United States Army Futures Command

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United States Army Futures Command
Active July 1, 2018–present
Country  United States
Branch  United States Army
Type Army Command
Garrison/HQ Austin, TX
Website armyfuturescommand.com
Commanders
Commanding General GEN John M. Murray

United States Army Futures Command (AFC)[1] is a United States Army command aimed at modernizing the Army.[2] It will be focused on six priorities:[Note 1] long-range precision fires,[3][4] next-generation combat vehicle,[5] future vertical lift platforms,[6] a mobile & expeditionary Army network, air & missile defense capabilities, and soldier lethality.[7] AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[8]

Futures command (AFC) was established in 2018 as a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and Army Materiel Command (AMC), the other Army commands (ACOMs).[9][10] The other ACOMs focus on their readiness to "Fight tonight" when called upon by the nation. In contrast, AFC is focused on readiness for future combat with near-peer competitors, who have updated their capabilities while the United States military has been fighting insurgents since 2001.[11][12] Full operational capability (FOC) for AFC is projected to be August/September 2019, a one-year period.[13]

Transition to full operational capability (FOC)

We're moving out and there's no turning back. We've shown the will to act over the last year, and now we have to show the will to follow through. —Under Secretary McCarthy[14][15]

In the view of Under Secretary McCarthy, there will be three elements in Futures Command:[16]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess needs and opportunities, given a threat.[16] Realizable future systems, with readily harvestable content, will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts. Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[17] (See #Value streams)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[18] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[18]

Secretary Esper emphasizes that the current administrative infrastructure for ARCIC and RDECOM remains in place at their existing locations.[19] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[20] needed to make a decision.[19]

You’ve got to remain open to change, you’ve got to remain flexible, you’ve [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command. —Secretary Esper[19]

Cross-functional teams (CFTs)

Modernization reform is the priority for AFC; in order to achieve readiness for the future, de-layering of current Army Commands was implemented by creating Cross-functional teams[21] for materiel and capabilities which the Army must now match for its future: " ... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray.[8] A Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID), for each CFT,[Note 1] is located at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation program executive office (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID).

Under Secretary McCarthy characterized a Cross-functional team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer, tester.[22] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it (for example, the US Army (August 2018) has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms.[23] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense).[24] (Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process. Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions (MDA) A, B, and C in an acquisition process.[25] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The role of the existing processes (in April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) is to be announced.[26]

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[27] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" — BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[28] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[28]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[29] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we’d like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy [30]

Partners

AFC is actively seeking partners outside the gates of a military reservation.[31] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us. — General Mike Murray, 24 August 2018"[13]:minute 6:07 Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[32] especially Capital Factory, with offices of DIUx and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[33] Gen. Murray will stand up an Army Applications Lab there to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the Soldiers, using AI as one acceleration technique; Murray will hire a Chief Technology Officer for AFC.[34]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[27] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[35][36] Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work,[35][37] however at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level.[38][39] (Joint planning and operations are also part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations[40][41] (MDO).[42] [43])

  • Long range precision fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[37]
  • Future Vertical Lift may possibly use the DoD modular open systems approach (MOSA), an integrated business and technical strategy.[44]

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[45][8] who has milestone decision authority (MDA)[18] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[26] In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[46] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community,[47] which includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[48][49][50][51] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, (.. This list is incomplete).[26][11][52] For example, the Network cross-functional team (CFT) and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications -- Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[53] in the near future.[54] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to CERDEC for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[55]

A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[15]:minute 41:50

AFC events

See the AFC events below

AFC branch locations

The following activities for Futures Command are at 22 locations,[56] including JMC and WSMR. As ATEC reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[10] the test support level from ATEC[57] is to be specified by the CFT, or PEO.[58] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army — Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[28] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[59] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[28] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." Secretary Esper[13]:minute 19:00

AFC activities include the Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID), and the associated Battle Lab, of each Center of Excellence (CoE) respectively. (See #Value streams.) Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test. JMC runs live developmental experiments to test the concepts or capabilities for analysis by AMSAA (out of AMC), or alternatively by the Fort Leavenworth Operations research activities (transferred from TRADOC). RDECOM includes the several Army Research Laboratory locations (ARLs), as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[60]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: TARDEC (Detroit Arsenal), AMRDEC (Redstone Arsenal), CERDEC, NSRDEC, and ARDEC (Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[61]

