Unification Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Unification Chuch
Abbreviation UC
Classification New religious movement
Region Worldwide
Founder Sun Myung Moon
Seoul, South Korea
Unification Church
Hangul 통일교
Hanja 統一
Revised Romanization Tong-il Gyo
McCune–Reischauer T'ongil Kyo

The Unification Church (UC), also called the Unification movement and sometimes colloquially the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement that was founded by and is inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean spiritual leader, entrepreneur, activist, and peace advocate.[1][2][3][4][5] It is a spiritually-based and charismatically-led movement of legally independent organizations that include businesses, news media, projects in education and the arts, and political and social activism.[6]

Considering that Moon repeatedly proclaimed the "end of religion" and his desire to not have a "church", the term "Unification movement", rather than "Unification Church" is sometimes used to describe the theology, organizations, and individuals associated with him.[7][8][9][10][11]

In Moon's autobiography, he writes that his early followers:

"...hung out a sign that read 'Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.' We chose this name to signify that we belonged to no denomination, and we certainly had no plans to create a new one... 'Unification Church' became our commonly known name later, but it was given to us by others."[12]


Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification Church. This is derived from the name of the UC's founder Sun Myung Moon,[13] and was first used in 1974 by the American media.[14] Unification Church members have used the word Moonie, including Moon himself,[15] President of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim,[16] and Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea.[17] In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media.[18] Some journalistic authorities, including The New York Times and Reuters, now discourage its use in news reporting,[19] although the BBC continues its use.[20]


Origins in Korea

Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong when he was 16 years old on Easter morning of 1935 (April 17) and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished because of his crucifixion. After a period of prayer and consideration, Mun accepted the mission, later changing his name to Mun Son-myong (Sun Myung Moon).[21]

Moon's teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as Wonli Wonbon (원리 원본, "Original Text of the Divine Principle") in 1945. The earliest manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version, Wonli Hesol (원리 해설), or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in 1957. Finally, its most propagated text, the Exposition of the Divine Principle was published in 1966.

Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and in 1946 was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea. He was released from prison by the advance of United Nations forces during the Korean War, and moved south along with many other North Koreans. He built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Busan.[22]

Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity

Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Busan on May 1, 1954. It expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 centers throughout the nation.[22] The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and other nations in East Asia.[23][11]

In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, and California. It found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with Unification Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. .[24][25][26][27]

By 1971, the HSA-UWC in the US had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.[22] In the 1970s, American HSA-UWC members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for UC projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams".[28][29]

The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s.[30] Unification Church activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.[31]

Starting in the 1990s, the HSA-UWC expanded in Russia and other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon's wife made a radio broadcast to the nation from the State Kremlin Palace.[32] As of 1994, the HSA-UWC had about 5,000 members in Russia.[33] About 500 Russian students had been sent to USA to participate in 40-day workshops.[34]

Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC, where he spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the HSA-UWC held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido, South Korea.[35]

Starting in 1972, the HSA-UWC sponsored the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, a series of scientific conferences.[21][36] The first conference had 20 participants, while the largest conference in Seoul in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[37][38] Participants included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference)[39] and Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).[40]

In 1975 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations of the Unification Church with religious institutions. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach.[41][42][43][44][45] In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ.,[46] spent 10 months visiting church members in North America, Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of Unification Church beliefs.[47] In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the Unification Church with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be considered an apologist for the UC but a close look at its theology is important: "They raise some incredibly interesting issues."[48]

In 1984 Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie based on her seven-year study of Unification Church members in the United Kingdom and the United States.[49]Barker writes that she rejects the "brainwashing" theory as an explanation for conversion to the Unification Church, because, as she wrote, it explains neither the many people who attended a recruitment meeting and did not become members, nor the voluntary disaffiliation of members.[50] Irving Louis Horowitz, sociologist, and others have questioned the relationship between the Unification Church and scholars whom it paid to conduct research on its behalf.[51]

Starting in the 1980s Moon instructed HSA-UWC members to take part in a program called "Home Church" in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service.[52] In 1982, the first large scale Blessing ceremony held outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden in New York City with 2075 couples. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[53][54]

Political activism

In the 1970s and 1980s, Unification Church members became noted for their political activities, especially their support for United States president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal,[55] their support for anti-communism during the Cold War,[56][57] and their ownership of various news media outlets through News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, DC, and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America, which tend to support conservatism.[58]

