United States House of Representatives elections, 1882

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1882

← 1880 November 7, 1882[Note 1] 1884 →

All 325 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
163 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader John G. Carlisle J. Warren Keifer
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky-6th Ohio-4th
Last election 131 seats[Note 2] 151 seats
Seats won 199[1][Note 3][Note 4] 118[1][Note 3][Note 5]
Seat change Increase 59 Decrease 29

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Readjuster Greenback
Last election 0 seats[Note 6] 10 seats
Seats won 4[1][Note 7] 2[1]
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 8

House048ElectionMap.png
Elections results from the 1882 elections

Speaker before election

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Elected Speaker

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party, and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism, though the Virginia-based Readjuster Party all but disappeared following this election.

Election summaries

Following the 1880 Census, 32 new seats were apportioned.[2] Three States lost 1 seat each, 13 States had no change in apportionment, 14 States gained 1 seat each, 6 States gained 2 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Several States that gained one or more seats did not redistrict immediately, electing the new Representatives at-large, while one state (Maine) which lost a Representative also delayed redistricting, electing all of its Representatives at-large for this Congress only.

196 3 4 2 2 1 117
Democratic ID Rj I Gb IR Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 Steady 7 Increase 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District
+ at-large[Note 8]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District
+ 2 at-large[Note 8]
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 4 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 Steady 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 Steady 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District
+ at-large[Note 8]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 Increase 1 9[Note 9] Increase 3 11 Decrease 2 0
Indiana District 13 Steady 10 Increase 5 3 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Iowa[Note 10] District 11 Increase 2 3 Increase 2 7 Decrease 1 1[Note 11] Increase 1
Kansas District
+ 4 at-large[Note 8]
7 Increase 4 0 Steady 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Increase 1 9[Note 9] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 Steady 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 10] At-large[Note 12] 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2[Note 11]
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 Increase 1 3 Increase 2 9[Note 5] Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 Increase 2 6 Increase 6 5 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 1[Note 13] Increase 1
Missouri District 14 Increase 1 14 Increase 6 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 4[Note 11]
Nebraska District[Note 14] 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 Steady 3 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District
+ at-large[Note 8]
34 Increase 1 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[Note 13]
North Carolina District
+ at-large[Note 8]
9 Increase 1 7[Note 9] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[Note 10] District 21 Increase 1 15 Increase 10 6 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 10] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large[Note 8]
28 Increase 1 12 Increase 5 15 Decrease 3 1[Note 11] Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 Increase 5 10 Increase 5 0 Steady 1[Note 13] Steady[Note 15]
Vermont[Note 10] District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Virginia District
+ at-large[Note 8]
10 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 2 4[Note 7] Increase 4[Note 16]
West Virginia District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 Increase 1 6 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total 325 Increase 32 199[1][Note 4]
61.2%
Increase 59 118[1][Note 5]
36.3%
Decrease 26 8[1]
2.8%
Decrease 2
House seats
Democratic
61.23%
Republican
36.31%
Readjuster
1.23%
Greenback
0.62%
Others
0.62%

There were a total of 8 Representatives elected from third parties, 4 from the Virginia-based Readjuster Party, 2 from the declining Greenback Party, and 2 Independents. The previous election of 1880 had had 10 Greenbacks and 1 Independent.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
 
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Readjuster
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Readjuster gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1882, five states, with 39 seats among them, held Congressional elections before the rest of the Union:

California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Rosecrans Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected. William Rosecrans (Democratic) 59.5%
Paul Neuman (Republican) 38.8%
James McMillan Shafter (Prohibition) 1.5%
H. S. Fitch (Greenback) 0.2%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain.
James Budd (Democratic) 50.5%
Horace F. Page (Republican) 48.1%
J. L. Coles (Prohibition) 1.2%
F. J. Woodward (Greenback) 0.2%
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Barclay Henley (Democratic) 51.3%
John J. De Haven (Republican) 45.8%
H. S. Graves (Prohibition) 2%
W. O. Howe (Greenback) 0.9%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pleasant B. Tully (Democratic) 54.4%
George L. Woods (Republican) 43.3%
M. V. Wright (Prohibition) 1.5%
Isaac Kinley (Greenback) 0.8%
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John R. Glascock (Democratic) 26.5%
Charles A. Sumner
(Democratic) 26.5%
William W. Morrow (Republican) 22.4%
Henry Edgerton (Republican) 22.3%
A. B. Hotchkiss (Prohibition) 0.8%
Jesse Yarnell (Prohibition) 0.8%
Warren Chase (Greenback) 0.3%
Stephen Maybell (Greenback) 0.3%
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. Robert H. M. Davidson (Democratic) 51.5%
Emory F. Skinner (Republican) 32.2%
D. L. McKinnon (Independent Republican) 16.3%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1880[Note 17] Incumbent re-elected. Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (Republican) 50.5%
Jesse J. Finley (Democratic) 49.5%

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Samuel Dibble (Democratic) 56.9%
J. B. Campbell (Greenback/L) 43.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected. George D. Tillman (Democratic) 67.8%
E. M. Brayon (Greenback/L) 31.9%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. D. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 84.6%
T. H. Russell (Greenback/L) 15.4%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. John H. Evins (Democratic) 71.8%
D. R. Elkins (Greenback/L) 27.2%
South Carolina 5 None (open seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
John J. Hemphill (Democratic) 56.0%
E. B. C. Cash (Greenback/L) 44.0%
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
George W. Dargan (Democratic) 64.7%
Edmund H. Deas (Republican) 21.7%
A. H. Bowen (Greenback/L) 13.6%
South Carolina 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Edmund W. M. Mackey (Republican) 64.8%
Samuel Lee (Independent Republican) 35.2%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Five states held early elections between June 5 and October 10.
  2. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat (and 2 "Readjuster Democrats" – see Readjusters elsewhere).
  3. ^ a b Dubin (p. 263) counts 192 Democrats, 5 Readjusters, 2 Independent Democrats, 119 Republicans, 1 Liberal, 2 Greenbacks and 2 Independents (along with 2 vacancies) at the start of the 48th United States Congress.
  4. ^ a b Includes 3 Independent Democrats elected to IL-02, KY-01, and NC-07.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, Theodore Lyman, elected to MA-09.
  6. ^ There were two "Readjuster Democrats" elected to the previous congress in 1880.
  7. ^ a b Includes 4 Readjusters elected to VA-02, VA-04, VA-09, and VA-AL.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h New seat or seats added without immediate redistricting.
  9. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  10. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  11. ^ a b c d Greenback Party
  12. ^ Changed from districts.
  13. ^ a b c Independent.
  14. ^ Changed from at-large.
  15. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback.
  16. ^ Previous election saw 2 "Readjuster Democrats" elected to VA-07 and VA-09.
  17. ^ Seated after successful electoral challenge.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 136–137.
  2. ^ 22 Stat. 5

Bibliography

  • Republican Congressional Committee, The Republican Campaign Text Book for 1882 (1882).
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701. 
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967. 
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)
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