  1. AFC HQ, Austin TX
  2. AFSG Army Future Studies Group, 2530 Crystal Dr, Arlington, VA 22202
  3. ARCIC Army Capabilities Integration Center, Fort Eustis VA
  4. FT LVN Operations research, Fort Leavenworth KS houses Mission Command Battle Lab,[62] Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID),[63] TRADOC Analysis Center[64]
    • Synthetic Training Environment[65]
  5. CCOE Cyber CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[66] Fort Gordon GA
    • Mobile and Expeditionary Network[53]
  6. MCOE Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[67] Fort Benning GA
    • Next-Generation Combat Vehicle[68]
    • Soldier Lethality
  7. AVNCOE Aviation CoE - (its CDID),[69] Fort Rucker
    • Future Vertical Lift
  8. FCOE Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[70] Fort Sill OK
    • Long Range Precision Fires
    • Air and Missile Defense
  9. ICOE Intelligence CoE - (its CDID),[71] Fort Huachuca AZ
  10. MSCOE Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[72] Fort Leonard Wood MO
  11. SCOE Sustainment CoE - (its CDID),[73] Fort Lee VA
  12. JMC Joint Modernization Command,[33] Fort Bliss
  13. APG Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen MD, also houses HQ Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), and CERDEC
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
    • Long Range Precision Fires,[74]
  14. ARDEC Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, PEO AMMO, and the Cross Functional Team for Long Range Precision Fires
    • Long Range Precision Fires
  15. TARDEC Tank Automotive RDEC United States Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center, Detroit Arsenal (Warren, Michigan)
    • Next-Generation Combat Vehicle
  16. AMRDEC Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville AL
    • Air and Missile Defense
  17. NSRDEC Natick Soldier RDEC United States Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, General Greene Ave, Natick, MA 01760
  18. WSMR White Sands Missile Range NM, also houses ARL[75] and ATEC
  19. ARL-Adelphi Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi MD
  20. ARL-Orlando Army Research Laboratory, Orlando FL
  21. ARL West, Playa Vista[76] CA
  22. ARL-RTP Army Research Laboratory, Raleigh-Durham NC

Need for modernization reform

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[77] The Army has not fielded a new combat system in decades.[78][79]

Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[80] (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[13]:minute 11:00[81] Process changes are expected.[81] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[82] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[83]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[84] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[85] for the top 6 modernization priorities,[29] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[86] of 18 systems.[86] The Budget Control Act will restrict funds by 2020.[87][88]

Silos

Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn, and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[13]:minute 7:30 In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side-by-side with civilians in the tech hubs],[89] Milley noted in the 24 August 2018 press conference.[13]:minute 6:20 Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process.[13]:minute 18:20

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[90] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[91] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC)[47] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[92] AMRDEC,[93] CERDEC,[94] and TARDEC[95] respectively, as well as the three contracting functions for the three centers.[82] This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[96] [97] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[20] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today), rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC.

Relevance for modernization

The CFTs,[Note 1] as prioritized 1 through 6 by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), each have to consider constraints: a balance of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.

Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC),[58] originally developed for materiel sustainment, needs also to consider the other constraints, in order to remain relevant for AFC.[27] A cost efficient life cycle plan, and collaborations that formalize business relationships with contractors will be part of AFC's toolkit.[98] Reform will be a side-effect.[82] In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[16][47] There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[99] The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[100]

TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process, according to Vice Chief McConville.[101] AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[102]

The ASA(ALT), or Assistant Secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics, and technology is currently (2018) Dr. Bruce Jette. The ASA(ALT) is the civilian executive overseeing both the acquisition and the sustainment processes of the Department of the Army. The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC. The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command, and leads the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[103]

Congress has given the Army OTA (Other Transaction Authority),[104] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[103] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[103]

Besides the AFC Cross-Functional Teams, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[105][106] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[107] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[108] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).