These political activities were opposed by some leftists. In 1976, members of the Youth International Party staged a marijuana "smoke-in" in the middle of a UC sponsored rally in Washington DC.[59] In 1977 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, while investigating the Koreagate scandal found that the South Korean National Intelligence Service (KCIA) had worked with Unification Church members to gain political influence within the United States, with some working as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which undertook public diplomacy for the Republic of Korea.[60] The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Nixon.[61]

In 1980 Moon asked UC members to found CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York.[62][63] In August 1985, six years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme, "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." The conference was chaired by professors Morton Kaplan and Aleksandras Štromas.[64]

In 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[65] In 1991, he met with Kim Il Sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, and other topics.[66] In 1994, Moon was officially invited to the funeral of Kim Il Sung, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[67]

Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Ministry of Unification of South Korea.[68] FFWPU member Jaejung Lee had been once a Unification Minister of South Korea.[69] Another, Ek Nath Dhakal, is a member of the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly[70] and a first Minister for Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal.[71]

1990s and the 21st century

In 1991 Moon announced that UC members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to UC members.[22]

Family Federation for World Peace and Unification

On May 1, 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Unification Church), Moon declared that the era of the Unification Church had ended and inaugurated a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would include Unification Church members and members of other religious organizations working toward common goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different religions, nations, and races. The FFWPU co-sponsored Blessing ceremonies in which thousands of non–Unification Church married couples were given the marriage blessing previously given only to Unification Church members.[72][73]

In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington D.C to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[74]Louis Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[75] FFWPU leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan’s and Moon’s views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a "God-centered family".[76]

In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea, "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." An inauguration declaration stated the new party would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. A FFWPU official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.[77] Since 2003, the FFWPU-related Universal Peace Federation's Middle East Peace Initiative has been organizing group tours of Israel and Palestine to promote understanding, respect, and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.[78][79]

Founder's later years and death

In 2009, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로),[80] was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. The book became a bestseller in Korea and Japan.[81][82][83][84]

In 2010, Forbes reported that Moon and Han were living in South Korea while their children took more responsibility for the day-to-day leadership of the Unification Church and its affiliated organizations.[85]

In 2011 in Pyongyang, to mark the 20th anniversary of Sun Myung Moon's visit to North Korea, de jure President Kim Yong-nam hosted Hyung Jin Moon in the official residence.[86][87] The latter donated 600 tons of flour to North Korean children of North Pyongan Province, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon.[88][89] Also, after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, he donated $1.7 million to the Japanese Red Cross.[90][91]

On August 15, 2012, Moon was reported to be gravely ill and was put on a respirator at the intensive care unit of St. Mary's Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea in Seoul.[92] He died there on September 3, 2012.[93]

In 2012 Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize.[94] On the first anniversary of Moon's death, North Korean president Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family saying: "Kim Jong-un prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and reunification and world peace."[95]

Succession and legacy

Currently, the Unification Church is split into several groups,[96] all of which claim legitimacy and the spiritual authority of Moon, but diverge theologically and doctrinally.[97] The most prominent of these are the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[98] led by Moon’s widow Hak Ja Han, who following Moon’s death announced her distinct messianic status; and the Family Peace Association[99], founded by Moon's son, Hyun Jin Moon (Preston). Because of this the future of the Unification Church or Unification movement and its theological and institutional legacy is in turmoil.[100][101][102][103]

Hyun Jin Moon (Preston) was appointed vice-president of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification in 1998.[104] Although at the time he was commonly understood to be the successor to Sun Myung Moon, his leadership style and proposed reforms to dismantle the church structure and create a family-based peace movement were met with resistance and accusations of being unorthodox, eventually leading to his replacement in 2008 with his younger brother, Hyung Jin Moon (Sean).[105][106] In the United States, Sun Myung Moon's daughter In Jin Moon (Tatiana) also became president.[107][107] However, after Sun Myung Moon's death both Hyung Jin Sean Moon and In Jin Moon were removed from their positions within FFWPU by their mother Hak Ja Han.[108]

Hak Ja Han then took leadership over FFWPU.[109] Hak Ja Han instigated various ritual and theological changes that were met with protest within the movement, most notably the elevation of her status as a distinct messianic figure through the concept of the "Only Begotten Daughter"[110][111] and textual changes to the church's main textbook.[112][113][114] FFWPU members praise Hak Ja Han's leadership and often refer to her as the "co-messiah" and "True Parents", signifying that they believe she is the legitimate successor within the Unification movement who is united with her husband.[115] Most FFWPU activities have continued, although some unprofitable business projects have been reduced or discontinued.[116] Recent FFWPU activities have included building projects and a revival tour.[117][118]

