United Kingdom general election, 1885

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
United Kingdom general election, 1885
United Kingdom
← 1880 24 November–18 December 1885 1886 →

All 670 seats in the House of Commons
336 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Gladstone.jpg 3rd Marquess of Salisbury.jpg Charles Stewart Parnell - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader William Ewart Gladstone Lord Salisbury Charles Stewart Parnell
Party Liberal Conservative Irish Parliamentary
Leader since April 1880 April 1881 17 October 1882
Leader's seat Midlothian Marquess of Salisbury Cork City
Last election 352 seats, 54.7% 237 seats, 42.5% 63 seats, 2.8%
Seats won 319 247 86
Seat change Decrease 33 Increase 10 Increase 23
Popular vote 2,199,198 2,020,927 310,608
Percentage 47.4% 43.5% 6.9%
Swing Decrease 7.3% Increase 1.0% Increase 4.1%

United Kingdom general election 1885.svg
Colours denote the winning party.

Prime Minister before election

Lord Salisbury
Conservative

Subsequent Prime Minister

William Ewart Gladstone
Liberal

The 1885 United Kingdom general election was from 24 November to 18 December 1885. This was the first general election after an extension of the franchise and redistribution of seats. For the first time a majority of adult males could vote and most constituencies returned a single-member to Parliament. It saw the Liberals, led by William Ewart Gladstone, win the most seats, but not an overall majority. As the Irish Nationalists held the balance of power between them and the Conservatives, this exacerbated divisions within the Liberals over Irish Home Rule and led to a split and another general election the following year.

Results

UK General Election 1885
Candidates Votes
Party Standing Elected Gained Unseated Net  % of total  % Net %
  Liberal 575 319 Decrease 33 47.4 2,199,198 Decrease 7.3
  Conservative 597 247 Increase 10 43.5 2,020,927 Increase 1.0
  Irish Parliamentary 91 86 Increase 23 6.9 310,608 Increase 4.1
  Independent Liberal 35 11 11 0 Increase 11 1.3 55,652 N/A
  Independent Liberal and Crofters Party 6 4 4 0 Increase 4 0.4 16,551 N/A
  Independent Conservative 8 2 2 0 Increase 2 0.3 12,599 N/A
  Lib-Lab 4 1 1 0 Increase 1 0.2 8,232 N/A
  Independent 6 0 0 0 0 0.1 6,570 N/A
  Independent Nationalist 2 0 0 0 0 0.1 2,889 N/A
  Scottish Land Restoration 5 0 0 0 0 0.0 2,359 N/A
  Irish Loyalist 6 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,869 N/A
  Social Democratic Federation 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 657 N/A

Total votes cast: 4,638,235. All parties shown.

Voting summary

Popular vote
Liberal
  
47.41%
Conservative
  
43.57%
Irish Parliamentary
  
6.7%
Independent
  
2.03%
Others
  
0.29%

Regional Results

Largest party in each constituent country.
Results within London & Middlesex.

Great Britain

Party Candidates Unopposed Seats Seats change Votes  %  % Change
Liberal 558 14 319 2,169,976 51.8
Conservative 532 8 233 1,909,424 45.6
Other 60 0 16 103,880 2.5
Irish Parliamentary Party 2 0 1 3,489 0.1
Total 1,152 22 569 Steady 4,186,769 100
England
Party Candidates Unopposed Seats Seats change Votes  %  % Change
Liberal 452 4 238 1,809,665 51.4
Conservative 440 1 213 1,675,757 47.5
Other 26 0 4 40,990 1.0
Irish Parliamentary Party 2 0 1 3,489 0.1
Total 658 5 464 Steady 491,540 100
Scotland
The 1885 results in Scotland, where several Liberal/Crofting MPs, aligned with the Highland Land League, would dominate in the western Highlands.

As well as an increase of 12 seats due to the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, of particular note in Scotland was the splintering of the Liberal representation. Some 7 MPs were returned as Independent Liberals, with Edinburgh in particular seeing 3 of its 4 constituencies return Independent Liberals.

In the western Highlands the Crofters Party emerged as the dominant force, taking four constituencies. The Independent Liberal MP elected for the Wick Burghs also aligned with the group. The emergence of the group was owed to the Representation of the People Act 1884, which had reduced the property qualifications for voters; as a result many Crofters were able to vote for the first time in 1885.

Party Candidates Unopposed Seats Seats change Votes  %  % Change
Liberal 70 5 51 Decrease 01 238,627 53.3 Decrease 16.8
Conservative 55 0 08 Increase 02 151,137 34.3 Increase 04.4
Crofters 06 0 04 Increase 04 016,551 03.7 Increase 03.7
Others 26 0 07 Increase 07 040,573 09.1 Increase 09.1
Total 157 5 70 Increase 12 446,888 100% Steady
Wales
The Liberal party did particularly well in Wales, winning all but four seats.
Party Candidates Unopposed Seats Seats change Votes  %  % Change
Liberal 34 4 29 119,231 58.3
Conservative 29 0 4 79,690 38.9
Lib-Lab 1 0 1 3,859 1.9
Other 1 0 0 1,907 0.9
Total 65 4 34 Steady 204,687 100

Ireland

In Ireland the Irish Nationalist IPP nearly won every seat. The party even did well in Protestant Ulster, where it won 17 of the provinces 32 seats.
Party Candidates Unopposed Seats Seats change Votes  %  % Change
Irish Parliamentary Party 92 19 85 Increase24 307,119 67.8 Increase30.3
Conservative 70 2 16 Decrease7 111,503 24.8 Decrease15
Liberal 14 0 0 Decrease15 30,022 6.8 Decrease15.9
Other 10 0 0 2,822
Total 186 21 101 451,466 100

Universities

Party Candidates Unopposed Seats Seats change Votes  %  % Change
Conservative 8 7 8 2,840 53.7
Liberal 2 1 1 2,453 46.3
Total 10 8 9 Steady 5,293 100

Seats summary

Parliamentary seats
Liberal
  
47.61%
Conservative
  
36.87%
Irish Parliamentary
  
12.84%
Lib-Lab
  
0.15%
Independent
  
2.54%

See also

Further reading

  • Walker, Brian. "The 1885 and 1886 General Elections in Ireland," History Ireland 13#6 (2005), pp. 36–40 in JSTOR

References

  • F. W. S. Craig, British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987
  • Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results
  • United Kingdom election results — summary results 1885–1979
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_Kingdom_general_election,_1885&oldid=800173617"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_general_election,_1885
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "United Kingdom general election, 1885"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA