Presidents of the United States and control of Congress

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The degree to which the President of the United States's political party has control over the House of Representatives and Senate often determines his political strength - such as the ability to pass sponsored legislation, ratify treaties, and have Cabinet members and judges approved.

Party control of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives (including President's party): 1855-2017[1][2][3]

Presidential impact

Many presidents' elections produced what is known as a coattail effect, in which the success of a presidential candidate also leads to electoral success for other members of his or her party. In fact, all newly elected presidents except Zachary Taylor, Richard Nixon, and George H. W. Bush were accompanied by control of at least one house of Congress.

Presidents by congressional control and terms won/served

No. President President's Party Senate with Senate opposed House with House opposed Congress with Congress opposed Congress divided Years served Elections won
1 George Washington None 8 0 4 4 4 0 4 8 2
2 John Adams Federalist 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 4 1
3 Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican 8 0 8 0 8 0 0 8 2
4 James Madison Democratic-Republican 8 0 8 0 8 0 0 8 2
5 James Monroe Democratic-Republican 8 0 8 0 8 0 0 8 2
6 John Quincy Adams Democratic-Republican 0 4 2 2 0 2 2 4 1
7 Andrew Jackson Democratic 6 2 8 0 6 0 2 8 2
8 Martin Van Buren Democratic 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 4 1
9 William Harrison Whig 0.1 0 0.1 0 0.1 0 0 0.1 1
10 John Tyler Whig Independent 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 0
11 James Polk Democratic 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 1
12 Zachary Taylor Whig 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
13 Millard Fillmore Whig 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0
14 Franklin Pierce Democratic 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 1
15 James Buchanan Democratic 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 1
16 Abraham Lincoln Republican National Union 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 4 2
17 Andrew Johnson National Union 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0
18 Ulysses Grant Republican 8 0 6 2 6 0 2 8 2
19 Rutherford Hayes Republican 2 2 0 4 0 2 2 4 1
20 James Garfield Republican 0 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 1
21 Chester Arthur Republican 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 0
22 Grover Cleveland Democratic 0 4 4 0 0 0 4 4 1
23 Benjamin Harrison Republican 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 1
24 Grover Cleveland Democratic 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 4 1
25 William McKinley Republican 4.5 0 4.5 0 4.5 0 0 4.5 2
26 Theodore Roosevelt Republican 7.5 0 7.5 0 7.5 0 0 7.5 1
27 William Taft Republican 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 1
28 Woodrow Wilson Democratic 6 2 6 2 6 2 0 8 2
29 Warren Harding Republican 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 1
30 Calvin Coolidge Republican 6 0 6 0 6 0 0 6 1
31 Herbert Hoover Republican 4 0 2 2 2 0 2 4 1
32 Franklin Roosevelt Democratic 12 0 12 0 12 0 0 12.1 4
33 Harry Truman Democratic 6 2 6 2 6 2 0 7.8 1
34 Dwight Eisenhower Republican 2 6 2 6 2 6 0 8 2
35 John Kennedy Democratic 2.8 0 2.8 0 2.8 0 0 2.8 1
36 Lyndon Johnson Democratic 5.2 0 5.2 0 5.2 0 0 5.2 1
37 Richard Nixon Republican 0 5.6 0 5.6 0 5.6 0 5.6 2
38 Gerald Ford Republican 0 2.4 0 2.4 0 2.4 0 2.4 0
39 Jimmy Carter Democratic 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 4 1
40 Ronald Reagan Republican 6 2 0 8 0 2 6 8 2
41 George H. W. Bush Republican 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 1
42 Bill Clinton Democratic 2[4] 6 2 6 2 6 0 8 2
43 George W. Bush Republican 4.5 3.5 6 2 4.5 2 1.5 8 2
44 Barack Obama Democratic 6 2 2 6 2 2 4 8 2
45 Donald Trump Republican 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 1
No. President President's Party Senate with Senate opposed House with House opposed Congress with Congress opposed Congress divided Years served Elections won

See also

References

  1. ^ "Party In Power - Congress and Presidency - A Visual Guide To The Balance of Power In Congress, 1945-2008". Uspolitics.about.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Chart of Presidents of the United States". Filibustercartoons.com. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Composition of Congress by Party 1855–2013". Infoplease.com. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  4. ^ Clinton served the last 17 days of his 2nd term with a 50-50 majority in the senate with Al Gore being the tie breaker for the democrats after they won control in the 2000 elections until Republican Vice president Dick Cheney was sworn in and broke the tie in favor of the republicans.
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