Turks in the Arab world

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A map of the Arab world. This is based on the standard territorial definition of the Arab world which comprises the states and territories of the Arab League.

The Turks in the Arab world refers to ethnic Turkish people who live in the Arab World. There is significant Turkish populations scattered throughout North Africa, the Levant, and the Arabian Peninsula. Most Turks in the Arab world are the descendants of Ottoman-Turkish settlers who arrived predominately from Anatolia during the four centuries of Ottoman rule; however, some Turks are the descendants of earlier migration waves (such as during the Mamluk and Seljuk eras), whilst others are recent economic migrants from the Republic of Turkey.

In North Africa, there is still a strong Turkish presence in the Maghreb, particularly in Algeria (see Turks in Algeria),[1][2][3] Libya (see Turks in Libya),[4] and Tunisia (see Turks in Tunisia).[1] These Turkish descendants mainly live in the coastal cities; in these regions, the terms "Turks" and "Kouloughlis" (Turkish: kuloğlu) have traditionally been used to distinguish between those of full and partial Turkish ancestry.[5][6] There is also a significant Turkish minority in Egypt (see Turks in Egypt).[7]

In the Levant, the Turks live across the region. In Iraq and Syria the Turkish minorities are commonly been referred to as "Turkmen", "Turkman" and "Turcoman"; historically, these terms have been used to designate Turkish speakers in Arab areas, or Sunni Muslims in Shitte areas.[8] The majority of Iraqi Turkmen and Syrian Turkmen are the descendants of Ottoman Turkish settlers.[9][10][11][12] and share close cultural and linguistic ties with Turkey, particularly the Anatolian region.[13][12] There is also Turkish minorities located in Jordan (Turks in Jordan) and Lebanon (Turks in Lebanon). The Lebanese Turks live mainly in the villages of Aydamun and Kouachra in the Akkar District, as well as in Baalbek, Beirut, and Tripoli.

In the Arabian Peninsula, there are Turkish minorities who have lived in the region since the Ottoman era. The Turks live predominately in Saudi Arabia (see Turks in Saudi Arabia) and Yemen (see Turks in Yemen).

Population of Turkish minorities

Country Current est. Turkish population Further information Lists of Turks
 Algeria 5%[14][15] to 25% of Algeria's population[15][16]
600,000 to 2 million[17][14]
up to 9.5 million (including partial Turkish origin)[15]
Turks in Algeria
 Egypt Up to 1/3 of Turkish ancestry[18]
25 million (including 150,000 in Arish)[18]
plus 100,000 Cretan Turks[19]
Turks in Egypt
 Iraq 3,000,000[20][21] Iraqi Turkmensa[›]
 Jordan 60,000[22]

plus Palestinian-Turkish refugees:
55,000 in Irbid[23]
5,000 near Amman[23]
5,000 in El-Sahne[23]
3,000 in El-Reyyan[23]
2,500 in El-Bakaa[23]
1,500 in El-Zerkaa[23]
1,500 in Sahab[23]
Turks in Jordan
 Kuwait
 Lebanon 80,000[24]
plus 125,000 to 150,000 Syrian Turkmen refugees[25]
Turks in Lebanon
 Libya 4.7% of Libya's population (1936 census)[26]
plus 100,000 Cretan Turks[19]
Turks in Libya
 Palestinian territories est. West Bank: 35,000 to 40,000[27]
total Palestinian-Turkish community: est.400,000 to 500,000[28]
Turks in Palestine
 Saudi Arabia 150,000[18] Turks in Saudi Arabia
 Syria estimates range from hundreds of thousands to 3.5 million[29] Syrian Turkmens
 Tunisia up to 25% of Tunisia's population[16]
estimates: 500,000[22]-2,000,000[30]
Turks in Tunisia
 United Arab Emirates 10,000[31] Turks in the United Arab Emirates
 Yemen 10,000 to 100,000[32] or more than 200,000[18] Turks in Yemen

See also

Notes

^ a: The Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of various waves of Turkic migration to Mesopotamia dating from the 7th century until Ottoman rule. Most of today's descendants of the 7th century migrants have been assimilated into the local Arab population.[9] Thus, the majority of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[33][34][35][9]

