United States Senate elections, 1884 and 1885

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United States Senate elections, 1884 and 1885

← 1882/83 Dates vary by state 1886/87 →

27 of the 76 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)
39 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Republican Democratic Readjuster
Seats before 38 36 2
Seats won 10 12 0
Seats after 37 34 2
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 2 Steady
Seats up 11 14 0

Majority Party before election

Republican[1]

Elected Majority Party

Republican[1]

The United States Senate elections of 1884 and 1885 were elections that coincided with the presidential election of 1884. Both Republicans and Democrats lost seats in the United States Senate due to the failure of three state legislatures to finish elections in time. Republicans, nevertheless, retained majority control and the Readjusters joined their caucus. By the beginning of the first session, in December 1885, Republicans had won all three vacant seats, increasing their majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 49th Congress (1885–1887)

  • Majority Party: Republican (42)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (34)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Total Seats: 76

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
Ran
D25
Ran
D24
Ran
D23
Ran
D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
D32
Ran
D33
Unknown
D34
Retired
D35
Retired
D36
Retired
RA1 RA2
Majority, with Readjusters in caucus → R38
Retired
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R31
Ran
R32
Ran
R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Unknown
R36
Unknown
R37
Retired
R28
Ran
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

After the elections

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D25
Re-elected
D24
Re-elected
D23
Re-elected
D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Re-elected
D30
Hold
D31
Hold
D32
Hold
D33
Hold
D34
Hold
V1
D Loss
V2
R Loss
V3
R Loss
RA1
Majority due to three vacancies ↓ RA2
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R34
Hold
R35
Hold
R36
Hold
R37
Gain
R28
Re-elected
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Beginning of the first session, December 7, 1885

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28 D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29 D30 D31 D32 D33 D34 RA1 RA2 R40
Gain
R39
Gain
Majority →
R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37 R38
Gain
R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
D# Democratic
RA# Readjuster
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 48th Congress

In this election, the winner was seated during in 1885 before March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
William P. Sheffield Republican 1884 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected January 20, 1885.
Republican hold.
Jonathan Chace (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 49th Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1891; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama James L. Pugh Democratic 1880 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in August 1884. James L. Pugh (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas James D. Walker Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1885.
Democratic hold.
James K. Jones (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
California James T. Farley Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1885.
Republican gain.
Leland Stanford (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Colorado Nathaniel P. Hill Republican 1879 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1885.
Republican hold.
Nathaniel P. Hill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut Orville H. Platt Republican 1879 Incumbent re-elected in 1885. Orville H. Platt (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida Wilkinson Call Democratic 1879 Incumbent re-elected January 20, 1885.[2] Wilkinson Call (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia Joseph E. Brown Democratic 1880 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1885. Joseph E. Brown (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Illinois John A. Logan Republican 1879 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Incumbent was later elected to continue the vacant term, see below.
None.
Indiana Daniel W. Voorhees Democratic 1877 (Appointed)
1879 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1885. Daniel W. Voorhees (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Iowa William B. Allison Republican 1872
1878
Incumbent re-elected January 23, 1884.[3] William B. Allison (Republican) 90 votes
Benton J. Hall 48 votes
D. M. Clark 10 votes
L. G. Kinne 1 vote[3]
Kansas John Ingalls Republican 1873
1879
Incumbent re-elected in 1885. John Ingalls (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky John Stuart Williams Democratic 1879 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1884.
Democratic hold.
Joseph Blackburn (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana Benjamin F. Jonas Democratic 1879 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1884 or 1885.
Democratic hold.
James B. Eustis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland James Black Groome Democratic 1878 or 1879 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1884.
Democratic hold.
Ephraim Wilson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Missouri George G. Vest Democratic 1879 Incumbent re-elected in 1885. George G. Vest (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Nevada John P. Jones Republican 1873
1879
Incumbent re-elected in 1885. John P. Jones (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire Henry W. Blair Republican 1879 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Incumbent was later appointed, and then elected, to continue the vacant term, see below.
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York Elbridge G. Lapham Republican 1881 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 20, 1885.
Republican hold.
William M. Evarts (Republican) 92 votes
Edward Cooper (Democratic) 65 votes
North Carolina Zebulon Vance Democratic 1879 Incumbent re-elected in 1884.
Zebulon Vance (Democratic)
Ohio George H. Pendleton Democratic 1878 or 1879 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected January 15, 1884.[4]
Democratic hold.
Henry B. Payne (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Oregon James H. Slater Democratic 1878 or 1879 Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania J. Donald Cameron Republican 1877 (Special)
1879
Incumbent re-elected January 20, 1885. J. Donald Cameron (Republican) 64.94%
William A. Wallace (Democratic) 27.49%
Others, see below
South Carolina Wade Hampton III Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected in 1884. Wade Hampton III (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont Justin S. Morrill Republican 1866
1872
1878
Incumbent re-elected in 1884. Justin S. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin Angus Cameron Republican 1881 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 27, 1885.
Republican hold.
John C. Spooner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Elections during the 49th Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1885 after March 4, sorted by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 1)
Thomas F. Bayard Democratic 1869
1875
1881
Incumbent resigned March 6, 1885 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Winner elected March 18, 1885.
George Gray (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Augustus Garland Democratic 1876
1883
Incumbent resigned March 6, 1885 to become U.S. Attorney General.
Winner elected March 20, 1885.
Democratic hold.
James H. Berry (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected May 19, 1885.
Republican gain.
John A. Logan (Republican) 50.49%
Lambert Tree (Democratic) 47.06%
John C. Black (Democratic) 0.98%
John R. Hoxie (Democratic) 0.49%
William Ralls Morrison (Democratic) 0.49%
Charles J. Schofield (Democratic) 0.49%
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Henry W. Blair Republican 1879
1885 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected June 17, 1885. Henry W. Blair (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Oregon
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected November 18, 1885.
Republican gain.
John H. Mitchell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Complete list of races

New York

The New York election was held January 20, 1885, by the New York State Legislature.

