Typhoon Meranti

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Typhoon Meranti (Ferdie)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Meranti 2016-09-13 0510Z.jpg
Typhoon Meranti at peak intensity on September 13
Formed September 8, 2016
Dissipated September 17, 2016
(Extratropical after September 16)
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 220 km/h (140 mph)
1-minute sustained: 315 km/h (195 mph)
Lowest pressure 890 hPa (mbar); 26.28 inHg
Fatalities 47 total
Damage $4.8 billion (2016 USD)
Areas affected Philippines, Taiwan, China, South Korea
Part of the 2016 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Meranti, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ferdie, was one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record. Impacting the Batanes in the Philippines, Taiwan, as well as Fujian, China in September 2016, Meranti formed as a tropical depression on September 8 near the island of Guam. Tracking to the west northwest, Meranti gradually intensified until September 11, at which point it began a period of rapid intensification. Continuing to rapidly intensify, it became a super typhoon early on September 12, as it passed through the Luzon Strait, ultimately reaching its peak intensity on September 13 with 1-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph). Shortly afterwards, it passed directly over the island of Itbayat. Meranti passed to the south of Taiwan as a super typhoon, and began weakening steadily as a result of land interaction. By September 15, it struck China as a Category 2-equivalent typhoon, becoming the strongest typhoon on record to impact Fujian Province. Upon moving inland, rapid weakening ensued and Meranti became extratropical the next day, dissipating shortly afterwards after it passed to the south of the Korean Peninsula.

The island of Itbayat sustained a direct hit from the super typhoon near its peak intensity, severing communications from the island for several days. No fatalities were reported on the island from the island. The typhoon caused 244.8 million (US$5.13 million) in damage on the island. However, the most costly and direct impacts were felt in China, where 45 people were killed from floods. Total economic cost in China reached ¥31.78 billion (US$4.77 billion). In total, Meranti caused US$4.8 billion in damage and killed 47 people.

During its lifetime, Meranti broke or tied several meteorological records. With JTWC-estimated 1-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph), Meranti is tied with Typhoon Haiyan as the second-strongest tropical cyclone on record by wind speed. Additionally, in terms of 1-minute sustained winds, the storm's landfall on the island of Itbayat shortly after peak intensity ties it with Haiyan as the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone on record. The estimated pressure of 890 mbar (26 inHg) was also the lowest on record in the Western Pacific since Typhoon Megi in 2010.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On September 8, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 1] issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for an area of convection about 155 km (96 mi) west of Guam in the western Pacific Ocean. According to the agency, the circulation was rapidly consolidating alongside fragmented rainbands.[2] At 18:00 UTC that night, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)[nb 2] classified the system as a tropical depression.[4] On the next day, the JTWC classified it as Tropical Depression 16W. By that time, the nascent system was moving slowly west-northwestward through a region of low wind shear, steered by ridges to the north and southwest. Increasing but fragmented convection, or thunderstorms, was fueled by unusually warm water temperatures and outflow from the south.[5] At 06:00 UTC on September 10, the JMA upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Meranti,[6] which meandered over its own track while consolidating.[7]

Northerly wind shear shifted the deepest convection to the south of Meranti's circulation,[8] although rainbands and a central dense overcast continued to evolve as the wind shear decreased.[9] By early on September 11, the storm's movement was steady to the west-northwest, south of the ridge.[10] At 06:00 UTC that day, the JMA upgraded Meranti to typhoon status,[11] and shortly thereafter the JTWC followed suit.[12] The storm's structure continued to improve, with increased outflow.[13] A small eye 9 km (5.6 mi) across developed within the spiraling thunderstorms, signaling that Meranti was rapidly intensifying.[14] At 06:00 UTC on September 12, the JTWC upgraded Meranti to a super typhoon, with 1-minute maximum sustained winds of 240 km/h (150 mph).[15] Six hours later, the JTWC estimated 1-minute sustained winds of 285 km/h (180 mph), equivalent to Category 5 on the Saffir–Simpson scale, while noting "an extremely favorable environment", and that the eye became even more symmetric within intense convection.[16] Outflow enhanced by a strong anticyclone over Meranti fueled the intensification,[17] and the typhoon peaked in intensity on September 13 while passing through the Luzon Strait.

The JMA estimated peak 10-minute sustained winds of 220 km/h (140 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 890 hPa (mbar; 26.28 inHg),[18] while the JTWC estimated peak 1-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph).[19] Based on the JMA pressure estimate, Meranti was among the most intense tropical cyclones. The JTWC wind estimate made Meranti the strongest tropical cyclone by wind speed worldwide in 2016, surpassing Cyclone Winston, which had winds of 285 km/h (180 mph) when it struck Fiji in February.[20] Late on September 13, the storm made landfall on the 83 km2 (32 sq mi) island of Itbayat in the Philippine province of Batanes shortly after attaining its peak intensity, with winds of 305 km/h (190 mph).[21][22] At around 03:05 CST on September 15 (19:05 UTC on September 14), Meranti slammed into the Xiang'an District, Xiamen in Fujian, China with measured 2-minute sustained winds of 173 km/h (108 mph),[23] making it the strongest typhoon to ever make landfall in China's Fujian Province.[24]