RDECOM has taken Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[74] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[74] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LPRF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[109]

Progress toward FOC

Progress in the top six priorities:[Note 1]

  • Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF)[74]
    • The current Paladin (M109A6) cannon range is doubling (M109A7). [110] An operational test of components of Long Range Cannon is scheduled for 2020.[111] Long range cannon (LRC) is complementary to ERCA.[111]
    • The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is slated to replace ATACMS in 2023[74]
    • Investigations for Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA) in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells[74]
  • Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) portfolio:[112]
    • Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): in Limited User Tests[112]
    • A ground mobility vehicle competition, bids closing 26 October 2018[113]
    • Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF):[114][115] approved by joint requirements oversight council[112]
    • Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV): soliciting input, in requirements definition stage; 2 should fit in a C-17[112]
    • Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs): futures
    • Next Generation main battle tank: futures
  • Future Vertical Lift (FVL)
    • Competition by two teams to replace UH-60 with Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRRA), flight test data gathering in process on one prototype,[116] first flight for the other prototype may slip.[117]
    • The Future Attack and Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) is smaller than FLRRA. Army is making requests for proposals (RFPs). FARA RFPs are due in December 2018.[118] [119]
  • Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[120] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[121] Avoid overspecifying the requirements (in ITN[122] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document) to meet operational needs.[121]
    • Five Rapid Innovation Fund (RIF) awards have been granted to five vendors via the Network CFT and PEO C3T's request for white papers. That request, for a roll-on/roll-off kit that integrates all functions of mission command on the Army Network, was posted at the National Spectrum Consortium and FedBizOpps, and yielded awards within eight months.[123] Two more awards are forthcoming.
  • Air, Missile Defense: PEO RCO is accelerating LTAMDS experimentation by downselecting to two competitors with award by 2023[124]
    • IFPC Multi-mission launcher[125]
  • Soldier Lethality: Maj. Gen. Dave Bassett, PEO GCS 2016[126][127][128] Note: In 2018 MG Bassett became PEO C3T — Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical
    • Next-generation squad weapon: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[129]
    • ENVG-B enhanced night vision goggles, fielding expected in 2019[130]
    • STE CFT— Synthetic training environment, an augmented reality system to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[131]

Futures

Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer.[34] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[132]

AFC faces multiple futures, both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready for multiple near-term futures. In the top six priorities:

  • LPRF Long range precision fires
    • Hypersonic materiel development: the Strategic Long Range Cannon (SLRC), for a hypersonic projectile[133] (See Identification friend or foe (IFF))
    • Targeting with thousand-mile missiles,[134] “streamlining the sensor-shooter link at every echelon”—Col (Promotable) John Rafferty,[135] in Integrated fire[136]
  • NGCV Next generation combat vehicle
    • Much small and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[68] (See Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC)) for robotic vehicles[137]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment 18.1 in April 2018.
    • Create decisive lethality[138]
  • FVL
  • Mobile & Expeditionary Network / MDO Multi-domain operations
  • Air,Missile Defense
    • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS) award, including next software build[144]
  • Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[145][146]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera[147]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an OTA contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[148]

Headquarters (HQ) and commander

On July 13, 2018, U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper said its headquarters would be based in Austin, Texas.[149] AFC spreads across three locations totalling 75,000 square feet;[31] one of the locations in a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin,[150][151] on the 15th and 19th floors.[152] The UT Regents will not be charging rent to AFC until December 2019.[152] The command began initial operations on July 1, 2018.[153]

On July 16, 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for a fourth star and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[154][155] His appointment was confirmed August 20, 2018[156] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on August 24, 2018, in Austin, Texas.[31]

Value streams

The AFC commander, in a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, projects that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[8] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  • Futures and Concepts will be led by AFC deputy commander Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley,[35] who is seeking 4 value streams for reducing the time invested to define a relevant requirement:[81]
  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[157][89]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[64][62]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)
  • Combat Development, whose deputy commander is Lt. Gen. James Richardson,[86][158] is to lead the development of solutions for the identified concepts or capabilities.[159]
    • The Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID) of each Center of Excellence (CoE), works with its CFT[Note 1] and its research, development and engineering center (RDEC) to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.
    • The Battle Labs and TRADOC Analysis Center[64] prototype and analyze the concepts to test.
    • JMC is capable of providing live developmental experiments to test those concepts or capabilities, "scalable from company level to corps, amid tough, realistic multi-domain operations".[33][40][41]
  • Combat Systems will be led by Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski[160] (who also reports to the ASA(ALT))[18] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.
    • Gen. Robert Abrams has tasked III Corps with providing Soldier feedback for the Next Generation Combat Vehicles CFT, XVIII Corps for the Soldier feedback on the Soldier lethality CFT, the Network CFT, as well as the Synthetic training CFT, and I Corps for the Long Range Precision Fires CFT.[161]
    • Combat Systems refines, engineers, and produces the developed solutions from Combat Development.[159]
    • An analysis by AMSAA can then assess that concept or capability, as a promising system for a materiel development decision.[26]

Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Future Vertical Lift CFT Soldier feedback remain for discussion.[161] Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[13]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery)— Lead: Col (Promotable) John Rafferty ...PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle— Lead: BG Ross Coffman ...PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms— Lead: BG Wally Rugen ...PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ...PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— Lead: Kevin Coggins
    5. Air and missile defense— Lead: BG Randall McIntire, ...PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality— Lead: BG David M. Hodne ...PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment — Lead: MG Maria Gervais ...PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a '...'