Hyung Jin Sean Moon claims he is the rightful successor to Sun Myung Moon, referencing a coronation ceremony held in 2009.[119][120] He accuses Hak Ja Han for unjustly removing him his position as International President of FFWPU and calls her new theology and rituals heretical.[121][122] Hyung Jin Sean Moon founded a separate church, the World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church, also known simply as "Sanctuary Church", in Newfoundland, Pennsylvania. It gained national attention[123][124][125] in early 2018 for holding a marriage vows renewal ceremony that asked participants to bring their AR-15 rifles.[126] Hyung Jin Sean Moon has likened the AR-15's to the biblical "Rod of Iron".[127] His followers refer to him as the "Second King".[128]

Family Peace Association

In 2017 the elder son Hyun Jin Preston Moon founded the Family Peace Association as a separate entity, stating that it would carry on the trans-religious work his late father Sun Myung Moon sought to carry on with the establishment of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification.[129] The Family Peace Association maintains that it was established to carry on the original mission of the FFWPU to expand certain universal principles and values related to God-centered families to a broader, non-sectarian audience.[130]

See also


  1. ^ Introvigne, Massimo. "From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes". www.cesnur.org. CESNUR - Center for the Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  2. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (2000-10-15). The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion. Signature Books. ISBN 1560851457. 
  3. ^ Kim, Jongsuk (2017-11-25). Split of the Unification Movement (Advanced copy ed.). Cheunan City, S. Korea: SARANG Kim of AUNE. pp. 11–14. ISBN 979-11-959843-3-6. 
  4. ^ Matczak, Sebastian (1982). Unificationism: A New Philosophy and Worldview. New York, NY: New York Learned Publications. 
  5. ^ Prophets and Protons: New Religious Movements and Science in Late Twentieth-Century America, Benjamin E. Zeller, NYU Press, Mar 1, 2010, page 13
  6. ^ Swatos, Jr, William H. (February 1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, California.: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  7. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (May 2006). Cheon Seong Gyeong (First ed.). Sun-jo Hwang; HSA Publications. pp. 1011,1606. 
  8. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "The Proclamation of the Complete Testament Age -- View of the Principle of the Providential History of Salvation". tparents.org. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  9. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "Total Indemnity". www.unification.net. Damian Anderson. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  10. ^ Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  11. ^ a b Moon’s death marks end of an era, Eileen Barker, CNN, 2012-9-3
  12. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2010). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (May 2010 ed.). USA: The Washington Times Foundation. pp. 119–120. OCLC 751568991. 
  13. ^ Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 0-7914-2398-0. 
  14. ^ PacNews staff (February 17, 2006). "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews. Pacific Island News Agency Service. 
  15. ^ Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 0-8308-2381-6. 
  16. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7. 
  17. ^ Ofcom (February 20, 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin. www.ofcom.org.uk (54). Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  18. ^ Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2. 
  19. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; William G. Connolly (2002). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. Three Rivers Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8129-6389-2. 
  20. ^ Moonies' mass wedding held in South Korea, BBC News, 20 February 2016
  21. ^ a b excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  22. ^ a b c d Introvigne, 2000
  23. ^ Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  24. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations, Volume 5 of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98717-5, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180
  25. ^ Exploring New Religions, Issues in contemporary religion, George D. Chryssides, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6 page 1
  26. ^ Exploring the climate of doomArchived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine., Rich Lowry, 2009-12-19 'The phrase "doomsday cult" entered our collective vocabulary after John Lofland published his 1966 study, "Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith." Lofland wrote about the Unification Church.'
  27. ^ Conversion Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine., Unification Church Archived 2012-01-13 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary
  28. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. pages 12 – 16
  29. ^ Moon-struck, Time, October 15, 1973, "The core members—most in their 20s, many of them converts from other spiritual, psychological or political trips—display a dogged devotion that makes even Jehovah's Witnesses look like backsliders. They are enthusiastic capitalists who rise at dawn to hit the streets with wares to exchange for "donations": flowers, votive light candles, even peanuts. Last year, when Master Moon moved his international headquarters to Tarrytown, N.Y., members sold candles across the U.S. for seven weeks to meet the down payment of $300,000 on an $850,000 estate".
  30. ^ "Czechs, Now 'Naively' Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", New York Times, February 14, 1996
