1902 United States House of Representatives elections

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1902

← 1900 November 4, 1902[Note 1] 1904 →

All 386 seats to the United States House of Representatives
194 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JGCannon.jpg John Sharp Williams.jpg
Leader Joseph Cannon John Sharp Williams
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 4, 1903 March 4, 1903
Leader's seat Illinois-18th Mississippi-8th
Last election 201 seats[Note 2] 151 seats
Seats won 210[1][2][Note 3] 176[1][2]
Seat change Increase 9 Increase 25

Speaker before election

David Henderson
Republican

Elected Speaker

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives held in 1902 occurred in the middle of President Theodore Roosevelt's first term, about a year after the assassination of President William McKinley in September 1901.

Due to the increased size of the House and the reapportionment that resulted from the 1900 U.S. Census, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party both gained seats simultaneously, which has not occurred in any elections since. The Democrats increased their share of the House, but not by enough to regain control.

With a stable economy and no cornerstone issue, Democratic gains can mostly be linked to the effects of redistricting. Many of the new seats were in areas with high numbers of immigrants (mostly Eastern and Southern European industrial workers, and Northern European farmers), with new immigrants tending to vote Democrat. The Populist Party disappeared from the House, with its supporters almost unanimously switching to the Democratic Party.[citation needed] Notable freshmen included future Vice President and Speaker John Nance Garner (D-Texas).

This election marked the third and most recent time in American history where the incumbent President's party gained House seats in a midterm election while still losing seats in the Senate, the first two being in 1814 and 1822.

Election summaries

29 new seats were added in reapportionment following the 1900 Census.[3] No states lost seats, 16 had no change in apportionment, 14 gained 1 seat, 3 gained 2 seats, and 3 gained 3 seats. Two of the states that gained representation elected the new seat at-large.

207 3 176
Republican IR Democratic
State Type Total seats Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 Steady 0 Steady 9 Steady
Arkansas District 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 7 Increase 1
California District 8 Increase 1 5 Decrease 2 3 Increase 3
Colorado District
+at-large[Note 4]
3[Note 5] Increase 1 3 Increase 2[Note 6] 0 Steady
Connecticut District
+at-large[Note 4]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Florida District 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
Georgia District 11 Steady 0 Steady 11 Steady
Idaho At-large 1[Note 5] Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Illinois District 25 Increase 3 17 Increase 6 8 Decrease 3
Indiana District 13 Steady 9 Steady 4 Steady
Iowa District 11 Steady 10 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Kansas District
+at-large
8 Steady 8 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Kentucky District 11 Steady 1 Decrease 1 10 Increase 1
Louisiana District 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 7 Increase 1
Maine[Note 7] District 4 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
Massachusetts District 14 Increase 1 10 Steady 4 Increase 1
Michigan District 12 Steady 11 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Minnesota District 9 Increase 2 8 Increase 1 1 Increase 1
Mississippi District 8 Increase 1 0 Steady 8 Increase 1
Missouri District 16 Increase 1 1 Decrease 2 15 Increase 3
Montana At-large 1[Note 5] Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6[Note 8] Steady 5 Increase 3 1 Decrease 1
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 10 Increase 2 7 Increase 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 37 Increase 3 20 Decrease 1 17 Increase 4
North Carolina District 10 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2 10 Increase 3
North Dakota At-large 2 Increase 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 Steady 17 Steady 4 Steady
Oregon[Note 7] District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District[Note 9] 32 Increase 2 29[Note 3] Increase 3 3 Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
South Carolina District 7 Steady 0 Steady 7 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 2 Steady 8 Steady
Texas District 16 Increase 3 0 Steady 16 Increase 3
Utah At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 7] District 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 Steady 1 Increase 1 9 Decrease 1
Washington At-large 3 Increase 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
West Virginia District 5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 11 Increase 1 10 Steady 1 Increase 1
Wyoming At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total 386 Increase 29 210[Note 3]
54.4%
Increase 9 176
45.6%
Increase 25
House seats
Republican
54.40%
Democratic
45.60%

