Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt

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Egypt
732 BC–720 BC
Capital Sais
Languages Egyptian language
Religion Ancient Egyptian Religion
Government Absolute monarchy
Pharaoh
 •  732-725 BC Tefnakht
 •  725-720 BC Bakenranef
Historical era Classical antiquity
 •  Conquests of Tefnakht 732 BC
 •  Deposition of Bakenranef 720 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIV, alternatively 24th Dynasty or Dynasty 24), is usually classified as the fourth Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period.

History

The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty was a short-lived group of pharaohs who had their capital at Sais in the western Nile Delta.

Tefnakht I

Tefnakht I formed an alliance of the Delta kinglets, with whose support he attempted to conquer Upper Egypt; his campaign attracted the attention of the Nubian king, Piye, who recorded his conquest and subjection of Tefnakhte of Sais and his peers in a well-known inscription. Tefnakht is always called the "Great Chief of the West" in Piye's Victory stela and in two stelas dating to the regnal years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V. It is uncertain if he ever adopted an official royal title. However, Olivier Perdu[1] has now argued that a certain Shepsesre Tefnakhte of Sais was not, in fact, Piye's famous nemesis. Perdu published a recently discovered donation stela which came from a private collection; the document is dated to Year 2 of Necho I of Sais and is similar in style, epigraphy and text with the donation stela of Shepsesre. However, Perdu's arguments are not accepted by most Egyptologists at present, who believe that the Year 8 Shepsesre Tefnakht Athens stela was most likely Tefnakht I. The later king Tefnakht II, if he existed, would have been a close predecessor of Necho I. Both Tefnakht II and Necho I ruled as local Saite kings during the Nubian era under Taharqa.

Bakenranef

Tefnakht I's successor, Bakenranef, definitely assumed the throne of Sais and took the royal name Wahkare. His authority was recognised in much of the Delta including Memphis where several Year 5 and Year 6 Serapeum stelas from his reign have been found. This Dynasty came to a sudden end when Shabaka, the second king of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, attacked Sais, captured Bakenrenef and burned him alive.

Pharaohs of the 24th Dynasty

Name of Pharaoh Image Reign Throne Name Comments
Tefnakht I Tefnakht Athens stela (T. Efthimiadis) det.jpg 732-725 BC Shepsesre
Bakenranef Apis Bakenranef 6 Mariette.jpg 725-720 BC Wahkare

Timeline of the 24th Dynasty

Bakenranef Tefnakht I

References

  1. ^ Olivier Perdu, "La Chefferie de Sébennytos de Piankhy à Psammétique Ier", Revue d'Égyptology 55 (2004), pp. 95-111.
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