References

  1. ^ Vergun, David A. (13 July 2018). "Austin to be U.S. Army Futures Command location, says Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  2. ^ Roper and Grassetti (1 October 2018) Seizing the High Ground – United States Army Futures Command
  3. ^ Capt. Steve Draheim and Maj. Paul Santamaria (22 June 2018) Long-range, short term
  4. ^ Ed Lopez (21 June 2018) Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO) Army modernization advances with early team collaboration
  5. ^ John Liang (August 27, 2018) Inside the Army highlights
  6. ^ New Army aircraft will be durable, lethal, unmanned for modern conflicts
  7. ^ Vergun, David A. (7 December 2017). "US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
    • Army Futures: Updates on the Army's modernization strategy
  8. ^ a b c d Matthew Cox (14 Sep 2018) Head of Army Futures Command Fields Tough Questions From Congress
  9. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  10. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
  11. ^ a b c Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (August 31, 2018) An interview with retired Gen. David McKiernan
  12. ^ Michael Hardy (Aug 24, 2018) Austin’s New Army Futures Command Marks ‘Biggest Reorganization of the Army Since 1973’
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
  14. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 9, 2018) After hitting milestones, Futures Command looks ahead to more
  15. ^ a b AUSA 2018 CMF #1: Army Futures Command Unifies Force Modernization DVIDS video of panelists Gen. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. Jette, and Trae Stephens
  16. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  17. ^ Neil Hollenbeck and Benjamin Jensen (December 6, 2017) Why the Army needs a Futures Command Enable a culture of experimentation, and develop concepts and technology together.
  18. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  19. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg (7 May 2018) Permanent Evolution: SecArmy Esper On Futures Command
  20. ^ a b JP-1 p.xxi has the definition of OPCON. Note that "command authority may not be delegated". p.xxii has the definition of ADCON: one application being coordinating authority.
    • see also C. Berry (3 May 2010) Understanding OPCON
  21. ^ Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  22. ^ Scott Maucione (14 Sep 2018) Army leaders ask for trust in lieu of metrics for Futures Command
  23. ^ In, for example Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery, China has flown a Mach 5.5 vehicle for 400 seconds, at 30 km altitude, demonstrating large-angle deviations from a ballistic trajectory, as well as recovery of the payload. See
    • 3 August 2018 China tests hypersonic aircraft Starry Sky-2 --Xingkong-2 (Starry-sky-2) first flight
    • China successfully tests first hypersonic aircraft that can .. Youtube clip XingKong-2 hypersonic aircraft (Starry Sky-2)
    • USSTRATCOM John Hyten statement 05:03, 8 August 2018 (UTC)
    • Lockheed Martin Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon (HCSW) Missile for US Air Force
    Current test targets, such as Zombie Pathfinder are not hypersonic. Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.
  24. ^ Sydney Freeberg (22 August 2018) Why Hypersonics Are No. 1
  25. ^ Acquisition process: Materiel development decision (MDD)
  26. ^ a b c d Richard Simonetti (23 April 2018) "US Army turns to new technologies"
  27. ^ a b c Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (August 31, 2018) Modernizing at the speed of relevance: An interview with Under Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy
  28. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 August 2018) Inside Army Futures Command: CFT Chiefs Take Charge
  29. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (29 August 2018) Army Futures Command: $100M, 500 Staff, & Access To Top Leaders
  30. ^ (22 April 2018) New Army Futures Command success hinges on relationship building
  31. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 15, 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  32. ^ Dan Lamothe (14 July 2018) Why the Army decided to put its new high-tech Futures Command in Texas
  33. ^ a b c Maj. Brett Lea,24th Press Camp Headquarters (5 Sep 2018) "Army establishes Futures Command; U.S. Army JMC at Fort Bliss is operational arm" Fort Bliss Bugle
  34. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (Sep 14, 2018) Army Futures Command to set up DIU-like innovation lab
  35. ^ a b c (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  36. ^ Technology Review (19 December 2016) The Pentagon's Innovation Experiment
  37. ^ a b Long-range precision fires modernization a joint effort, Army tech leader says
  38. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (March 01, 2018) DoD Boosts Hypersonics 136 % In 2019: DARPA
  39. ^ Jason Cutshaw (September 19, 2018) Secretary of the Navy visits AMC, SMDC memorandum of agreement in June to co-develop a hypersonic vehicle
  40. ^ a b Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (Nov-Dec 2017) Multi-Domain Battle: The Advent of Twenty-First Century War
  41. ^ a b US Army (Sep 4, 2018) U.S. Army Pacific Commander Gen. Robert Brown: State of the Pacific
  42. ^ APG News (June 13, 2018) News Briefs: The U.S. Army Modernization Strategy
  43. ^ [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuAE5eIcFdA Association of the U.S. Army (Sep 7, 2018) AUSA Aviation Hot Topic 2018 - PANEL 1 - Multi Domain Maneuver]
  44. ^ DoD Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA)
  45. ^ Ms. Karen Diane Kurtz (ASA (ALT)) and Steven Y. Lusher (JPEO CBRND PAO) (October 8, 2018) ASA(ALT) Participates in U.S. Army Futures Command Panel at AUSA
