United States House of Representatives elections, 1862 and 1863

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1862 and 1863

← 1860 / 61 June 2, 1862 – November 3, 1863[Note 1] 1864 / 65 →

All 184 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives[Note 2]
93 seats needed for a majority

  First party Second party
  GalushaAaron.jpg SSCox.jpg
Leader Galusha Grow Samuel Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-14th
(lost re-election)
Ohio-7th
Last election 108 seats 45 seats
Seats won 87[Note 3] 72
Seat change Decrease 21 Increase 27

  Third party
  Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Francis Thomas
Party Unionist
Leader's seat Maryland-4th
Last election 28 seats
Seats won 25
Seat change Decrease 3

Speaker before election

Galusha Grow (defeated)
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in mostly in November 1862, in the middle of President Abraham Lincoln's first term. His Republicans lost 22 seats in Congress, while the Democrats picked up 28, for a net swing of 50 seats (or 27 percent) out of a total House membership of 185.

The mid-term elections in 1862 caused the Republicans to lose their majority in the House due to sharp disfavor with the Administration over its failure to deliver a speedy end to the war, as well as rising inflation, high new taxes, ugly rumors of corruption, the suspension of habeas corpus, the draft law, and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor market. The Republicans were forced to rely on the assistance of the Unionist Party in order to control the chamber because they were 5 seats short of a majority. The Emancipation Proclamation announced in September gained votes in Yankee areas of New England and the upper Midwest, but it lost votes in the ethnic cities and the lower Midwest. While Republicans were discouraged, Democrats were energized and did especially well in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and New York. Elated Democrats from the Northwest hailed the elections as a repudiation of the emancipation heresy.[1]

The Republicans did keep control of the major states except New York. Most important, the Republicans retained control of the House, in spite of falling from 59% of the seats to just over 46% because of their alliance with the 24 Unionist representatives; the Unionists were a group of disaffected pro-war Democrats who broke with their party during the previous Congress. The voters, editorialized the Cincinnati Gazette, "are depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress.".[2]

A typical result came in Lincoln's home district of Springfield, Illinois, where John T. Stuart, a Democrat and one of Lincoln's former law partners, defeated the Republican incumbent. Anti-black sentiments that overwhelmingly favored forbidding immigration of freed slaves and preventing black suffrage was primarily responsible.[3]

Election summaries

Tennessee and Virginia had been partially represented in the 37th Congress with 8 filled seats between them, but were unrepresented in the 38th Congress. The other 9 secessionist states had been unrepresented in the 37th Congress and remained unrepresented in the 38th, leaving 58 vacancies[4] (61, including the new state of West Virginia).

Reapportionment took place according to the 1860 Census, using the 1850 Apportionment bill[5] which provided for a permanent total of 233 seats, but a subsequent bill added an additional 8 seats,[6] increasing the number of seats to 241 (58 of which were in secessionist states, once the three new seats for West Virginia are excluded from the total), a net gain of 2 seats over the previous Congress. Excluding the secessionist states, 2 states lost 2 seats each, 5 states lost 1 seat, 11 states had no change in apportionment, 2 states gained 2 seats each, 1 state gained 3 seats, 1 gained 4 seats, and 1 gained 5 seats. Within the secessionist states, 3 states lost 2 seats each, 3 lost 1 seat, 2 had no change, 2 gained 1 seat each, and 1 gained 2 seats, a net loss of five seats apportioned to those states.

Upon the admission of West Virginia, 3 of Virginia's seats were reassigned to the new State, filling 3 vacancies,[7] and during the 2nd session, one seat was added for the new State of Nevada.[8]