References

  1. ^ a b Current Notes on International Affairs, 25 (7-12), Department of Foreign Affairs (Australia), 1954, p. 613, In Algeria and Tunisia, however, the Arab and Berber elements have become thoroughly mixed, with an added strong Turkish admixture. 
  2. ^ Algeria: Post Report, Foreign Service Series 256, U.S. Department of State (9209), 1984, p. 1, Algeria's population, a mixture of Arab, Berber, and Turkish in origin, numbers nearly 21 million and is almost totally Moslem. 
  3. ^ Rajewski, Brian (1998), Africa, Volume 1: Cities of the World: A Compilation of Current Information on Cultural, Geographical, and Political Conditions in the Countries and Cities of Six Continents, Gale Research International, p. 10, ISBN 081037692X, Algeria's population, a mixture of Arab, Berber, and Turkish in origin, numbered approximately 29 million in 1995, and is almost totally Muslim. 
  4. ^ Malcolm, Peter; Losleben, Elizabeth (2004), Libya, Marshall Cavendish, p. 62, There are some Libyans who think of themselves as Turkish, or descendants of Turkish soldiers who settled in the area in the days of the Ottoman Empire. 
  5. ^ Miltoun, Francis (1985), The spell of Algeria and Tunisia, Darf Publishers, p. 129, ISBN 1850770603, Throughout North Africa, from Oran to Tunis, one encounters everywhere, in the town as in the country, the distinct traits which mark the seven races which make up the native population: the Moors, the Berbers, the Arabs, the Negreos, the Jews, the Turks and the Kouloughlis… descendants of Turks and Arab women. 
  6. ^ Ahmida, Ali Abdullatif (1994), The Making of Modern Libya: State Formation, Colonization, and Resistance (Print), Albany, N.Y: SUNY Press, p. 189, ISBN 0791417611, Cologhli or Kolughli. from Turkish Kolughlu, descendants of intermarriage between Turkish troops and local North African women 
  7. ^ Nkrumah, Gamal (2016). "Did the Turks sweeten Egypt's kitty?". Al-Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 30 October 2016. Today, the number of ethnic Turks in Egypt varies considerably, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to 1,500,000. Most have intermingled in Egyptian society and are almost indistinguishable from non-Turkish Egyptians, even though a considerable number of Egyptians of Turkish origin are bilingual. 
  8. ^ Peyrouse, Sebastien (2015), Turkmenistan: Strategies of Power, Dilemmas of Development, Routledge, p. 62, ISBN 0230115527 
  9. ^ a b c Taylor, Scott (2004), Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq, Esprit de Corps, p. 31, ISBN 1-895896-26-6, The largest number of Turkmen immigrants followed the army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent when he conquered all of Iraq in 1535. Throughout their reign, the Ottomans encouraged the settlement of immigrant Turkmen along the loosely formed boundary that divided Arab and Kurdish settlements in northern Iraq. 
  10. ^ Jawhar, Raber Tal'at (2010), "The Iraqi Turkmen Front", in Catusse, Myriam; Karam, Karam (eds.), Returning to Political Parties?, The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, pp. 313–328, ISBN 1-886604-75-4, There’s a strong conflict of opinions regarding the origins of Iraqi Turkmen, however, it is certain that they settled down during the Ottoman rule in the northwest of Mosul, whence they spread to eastern Baghdad. Once there, they became high ranked officers, experts, traders, and executives in residential agglomerations lined up along the vast, fertile plains, and mingled with Kurds, Assyrians, Arabs, and other confessions. With the creation of the new Iraqi state in 1921, Iraqi Turkmen managed to maintain their socioeconomic status. 
  11. ^ International Crisis Group (2008), Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?, Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008: International Crisis Group, Turkomans are descendents of Ottoman Empire-era soldiers, traders and civil servants... The 1957 census, Iraq’s last reliable count before the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958, put the country’s population at 6,300,000 and the Turkoman population at 567,000, about 9 per cent...Subsequent censuses, in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1997, are all considered highly problematic, due to suspicions of regime manipulation. 