Impact

Philippines

The eye of Meranti passed directly over Itbayat at 17:35 UTC on September 13

Meranti struck the northernmost Philippine province of Batanes at peak strength, passing directly over the island of Itbayat; the island was left isolated after communications were lost during the storm on September 14.[25] From text messages received by family members, residents in Itbayat reported their stone homes to be swaying during the height of the typhoon.[26] Assessments as of September 17 indicated that 292 homes were destroyed and 932 were damaged across the Batanes. More than 10,000 people were affected by the storm, with many in dire need of water. A state of calamity was declared for the province on September 15. Total damage exceeded an approximate total of 244.8 million (US$5.13 million) as of September 21.[25]

Government relief efforts reached Itbayat on September 18, reporting no casualties on the island.[27] Vice-President Leni Robredo visited the island bringing aid and relief while being briefed of the situation.[28]

Taiwan

At least two people were killed in Taiwan.[29] Nearly 1 million households lost power and 720,000 lost water supplies.[30] Agricultural damage exceeded NT$850 million (US$27 million).[31] A small lighthouse in Taitung County collapsed and rough seas unmoored 10 vessels in Kaohsiung Harbor.[26]

Mainland China

Typhoon Meranti wrought extensive damage across Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. In Fujian, the storm killed 18 people and left 11 others missing. Typhoon-force winds and flash floods caused tremendous damage, leaving more than ¥31.78 billion (US$4.77 billion) in economic losses and killed 45 people across East China. The cities of Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou were left paralyzed in Meranti's wake.[32] Flash floods in Yongchun County destroyed an 871-year-old bridge that was classified as a protected heritage site.[26][33] Flooding in Zhejiang claimed at least ten lives and left four others missing. At least 902 homes collapsed and 1.5 million people in the province were affected.[32]

Retirement

During the 49th annual session from the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee during February 2017, the name Meranti was retired from the rotating lists of names. In March 2018, the Typhoon Committee finally chose Nyatoh as its replacement name.[34]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the western Pacific Ocean and other regions.[1]
  2. ^ The Japan Meteorological Agency is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[3]

References

  1. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2011). "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". United States Navy, United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
  2. ^ Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 8, 2016. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Latest Advisories on Current Tropical Cyclones Hurricanes Typhoons". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  4. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  5. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 16W (Sixteen) Warning NR 001 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 8, 2016. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  6. ^ "TS 1614 (Meranti) Upgraded from TD". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  7. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 16W (Sixteen) Warning NR 002 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 9, 2016. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  8. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 16W (Sixteen) Warning NR 004 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 9, 2016. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  9. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 009 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 10, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  10. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 010 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 11, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  11. ^ "TY 1614 (Meranti) Upgraded from TS". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  12. ^ Tropical Storm 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 011 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 11, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  13. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 012 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 11, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  14. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 014 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  15. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 015 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  16. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 016 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  17. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 16W (Meranti) Warning NR 017 (Report). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. September 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  18. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory". Japan Meteorological Agency. September 13, 2016. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  19. ^ Various. "Tropical Cyclone Advisories". Unisys Corporation. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  20. ^ Bob Hensen; Jeff Masters (September 13, 2016). "Taiwan, China Brace for Cat 5 Meranti; TS Ian Churns Through Open Atlantic". WeatherUnderground. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  21. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Winston's 180 mph Winds in Fiji: Southern Hemisphere's Strongest Storm on Record". Weather Underground. Retrieved 5 February 2018. 
  22. ^ Smith, Nicola (14 September 2016). "Typhoon Meranti: fears for tiny Philippine island in eye of a megastorm". The Guardian. Taipei. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  23. ^ "中央气象台15日3时20分发布台风登陆消息" (in Chinese). National Meteorological Center. September 14, 2016. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. 
  24. ^ "Typhoon Meranti lashes China after pounding Taiwan". Sechylles News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 
  25. ^ a b SitRep No. 07 re Preparedness Measures and Effects of Typhoon "Ferdie" (I.N. Meranti) (PDF) (Report). The Philippine National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. September 17, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c Eric Chaney and Sean Breslin (September 17, 2016). "At Least 15 Dead, 14 Missing After Typhoon Meranti Slams Taiwan, China". The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  27. ^ Tupaz, Voltaire (September 18, 2016). "Zero casualty: Government reaches isolated Batanes island". Rappler. Retrieved 18 September 2016. 
  28. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/816574/leni-visits-typhoon-damaged-batanes
  29. ^ "Death toll rises to 15 after typhoon batters China, Taiwan". CTVNews. September 17, 2016. 
  30. ^ Andrew V. Pestano (September 15, 2016). "Typhoon Meranti kills one, destroys historic bridge; thousands without power". United Press International. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  31. ^ Wendy Lee (September 19, 2016). "Agricultural losses from typhoon Meranti over NT$850 million". Taiwan News. Retrieved September 19, 2016. 
  32. ^ a b "China braces for another typhoon after 'Meranti' kills 28". Economic Times. September 17, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  33. ^ "Typhoon Meranti leaves 16 dead or missing in China, destroys ancient bridge". The Straits Times. Agence France-Presse. September 16, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  34. ^ "Replacement Names of HAIMA, SARIKA, NOCK-TEN and MERANTI in the Tropical Cyclone Name List" (PDF). ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. February 21, 2018. 

External links

  • JMA General Information of Typhoon Meranti (1614) from Digital Typhoon
  • JMA Best Track Data of Typhoon Meranti (1614) (in Japanese)
  • 16W.MERANTI from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
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