hold.
Winner also elected to next term, see below.
William H. Wells (Federalist) 14
James Sykes (Democratic-Republican) 12[7]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Franklin Davenport Federalist 1798 (Appointed) Interim appointee served until winner qualified.
New senator elected February 21, 1799 on the third ballot.
Federalist hold.
James Schureman (Federalist) 26
Thomas Henderson (Federalist) 24
Philemon Dickinson Eliminated in earlier ballot
Jonathan Elmer (Federalist) Eliminated in earlier ballot[8]

Races leading to the 6th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1799; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware Joshua Clayton Federalist 1798 Died August 11, 1798.
New senator elected January 17, 1799.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
William H. Wells (Federalist) 14
James Sykes (Democratic-Republican)[9]
Georgia Josiah Tattnall Democratic-Republican 1796 [Data unknown/missing.]
New senator elected January 18, 1799.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Abraham Baldwin (Democratic-Republican) 42
Thomas P. Carnes (Federalist) 37[10]
Kentucky John Brown Democratic-Republican 1792 (New seat)
1792
Incumbent re-elected November 30, 1798. John Brown (Democratic-Republican) 36
Benjamin Logan 23
Stephen Ormsby 11[11]
Massachusetts Theodore Sedgwick Federalist 1796 Incumbent retired to run for the U.S. House of Representatives.
New senator elected June 14, 1798.
Federalist hold.
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 102
Others 54[12]
New Hampshire Samuel Livermore Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected December 21, 1798. Samuel Livermore (Federalist) 8
Nay 4[13]
New Jersey Richard Stockton Federalist 1796 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected November 1, 1798.
Federalist hold.
Jonathan Dayton (Federalist) 26
Jonathan Elmer 22[14]
North Carolina Alexander Martin Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected December 12, 1798 on the ninth ballot.[15]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican) 89
Alexander Martin (Democratic-Republica) 78
Benjamin Smith Eliminated in earlier ballot
Blake Baker Jr. Eliminated in earlier ballot[16]
Rhode Island Ray Greene Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent re-elected November 1, 1798. Ray Greene (Federalist) Unanimous[17]
South Carolina Charles Pinckney Democratic-Republican 1798 Incumbent re-elected December 6, 1798. Charles Pinckney (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-Republican 1797 (Special) Incumbent retired when elected to the Class 1 seat (see above).
New senator elected December 12, 1798.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Cocke (Democratic-Republican) 28
Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 17
Daniel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 15
Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 1
John Overton 1[6]
Virginia Henry Tazewell Democratic-Republican 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1798.
Incumbent died January 24, 1799 before the term began.
Henry Tazewell (Democratic-Republican) 117
James Madison (Democratic-Republican) 28
John Marshall (Federalist) 13
James Breckenridge (Federalist) 10
Others 9[18]

Special elections during the 6th Congress

In this special election, the winner was seated after March 4, 1799, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Vacant Incumbent Henry Tazewell (DR) had been re-elected in 1798 but died January 24, 1799 before the term began.
New senator elected December 5, 1799 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Wilson C. Nicholas (Democratic-Republican) 111
John Page 49
Ludwell Lee 1
George K. Taylor 1
James Wood 1[19]

See also

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
  1. ^ May be "James Cocliran"
  2. ^ "New York 1798 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). January 24, 1798.
  3. ^ "Delaware 1798 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1798. 36.
  4. ^ "New York 1798 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). August 29, 1798.
  5. ^ Elected instead to other seat.
  6. ^ a b "Tennessee 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 31, 2018., citing White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  7. ^ "Delaware 1799 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1799.
  8. ^ "New Jersey 1799 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Genius of Liberty (Morristown, NJ). February 21, 1799.
  9. ^ "Delaware 1799 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1799.
  10. ^ "Georgia 1799 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). February 5, 1799.
  11. ^ "Kentucky 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Palladium: A Literary and Political Weekly Repository (Frankfort, KY). December 4, 1798.
  12. ^ "Massachusetts 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). June 20, 1798.
  13. ^ "New Hampshire 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Journal of the New Hampshire Senate, 1799. 38-45, 50-51. Journal of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, 1799. 42-45.
  14. ^ "New Jersey 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 6, 1798. The Genius of Liberty (Morristown, NJ). November 8, 1798.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC US Senate Race - Dec 12, 1798". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "North Carolina 1798 U.S. Senate, Ballot 9". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Legislative Papers for 1798. Box 157. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.
  17. ^ "Rhode Island 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Newport Mercury (Newport, RI). November 6, 1798.
  18. ^ "Virginia 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Samuel Shield to Henry Tazewell. December 13, 1798.
  19. ^ "Virginia 1799 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 13, 1799. Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina Weekly Advertiser (Raleigh, NC). December 17, 1799.
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