United Kingdom general election, 1935

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United Kingdom general election, 1935
United Kingdom
← 1931 14 November 1935 1945 →

All 615 seats to the House of Commons
308 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 71.1% (Decrease5.3%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233.jpg Attlee with GeorgeVI HU 59486 (cropped).jpg Sir John Simon 1-3-16.jpg
Leader Stanley Baldwin Clement Attlee John Simon
Party Conservative Labour Liberal National
Leader since 23 May 1923 25 October 1935 5 October 1931
Leader's seat Bewdley Limehouse Spen Valley
Last election 473 seats, 55% 52 seats, 30.8% 35 seats, 3.7%
Seats won 386 154 33
Seat change Decrease 83 Increase 102 Decrease 2
Popular vote 10,025,083 7,984,988 784,608
Percentage 47.8% 38.0% 3.7%
Swing Decrease 7.2% Increase 7.4% Steady

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Gws samuel 01.jpg Ramsay MacDonald ggbain 35734.jpg James Maxton.jpg
Leader Herbert Samuel Ramsay MacDonald James Maxton
Party Liberal National Labour Ind. Labour Party
Leader since 1931 24 August 1931 1934
Leader's seat Darwen (defeated) Seaham (defeated) Glasgow Bridgeton
Last election 33 seats, 6.5% 13 seats, 1.5% 3 seats, 1.2%
Seats won 21 8 4
Seat change Decrease 12 Decrease 5 Increase 1
Popular vote 1,414,010 321,028 136,208
Percentage 6.7% 1.5% 0.7%
Swing Increase 0.2% Steady Decrease 0.5%

UK General Election, 1935.png
Colours denote the winning party, as shown in the main table of results.

Prime Minister before election

Stanley Baldwin
National

Subsequent Prime Minister

Stanley Baldwin
National

The United Kingdom general election held on Thursday, 14 November 1935 resulted in a large, albeit reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party. The greatest number of members, as before, were Conservatives, while the National Liberal vote held steady. The National Labour vote collapsed, and even the party leader Ramsay MacDonald lost his seat.

Labour, under what was then regarded internally as the caretaker leadership of Clement Attlee following the resignation of George Lansbury slightly over a month before the election, made large gains over their very poor showing at the 1931 general election, and registered their highest ever share of the vote up until this point. The Liberals continued their slow political collapse and lost further ground, with their leader Sir Herbert Samuel losing his own seat.

The Independent Labour Party stood entirely separately from Labour for the first time since 1895, having stood candidates unendorsed by Labour at the 1931 general election and having disaffiliated fully from Labour in 1932. The Scottish National Party contested their first general election, and the Communist Party gained the West Fife seat, their first in ten years.

The major election issues were the continuing unemployment problems and the role of the League of Nations, particularly as regarding the Empire of Japan.

No general elections were held during the Second World War until Allied victory was assured; hence the 1935 House sat until 1945. As a result, this Parliament would see two leadership changes. Neville Chamberlain took over from Baldwin as Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party in 1937. Chamberlain in turn resigned in 1940, when the office of Prime Minister passed to Winston Churchill, who linked the three main parties in the House of Commons in an all-party unity government for the duration of the Second World War.

Results

UK General Election 1935
Candidates Votes
Party Leader Standing Elected Gained Unseated Net  % of total  % No. Net %
National Government
  Conservative Stanley Baldwin 515 387 5 88 − 83 62.8 47.8 10,025,083 − 7.2
  Liberal National John Simon 44 33 5 7 − 2 5.4 3.7 784,608 0.0
  National Labour Ramsay MacDonald 20 8 1 6 − 5 1.3 1.5 321,028 0.0
  National N/A 4 1 1 4 − 3 0.5 0.3 53,189 − 0.2
National Government (total) Stanley Baldwin 583 429 12 105 -125 69.9 53.3 11,183,908 +5.5
Opposition
  Labour Clement Attlee 552 154 105 3 + 102 25.0 38.0 7,984,988 + 7.4
  Liberal Herbert Samuel 161 21 3 18 − 11 3.4 6.7 1,414,010 − 0.3
  Ind. Labour Party James Maxton 17 4 1 0 + 1 0.7 0.7 136,208 − 0.5
  Nationalist T. J. Campbell 2 2 0 0 0 0.3 0.2 50,747 − 0.1
  Independent Republican N/A 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 46,715 N/A
  Independent National N/A 2 2 0 0 0 0.3 0.2 33,527 N/A
  SNP Alexander MacEwen 8 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 29,517 0.0
  Independent Conservative N/A 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 29,475 N/A
  Communist Harry Pollitt 2 1 1 0 0 0.3 0.1 27,177 − 0.2
  Independent N/A 5 2 1 0 0 0.2 0.1 + 0.1
  Independent Labour N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 14,867 0.0
  Liverpool Protestant H. D. Longbottom 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 6,677 0.0
  Independent Progressive N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 6,421 N/A
  Social Credit John Hargrave 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 10,376 N/A
  Plaid Cymru Saunders Lewis 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 2,534 0.0
  Independent Liberal N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 2,525 0.0
  Agriculturalist N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,771 N/A
  Christian Socialist N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,480 N/A