85 2 25 72
Republican IR Unionist Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Unionist[Note 4]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 2, 1862 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine District September 8, 1862 5 Decrease 1 4 Decrease 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana District October 14, 1862 11 Steady 4 Decrease 3 7 Increase 3 0 Steady
Iowa District 6 Increase 4 6 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 19 Decrease 2 5 Decrease 8 14 Increase 6 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District 24 Decrease 1 12[Note 3] Decrease 7 12 Increase 6 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 1, 1862 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Massachusetts District 10 Decrease 1 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Illinois District +
1 at-large
November 4, 1862
(Election Day)[Note 5]
14 Increase 5 5 Increase 1 9 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 6 Increase 2 5 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Minnesota District[Note 6] 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 9 Increase 2 1 Steady 0 Decrease 5 8 Increase 7
New Jersey District 5 Steady 1 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
New York District 31 Decrease 2 14 Decrease 9 17 Increase 7 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 6 Increase 3 3 Steady 3 Increase 3 0 Steady
1863 elections
New Hampshire District March 10, 1863 3 Steady 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 1, 1863 2 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2
Connecticut District April 6, 1863 4 Steady 3 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 3, 1863 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 9 Steady
Vermont District September 1, 1863 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large September 2, 1863 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia[Note 7] District October 22, 1863 3 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 3
Maryland District November 3, 1863 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 4 Decrease 2
Secessionist States
Alabama District 6 Decrease 1
Arkansas District 3 Increase 1
Florida At-large 1 Steady
Georgia District 7 Decrease 1
Louisiana District 5 Increase 1 Decrease 2
Mississippi District 5 Steady
North Carolina District 7 Decrease 1
South Carolina District 4 Decrease 2
Tennessee District 8 Decrease 2 Decrease 3
Texas District 4 Increase 2
Virginia District 11[Note 8] Decrease 2 Decrease 5
Total[Note 2] 184
58 Vacancies[Note 9]
Increase 3 87[Note 3]
47.3%
Decrease 23 72
39.1%
Increase 27 25
13.6%
Decrease 5
House seats
Republican
47.28%
Democratic
39.13%
Unionist
13.59%

California

Note: From statehood to 1866, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party Results Candidates
California at-large Timothy Phelps Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Cornelius Cole (Republican) 20%
William Higby (Republican) 19.9%
Thomas B. Shannon (Republican) 19.9%
John Bigler (Inndependent) 13.4%
John B. Weller (Inndependent) 13.4%
Ninian E. Whiteside (Democratic) 13.4%
California at-large Aaron A. Sargent Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
California at-large Frederick F. Low Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Ohio

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Re-elected
Ohio 7 Richard A. Harrison Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic loss.
Samuel S. Cox
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Samuel Shellabarger
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic loss.
Ohio 8 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Re-elected
Samuel T. Worcester
Redistricted from the 13th district
Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 11 Valentine B. Horton Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Carey A. Trimble
Redistricted from the 10th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 13 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • John O'Neill (Democratic) 56.8%
  • George B. Wright (Republican) 43.2%
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 15 Robert H. Nugen Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James R. Morris
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic 1860 Re-elected
William P. Cutler
Redistricted from the 16th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 16 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 New district New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 Albert G. Riddle Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 2 Independent Republicans, elected to PA-13 and PA-18.
  4. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists.
  5. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  6. ^ Changed from at-large.
  7. ^ New state.
  8. ^ Subsequently, 3 seats were transferred to the new state of West Virginia.
  9. ^ After 3 seats were reassigned from Virginia to West Virginia.

References

  1. ^ Voegeli (1963).
  2. ^ Nevins (1960), 6:318-22, quote on p. 322.
  3. ^ Tap (1993).
  4. ^ Dubin, p. 197.
  5. ^ Stat. 432
  6. ^ 12 Stat. 353
  7. ^ 12 Stat. 633
  8. ^ 13 Stat. 32
  9. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 150, 151. 

Bibliography

  • Carson, Jamie L. et al. "The Impact of National Tides and District-Level Effects on Electoral Outcomes: The U.S. Congressional Elections of 1862–63," American Journal of Political Science, October 2001, Vol. 45 Issue 4, pp 887–898 in JSTOR
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union: vol 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863 (1960)
  • Shankman, Arnold. "Francis W. Hughes and the 1862 Pennsylvania Election." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 1971 95(3): 383-393. ISSN 0031-4587
  • Tap, Bruce. "Race, Rhetoric, and Emancipation: the Election of 1862 in Illinois." Civil War History 1993 39(2): 101-125. ISSN 0009-8078
  • Voegeli, Jacque. "The Northwest and the Race Issue, 1861–1862," Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 50, No. 2 (September 1963), pp. 235–251 IN jstor
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701. 
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967. 
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)
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