  46. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
  47. ^ a b c Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) ASA(ALT)— Org Chart as of 09/18/18
  48. ^ Mr. Craig A. Spisak, Director, Acquisition Career Management (October 3, 2018) A vigorous talent management strategy keeps the acquisition workforce prepared for threats
  49. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
  50. ^ (1 Aug 2018) Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List
  51. ^ (29 Apr 2015) Army Acquisition Corps Recognized
  52. ^ Matthew Cox (28 April 2018) How Future Combat Systems Failed
  53. ^ a b David Vergun (29 March 2018) Army network modernization efforts spearheaded by new Cross-Functional Teams. The Army conducts a network demonstration at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army is pursuing network modernization through Cross-Functional Teams.
  54. ^ (27 June 2018) U.S. Army to host tactical Cloud computing industry forum
  55. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 3, 2018) Army leveraging industry ideas to modernize network
  56. ^ Futures Command locations
  57. ^ For example,
    • Request for ATEC Acquisition Support Form
    • or Rapid evaluation of a capability
    • or Private industry test
  58. ^ a b (January 2011) Implementing Acquisition Reform: The Decker-Wagner Army Acquisition Review
  59. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 25, 2017) Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators? Fixing the 'up or out' culture, which favors generalists
  60. ^ Army General order G.O.2018-10
  61. ^ Ms. Jacqueline M. Hames, USAASC (October 10, 2018) Get that moving truck ready
  62. ^ a b Mission Command Battle Lab
  63. ^ Mission Command Center Of Excellence (MC-CoE CDID)
  64. ^ a b c TRADOC Analysis Center, Fort Leavenworth
  65. ^ Maj. Gen. Maria R. Gervais (August 31, 2018) The Synthetic Training Environment revolutionizes sustainment training
  66. ^ Cyber CoE - (its CDID)
  67. ^ Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  68. ^ a b Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (September 17, 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  69. ^ Aviation CoE - (its CDID)
  70. ^ Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  71. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
  72. ^ Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  73. ^ Sustainment CoE CDID not found
  74. ^ a b c d e f Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, RDECOM (September 25, 2018) RDECOM's road map to modernizing the Army: Long-range precision fires
  75. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
  76. ^ (15 April 2016) US Army Research Lab Opens at USC ICT in Playa Vista
  77. ^ Dan Lamothe Washington Post (2018-07-12) Army to unveil details about new Futures Command in biggest reorganization in 45 years
  78. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn’t the Army’s regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
  79. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard Army.mil (6 September 2018) Safer, smarter, faster: An interview with Gen. James McConville
  80. ^ US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  81. ^ a b c Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  82. ^ a b c GAO report (Jun 2017) ARMY CONTRACTING Leadership Lacks Information Needed to Evaluate and Improve Operations
  83. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  84. ^ Hannah Wiley (April 6, 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  85. ^ Jen Judson  (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What’s behind the request?
  86. ^ a b c David Vergun (September 5, 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  87. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 28, 2018)CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade — modernization, Futures Command
  88. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  89. ^ a b Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  90. ^ DoDI 5000.02: Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Compliance Baseline (Pre‐Tailoring)
  91. ^ DoD org chart
  92. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  93. ^ (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days
  94. ^ (December 23, 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  95. ^ (June 2016) U.S. ARMY TACOM LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND (TACOM)
  96. ^ Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  97. ^ Ed Worley (October 1, 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  98. ^ Monica Jackson (August 31, 2018) Ryan McCarthy: Army Futures Command to Help Military Keep Up With Technological Advancements
  99. ^ Jen Judson (March 26 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  100. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  101. ^ Lauren C. Williams (Aug 21, 2018) PEO structure survives Army Futures reorg, for now
  102. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) ‘A Little Bit Disruptive’: Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  103. ^ a b c Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (September 19, 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
  104. ^ AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  105. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in Jan 2019
  106. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (September 8, 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  107. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (August 27, 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  108. ^ Devon L. Suits (September 19, 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  109. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin (October 17, 2018) RDECOM at the forefront of creating a more modern, lethal Army