Total votes cast: 20,991,488. Turnout 71.1%.[1] All parties shown. Conservatives include the Ulster and Scottish Unionists. Seats and votes won by the Independent Labour Party (ILP) are compared with seats and votes won by the official ILP candidates among the ILP candidates at the 1931 election who ran without national Labour Party endorsement.

Votes summary

Popular vote
National Government
53.3%
Conservative
47.8%
Labour
38%
Liberal
6.7%
Liberal National
3.7%
National Labour
1.5%
Independent Labour
0.7%
Others
1.3%
 

Seats summary

Parliamentary seats
National Government
69.9%
Conservative
62.8%
Labour
25%
Liberal National
5.4%
Liberal
3.4%
National Labour
1.3%
Independent Labour
0.7%
Others
1%
 

Seats changing hands between parties

  • All comparisons are with the 1931 election.
  • In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party. Such circumstances are marked with a *.
  • In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, and then retained in 1935. Such circumstances are marked with a †.
Gain Gained from Number Seats
Communist Conservative 1 Fife West
Independent Labour Conservative 1 Camlachie
Labour Liberal 11 Edinburgh East, South Shields, Durham, Bethnal Green North-East†, Lambeth North†, Whitechapel and St Georges, Middlesbrough East, Dewsbury, Colne Valley, Wrexham, Carmarthen
National Labour 6 Ilkeston, Seaham, Forest of Dean, Finsbury, Tottenham South, Bassetlaw
National Liberal 7 Western Isles, Dunfermline Burghs, Bishop Auckland, Consett, Shoreditch, Barnsley, Burnley
National Independent 2 Southwark Central, Burslem1
Conservative 79 Aberdeen North, Stirling and Falkirk, Clackmannan and Eastern Stirlingshire, Stirlingshire West, Kirkcaldy Burghs, Maryhill, Motherwell, Bothwell, Coatbridge, Springburn, Tradeston, Ayrshire South, Linlithgow, Whitehaven, Derbyshire North East, Chesterfield, Blaydon, Houghton-le-Spring, Jarrow, Barnard Castle, Sedgefield, East Ham S, Leyton West, Romford, Upton†, Bristol South, Hull Central, Hull East, Ashton-under-Lyne, Farnworth, Ardwick, Clayton, Gorton, Platting, Rochdale, Everton, West Toxteth, Newton, St Helens, Brigg, Battersea North, Camberwell North, Deptford, Hackney Central , Hackney South, Hammersmith North†, Islington South, Islington West, Rotherhithe, Southwark South East, Mile End, Willesden West, Edmonton, Tottenham North, Morpeth, Nottingham West, Cannock, Hanley, Kingswinford, Leek, Stoke, Wednesbury†, West Bromwich, Nuneaton, Shipley, Wakefield†, Sheffield Park, Rotherham†, Bradford Central, Keighley, Pontefract, Hillsborough, Attercliffe, Brightside, Penistone, Leeds South, Doncaster, Batley and Morley, Nelson and Colne
Labour gains: 105
Liberal Conservative 3 Cumberland North, Barnstaple, Berwick-upon-Tweed
National Labour Liberal 1 Leicester West
National Liberal Liberal 1 Walsall*
Conservative 2 Sunderland (one of two), Oldham (one of two)
National Liberal gains: 3
National Independent Conservative 1 Brecon and Radnor
Conservative Liberal 4 Orkney and Shetland, Banff, Bodmin, Darwen
National Liberal 1 Flintshire2
Conservative gains: 5

1sitting MP had defected to National Liberals

2sitting MP had defected to Liberals

Constituency Results

These are available on the Political Science Resources Elections Database, a link to which is given below.

Further reading

  • F. W. S. Craig, British Electoral Facts: 1832-1987
  • Fry, Geoffrey K. "A Reconsideration of the British General Election of 1935 and the Electoral Revolution of 1945," History (1991) 76#246 pp 43–55.
  • Stannage, Tom. Baldwin Thwarts the Opposition: The British General Election of 1935 (1980).

See also

References

  1. ^ Tetteh, Edmund. "Election Statistics: UK 1918-2007". 

External links

  • 1935 Conservative manifesto
  • 1935 Labour manifesto
  • 1935 Liberal manifesto
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