Republican Elbridge G. Lapham had been elected to this seat in a special election in 1881 to succeed Roscoe Conkling who had resigned. Lapham's term would expire on March 3, 1885.

At the State election in November 1883, 19 Republicans and 13 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1884-1885) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1884, 73 Republicans and 55 Democrats were elected for the session of 1885 to the Assembly. The 108th New York State Legislature met from January 6 to May 22, 1885, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 19, President pro tempore of the State Senate Dennis McCarthy presided. 19 State senators and 73 assemblymen attended. The Evarts faction required the nomination to be made by viva voce vote, which was opposed by the Morton faction, but was carried by a vote of 64 to 28. The caucus nominated Ex-U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts on the first ballot.

1885 Republican caucus nominee
Candidate First ballot
William M. Evarts 61
Levi P. Morton 28
Chauncey M. Depew 3

The Democratic caucus nominated Ex-Mayor of New York Edward Cooper.

William M. Evarts was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1885 United States Senator election result
House Republican Democratic
State Senate
(32 members)
William M. Evarts 19 Edward Cooper 13
State Assembly
(128 members)
William M. Evarts 73 Edward Cooper 52

Note: The votes were cast on January 20, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 21 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Ohio

In 1884, the Democrats held a majority in the Ohio legislature. In a caucus meeting to determine the party's choice for United States Senator, many Democratic legislators looked to replace the incumbent Senator, Democrat George H. Pendleton, because they disagreed with his advocacy of civil service reform and low tariffs.[5] Some of Pendleton's opponents, led by Oliver Payne, promoted Henry B. Payne for the Senate seat, recalling his opposition to both of those positions during his time in the House.[6] After a secret ballot by the Democratic caucus, Henry B. Payne received 46 out of 80 votes.[7] Because Oliver was a trustee and treasurer of the Standard Oil company, many of the Pendleton supporters immediately alleged that $100,000 from the oil trust had been used to bribe Democratic legislators, and claimed that an open ballot would not have favored Payne.[8][9]

When the full legislature met, Henry B. Payne was elected with 78 votes out of 120.[7] The Democratic legislature initially refused to investigate their members' alleged corruption, but when Republicans regained the majority in the next session, the legislature looked into the allegations and forwarded the results to the federal Senate.[10] The evidence gathered was voluminous, but the Senate declined to expel Payne, who proclaimed his innocence.[9] While there was never enough evidence for definitive proof of bribery, biographer Dewayne Burke wrote that the "circumstantial evidence seems to convict Payne" of the charge.[11]

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held January 20, 1885. The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened January 20, 1885. Incumbent Republican J. Donald Cameron, who was elected in an 1877 special election and re-elected in 1879, was a successful candidate for re-election to another term.[12] The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican J. Donald Cameron (Inc.) 163 64.94
Democratic William A. Wallace 69 27.49
Republican A. W. Acheson 1 0.40
Republican Charles N. Brumm 1 0.40
Republican George Shiras, Jr. 1 0.40
N/A Not voting 14 5.58
Totals 251 100.00%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Readjusters caucused with the Republicans.
  2. ^ "SELECTING NEW SENATORS". The New York Times. January 20, 1885. p. 1.
  3. ^ a b Clark, p. 209.
  4. ^ Burke, p. 28.
  5. ^ Burke 1938, p. 22.
  6. ^ Burke 1938, p. 23.
  7. ^ a b Walker 1886, p. 3.
  8. ^ Burke 1938, pp. 23–27.
  9. ^ a b Weisenburger 1934, p. 326.
  10. ^ Walker 1886, p. 4.
  11. ^ Burke 1938, p. 30.
  12. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 20 January 1885" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
  • Burke, Dewayne (1938). Henry B. Payne: His Congressional Career (M.A. thesis). Ohio State University. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  • Byrd, Robert C. (October 1, 1993). Wolff, Wendy, ed. "The Senate, 1789-1989: Historical Statistics, 1789-1992". United States Senate Historical Office (volume 4 Bicentennial ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Clark, Dan Elbert (1913). "History of Senatorial Elections in Iowa". Iowa City, Iowa.
  • Cox, Harold (January 31, 2007). "Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006". The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University.
  • Walker, Albert H. (1886). The Payne Bribery Case and the United States Senate. Hartford, Connecticut: Clark & Smith. OCLC 17693469.
  • Weisenburger, Francis Phelps (1934). "Henry B. Payne". Dictionary of American Biography. XIV. New York, New York: C. Scribner's Sons. pp. 325–326.
  • "MR. EVARTS TO BE SENATOR" (PDF). The New York Times. January 20, 1885.
  • "EVARTS ELECTED SENATOR" (PDF). The New York Times. January 22, 1885.
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