  110. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (September 13, 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  111. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (September 20, 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  112. ^ a b c d Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (September 17, 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  113. ^ Jen Judson   (9 October 2018) US Army triggers start of possible ground mobility vehicle competition after long delay
  114. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Decision coming soon on who will build prototypes for a new Army light tank
  115. ^ Youtube: MPF
  116. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) Road to Future Vertical Lift: Defiant preps for first flight, Valor leaves the nest V280 vertical climb record
  117. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (October 02, 2018) SB>1 vs V280
  118. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/11/2018) Army Sees Progress with Future Vertical Lift Projects
  119. ^ Jen Judson (10 October 2018) Can the Army pull off buying two new helicopters back to back?
  120. ^ PEO C3T May 30, 2018
  121. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (October 3, 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  122. ^ Jared Serbu (August 24, 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  123. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (October 17, 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  124. ^ Jen Judson (8 Oct 2018) What’s the rush? US Army races to get missile defense radar early
  125. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  126. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (Oct 12, 2016) US Army Ground Combat Systems Chief on Armored Vehicle Programs
  127. ^ (11 Oct 2017) US Army's Bassett on Trophy Active Protection Decision, AMPV, Future Vehicle Tech
  128. ^ Marty Beckerman (October 17, 2018) A serious participation Trophy
  129. ^ David Vergun (October 8, 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  130. ^ Purtiman (September 21, 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  131. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 22, 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
    • Synthetic Training Environment (STE) White Paper Combined Arms Center - Training (CAC-T)
    • Lt. Col. Damon "DJ" Durall, Synthetic Training Environment Cross-Functional Team (September 26, 2018) Synthetic Training Environment and the digital revolution in the Army
  132. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (October 08, 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  133. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  134. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (September 11, 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles
  135. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (11 Sep 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles
  136. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  137. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  138. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army’s future tank may not be a tank 
  139. ^ NPR on the GAO report: Bill Chappell NPR (October 9, 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  140. ^ GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  141. ^ David Vergun (September 24, 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
  142. ^ ARL Public Affairs (September 6, 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  143. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (September 10, 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  144. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 01, 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  145. ^ Claire Heininger (August 9, 2018) Army, Air Force team on sensor to shooter prototype for multi-domain battle
  146. ^ Mark Pomerleau   (April 11 2018) In the move to multi-domain operations, what gets lost?
  147. ^ ARL (September 24, 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  148. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (October 15, 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  149. ^ "Army Futures Command: U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper announces that Austin has been chosen as the location for the new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  150. ^ (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  151. ^ Stripes.com: Army’s new Futures Command to set up headquarters at University of Texas
  152. ^ a b Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army’s Futures Command free use of space temporarily
  153. ^ "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  154. ^ "PN2622 — Lt. Gen. John M. Murray — Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  155. ^ McBride, Courtney (24 May 2018). "General selected to lead Army Futures Command". Inside Defense. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  156. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  157. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.
  158. ^ General Officer Assignments (29 Jan 2016)
  159. ^ a b Ft Meade Soundoff! (July 19, 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  160. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  161. ^ a b Myers (March 27 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command’s priorities

External links

AFC Events: 8th-10th October 2018 at AUSA: CFTs are in Warrior's Corner, Booth 7727

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