The previous election had 5 Populists, but the party completely disappeared from the U.S. House in the 1902 elections.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1902, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:


California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Samuel D. Woods
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1900 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
James N. Gillett (Republican) 50.5%
Thomas S. Ford (Democratic) 46.7%
M. E. Shore (Socialist) 1.9%
W. O. Clark (Prohibition) 0.9%
California 2 Frank Coombs
Redistricted from the 1st district
Republican 1900 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Theodore A. Bell (Democratic) 49.2%
Frank Coombs (Republican) 48.3%
G. H. Rogers (Socialist) 1.7%
W. P. Fassett (Prohibition) 0.8%
California 3 Victor H. Metcalf Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected. Victor H. Metcalf (Republican) 66.2%
Calvin B. White (Democratic) 27.7%
M. W. Wilkins (Socialist) 5%
T. H. Montgomery (Prohibition) 1.1%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Edward J. Livernash (Democratic) 49.2%
Julius Kahn (Republican) 48.7%
William Costley (Socialist) 1.9%
Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 0.2%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
William J. Wynn (Democratic) 56.5%
Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 41.2%
Joseph Lawrence (Socialist) 1.5%
Frank W. Caton (Prohibition) 0.7%
California 6 James C. Needham
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected. James C. Needham (Republican) 53.5%
Gaston N. Ashe (Democratic) 42.5%
J. L. Cobb (Socialist) 2.5%
L. C. Jolley (Prohibition) 1.4%
California 7 James McLachlan
Redistricted from the 6th district
Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected. James McLachlan (Republican) 64.8%
Carl A. Johnson (Democratic) 27%
George H. Hewes (Socialist) 4.2%
Frederick F. Wheeler (Prohibition) 4%
California 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Milton J. Daniels (Republican) 51.9%
William E. Smythe (Democratic) 40.8%
Noble A. Richardson (Socialist) 5.4%
Ellsworth Leonardson (Prohibition) 2%

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected. Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) Unopposed
Florida 2 Robert Wyche Davis Democratic 1896 Incumbent re-elected. Robert Wyche Davis (Democratic) Unopposed
Florida 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
William B. Lamar (Democratic) Unopposed

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William Elliott Democratic 1886
1896
Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
George Swinton Legaré (Democratic) 95.5%
Aaron P. Prioleau (Republican) 4.5%
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for Governor of South Carolina.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
George W. Croft (Democratic) 94.9%
W. S. Dixon (Republican) 5.0%
Others 0.1%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 98.9%
John Scott (Republican) 1.1%
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph T. Johnson (Democratic) 98.7%
L. W. C. Blalock (Republican) 1.3%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected. David E. Finley (Democratic) 99.3%
C. P. T. White (Republican) 0.7%
South Carolina 6 Robert B. Scarborough Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected. Robert B. Scarborough (Democratic) Unopposed
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Incumbent re-elected. Asbury F. Lever (Democratic) 96.2%
Alexander D. Dantzler (Republican) 3.8%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 2 and September 18.
  2. ^ Included 1 member of the Silver Republican faction, John F. Shafroth, of CO-01.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 3 Independent Republicans elected to PA-29, PA-31, and PA-32 in the Pittsburgh area.
  4. ^ a b Additional seat elected at-large due to State delaying redistricting.
  5. ^ a b c Election of 1900 saw the election of 1 Populist.
  6. ^ There was one member of the Silver Republican Party faction elected in 1900, John F. Shafroth. Shafroth attempted to get elected as a Democrat in 1902, but his election was contested and overturned.
  7. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  8. ^ Election of 1900 saw the election of 2 Populists in Nebraska.
  9. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.

References

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Martis, pp. 156–157.
  3. ^ Apportionment Act of 1901

Bibliography

  • Republican Congressional Committee, The Republican Campaign Textbook 1902 (1902).
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)
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