  31. ^ "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", New York Times, November 24, 1996
  32. ^ The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, May 28, 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by UC leaders, and introduced only a few days previously --are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses".
  33. ^ A Less Secular Approach, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
  34. ^ Schmemann, Serge (July 28, 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times. 
  35. ^ Lifestyle: Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. Books.google.kg. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  36. ^ Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 10 August 1976.
  37. ^ "ICUS". 
  38. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post. 17 September 1984
  39. ^ "Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference – News – The Harvard Crimson". 
  40. ^ Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Archived 2008-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. Princeton University Library
  41. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the UC.
    c. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of the UC), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of the UC) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  42. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, UC history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
  43. ^ Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
  44. ^ Where have all the Moonies gone? K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
  45. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  46. ^ Frederick E. Sontag dies at 84; Pomona College philosophy professor, Los Angeles Times, June 20, 2009
  47. ^ Who is this Pied Piper of Religion?, St. Petersburg Times, February 4, 1978
  48. ^ Moon: an objective look at his theology, Boca Raton News, 1977-11-25
  49. ^ Review, William Rusher, National Review, December 19, 1986.
  51. ^ Kent, Stephen; Theresa Krebs (1998). "Academic Compromise in the Social Scientific Study of Alternative Religions". Nova Religio. 2 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1525/nr.1998.2.1.44. 
  52. ^ Patrick Hickey Tahoe Boy: A journey back home John, Maryland, Seven Locks Press (May 15, 2009) ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0-9822293-6-1 pages 163-168
  53. ^ MARRIAGE BY THE NUMBERS; MOON PRESIDES AS 6,500 COUPLES WED IN S. KOREA Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
  54. ^ "6,000 Couples Are Married in Korea". The New York Times. October 31, 1988. 
  55. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. page 16
  56. ^ SFgate.com, San Francisco Chronicle September 3, 1983
  57. ^ "Revista Envío – How to Read the Reagan Administration: The Miskito Case". 
  58. ^ See
    • Washington 2002: The Other Paper Archived 2006-04-19 at the Wayback Machine.
    • Bardach, Ann Louise; David Wallis (2004). Moonstruck: The Rev. and His Newspaper. Nation Books. pp. 137–139, 150. ISBN 1-56025-581-1. 
    • Washington Times Moves to Reinvent Itself, Alex S. Jones, New York Times, January 27, 1992.
    • New business models for news are not that new, Nikki Usher, Knight Digital Media Center, 2008-12-17, "And the Washington Times' conservative stance pursues its agenda from the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church."
  59. ^ From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era, Stephen A. Kent, Syracuse University Press, 2001, page 168
  60. ^ Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right, Sara Diamond, 1989, Pluto Press, Page 58
  61. ^ Ex-aide of Moon Faces Citation for Contempt, Associated Press, Eugene Register-Guard, August 5, 1977
  62. ^ "Moon's 'Cause' Takes Aim At Communism in Americas." The Washington Post. August 28, 1983
  63. ^ Sun Myung Moon's Followers Recruit Christians to Assist in Battle Against Communism Christianity Today June 15, 1985
  64. ^ Projections about a post-Soviet world-twenty-five years later. // Goliath Business News
  65. ^ EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; New Flock for Moon Church: The Changing Soviet Student from The New York Times
  66. ^ At Time of Change for Rev. Moon Church, a Return to Tradition // The New York Times, 14 October 2009
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  68. ^ "자유게시판". Unikorea.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  69. ^ "mk ´ş˝ş ĹëŔĎąłŔ°˝ÉŔÇŔ§ °łĂÖ..łťłâ ĹëŔĎąłŔ° šćÇâ źłÁ¤". News.mk.co.kr. 2006-12-28. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  70. ^ Nepalese Constituent Assembly Archived 2012-03-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  71. ^ "News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual". Myrepublica.Com. 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  72. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, pages 47-52
  73. ^ Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat, Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post, November 24, 1997
  74. ^ Million Family March reaches out to all
  75. ^ Families Arrive in Washington For March Called by Farrakhan, New York Times, October 16, 2000
  76. ^ Clarkson, Frederick (October 9, 2000). "Million Moon March". Salon. Salon.com, Inc. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
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Annotated bibliography

External links

  • Quotations related to Unification Church at Wikiquote
  • Quotations related to Divine Principle at Wikiquote
  • Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (official international website, English language version)
  • Family Federation for World Peace and Unification USA (official website)
  • Biography of Sun Myung Moon
  • Unification Church Profile of the UC at religionfacts.com.
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