Turquoise-fronted amazon

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Turquoise-fronted amazon
Turquoise-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva) older adult.JPG
Wild bird
in the Pantanal, Brazil
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
A. aestiva
Binomial name
Amazona aestiva

Psittacus aestivus Linnaeus, 1758

The turquoise-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), also called the turquoise-fronted parrot, the blue-fronted amazon and the blue-fronted parrot, is a South American species of amazon parrot and one of the most common amazon parrots kept in captivity as a pet or companion parrot. Its common name is derived from the distinctive turquoise marking on its head just above its beak.


The turquoise-fronted amazon is a mainly green parrot about 38 cm (15 in) long. They have blue feathers on the forehead above the beak and yellow on the face and crown. Distribution of blue and yellow varies greatly among individuals. Unlike most other Amazona parrots, its beak is mostly black. There is no overt sexual dimorphism to the human eye, but analysis of the feathers using spectrometry, a method which allows the plumage to be seen as it would be by a parrot's tetrachromatic vision, shows clear differences between the plumage of the sexes.[2] Juveniles of parrots are duller and have dark irises.[3]


The turquoise-fronted amazon was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae.[4] Its specific epithet is the feminine form of the Latin adjective aestivus, "of the summer".[5] Two subspecies are recognized:[6]

  • A. a. aestiva (nominate) is found in eastern Brazil.[7] The leading edge of the wing ("shoulder") is red.
  • A. a. xanthopteryx occurs from northern and eastern Bolivia through adjacent parts of Brazil, to Paraguay and northern Argentina. The "shoulder" is partly or wholly yellow.[7] Generally with more yellow to the head than nominate.[8]

The taxon xanthopteryx has been treated as a separate species,[9] but the two subspecies interbreed freely where they come into contact.

Additionally, there are significant individual variations in both facial pattern and amount of yellow/red to the "shoulder". In one extreme, individuals with essentially no yellow on the head and entirely green "shoulders" are known from north-western Argentina.[10]

Distribution and habitat

The range of the turquoise-fronted amazon extends over eastern and northern Bolivia, eastern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is found in forests (though generally avoids extensive humid forests such as the Amazon), woodland, savanna and palm groves.[8]

A small feral breeding population is also present in the greener regions of Stuttgart in Germany [11]. Although they have been observed in the wild in Puerto Rico, they are probably the result of escaped pets, and no reproduction has been recorded [12].


The turquoise-fronted amazon nests in tree cavities. The oval eggs are white and measure around 38 x 30 mm. There are usually three to five in a clutch. The female incubates the eggs for about 27 days and the chicks leave the nest about 60 days after hatching.[3]


The status of this species is evaluated as being of least concern by BirdLife International. However, while it remains common throughout a significant part of its range, there is evidence of a population decline, and this species has been heavily traded: Since 1981 when it was listed on CITES Appendix II, 413,505 wild-caught individuals have been recorded in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005). It is regarded as a crop pest in parts of its native range.

Paradoxically, illegal trade may have contributed to expansions of the range of this parrot: It is becoming common in Rio de Janeiro, which is not a part of its historical range, something attributed to escaped caged birds.[13]


The turquoise-fronted amazon is commonly seen as a pet, both in South America and other parts of the world.[7] Their talking ability varies greatly from individual to individual, but some speak nearly as well as the yellow-headed amazon group (yellow-naped, Panama, yellow-crowned, double yellow-headed. They seem to have a proclivity for singing. They require interaction but also can play with toys contently for several hours at a time. Pets require plenty of toys, perches, and climbing room. As with some other birds, under no circumstances are turquoise-fronted amazons to eat avocado. Some individuals, particularly males, can be aggressive in spring, the mating season.

An extremely rare red (or chocolate raspberry) mutation of the species appeared in captivity in 2004, bred by the psittaculturist Howard Voren. The mutation results in yellow plumage being replaced by that of a red/pink hue and greens with a chocolate-brown, with the depth and intensity of color varying by location upon the body.[14]



  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Amazona aestiva". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Santos, Susana (2006). "Sexual Dichromatism in the Blue-fronted Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva) Revealed by Multiple-angle Spectrometry". Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 20 (1): 8–14. doi:10.1647/1082-6742(2006)20[8:SDITBA]2.0.CO;2.
  3. ^ a b Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 230. ISBN 1-84309-164-X.
  4. ^ (in Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).
  5. ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
  6. ^ Forshaw, p. 557
  7. ^ a b c Forshaw, p. 558
  8. ^ a b Juniper, T., & M. Parr (1998). A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2
  9. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. Version (2008). A classification of the bird species of South America. Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 2008-10-09.
  10. ^ Areta, J. I. (2007). A green-shouldered variant of the Blue-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva from the Sierra de Santa Bárbara, north-west Argentina. Cotinga 27: 71–73.
  11. ^ as seem in the following photo
  12. ^ Falcón, Wilfredo; Tremblay, Raymond L. (2018). "From the cage to the wild: introductions of Psittaciformes to Puerto Rico". PeerJ. 6:e5669: 1–26. doi:10.7717/peerj.5669. PMID 30397538. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  13. ^ José Felipe Monteiro Pereira (2008). Aves e Pássaros Comuns do Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 68. Technical Books, Rio de Janeiro. 2008. ISBN 978-85-61368-00-5.
  14. ^ Voren, Howard. "Red Color Mutation of the Blue-fronted Amazon". Retrieved 20 May 2011.

Cited text

External links

  • Species profile - World Parrot Trust
  • Species factsheet - BirdLife International
  • Information - Animal-World
  • "Amazona aestiva". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  • Videos, photos and sounds - Internet Bird Collection
  • Recordings - xeno-canto
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