  12. ^ a b The New York Times (2015). "Who Are the Turkmens of Syria?". In the context of Syria, though, the term ["Turkmen"] is used somewhat differently, to refer mainly to people of Turkish heritage whose families migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of the Ottoman period — and thus would be closer kin to the Turks of Turkey than to the Turkmens of Central Asia...Q. How many are there? A. No reliable figures are available, and estimates on the number of Turkmens in Syria and nearby countries vary widely, from the hundreds of thousands up to 3 million or more. 
  13. ^ BBC (June 18, 2004). "Who's who in Iraq: Turkmen". Retrieved 2011-11-23. The predominantly Muslim Turkmen are an ethnic group with close cultural and linguistic ties to Anatolia in Turkey. 
  14. ^ a b Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, p. 10, ISBN 1-902339-09-6, ...the Algerian population reached 34.8 million in January 2006...Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% of the population and live mainly in the big cities [accounting to 1.74 million] 
  15. ^ a b c Cezayir Türkleri: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun etkili mirası, Sputnik (news agency), 2015, Türklerin Cezayir nüfusundaki oranı yüzde 5 ile yüzde 25 arasında değişiyor. 2014 nüfus sayımlarında çıkan 38 milyon kişilik sonuç baz alındığında, 760 bin ile 9,5 milyon arasında bir Türk azınlıktan söz etmek mümkün. 760 bin rakamı, saf Türkleri işaret ediyorken, diğer kaynakların rakamı ise farklı halklarla ‘karışmış' Cezayir Türkleri'ne ait olabilir. Bunların yanında, özellikle İngiltere ve Fransa'da olmak üzere, Avrupa ülkelerinde de binlerce Cezayir Türkü bulunduğunu belirtmek gerekiyor. 
  16. ^ a b Hizmetli, Sabri (1953), "Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir'in Eğitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış" (PDF), Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, Ankara University, 32 (0): 10, Bunun açık belgelerinden birisi, aradan birbuçuk yüzyıllık sömürgecilik döneminin geçmiş olmasına rağmen, Cezayirli ve Tunusluların 25 %'nin Türk asıllı olduğunu övünerek söylemesi, sosyal ve kültürel hayatta Türk kültürünün varlığını hissettirmeye devam etmesi, halk dilinde binlerce Türkçe kelimenin yaşamasıdir. 
  17. ^ Turkish Embassy in Algeria (2008), Cezayir Ülke Raporu 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, p. 4, archived from the original on 13 July 2017, Bunun dışında, büyük bir bölümü Tlemcen şehri civarında bulunan ve Osmanlı döneminde buraya gelip yerleşen 600-700 bin Türk kökenli kişinin yaşadığı bilinmektedir. Fransız Büyükelçiliği, kendi kayıtlarına göre bu rakamın 2 milyon civarında olduğunu açıklamaktadır. 
  18. ^ a b c d Güzel, Hasan Celâl (2016). "Orta Doğuda Türk/Türkmen Varlığı" (PDF). Yeni Turkiye. p. 150. Bunların dışında, Suudî Arabistan’da 150 bin Türk nüfusu, Mısır’da 150 bin civarında Ariş Türkleri, Yemen’de en az 200 bin Türk, Ürdün’de çok sayıda Türk asıllı nüfus yaşamaktadır. Mısır nüfusunun üçte birinin, yani 25 milyon nüfusun Türk asıllı olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. 
  19. ^ a b Rippin, Andrew (2008). "World Islam: Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies". Routledge. ISBN 0415456533. 
  20. ^ Bassem, Wassim (2016). "Iraq's Turkmens call for independent province". Al-Monitor. Turkmens are a mix of Sunnis and Shiites and are the third-largest ethnicity in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds, numbering around 3 million out of the total population of about 34.7 million, according to 2013 data from the Iraqi Ministry of Planning. 
  21. ^ Triana, María (2017), Managing Diversity in Organizations: A Global Perspective, Taylor & Francis, p. 168, ISBN 1317423682, Turkmen, Iraqi citizens of Turkish origin, are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds, and they are said to number about 3 million of Iraq's 34.7 million citizens according to the Iraqi Ministry of Planning. 
  22. ^ a b Akar, Metin (1993), "Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler", Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7: 94–95, Günümüzde, Arap dünyasında hâlâ Türk asıllı aileler mevcuttur. Bunların nüfusu Irak'ta 2 milyon, Suriye'de 3.5 milyon, Mısır'da 1.5, Cezayir'de 1 milyon, Tunus'ta 500 bin, Suudî Arabistan'da 150 bin, Libya'da 50 bin, Ürdün'de 60 bin olmak üzere 8.760.000 civarındadır. Bu ailelerin varlığı da Arap lehçelerindeki Türkçe ödünçleşmeleri belki artırmış olabilir. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g El-Hatip, Alyaa (2014), "Filistin Türkmenlerinin Genel Durumu", Ortadoğu Türkmenlerİ Sempozyumu, ORSAM, p. 96 
  24. ^ Al-Akhbar. "Lebanese Turks Seek Political and Social Recognition". Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  25. ^ Ahmed, Yusra (2015), Syrian Turkmen refugees face double suffering in Lebanon, Zaman Al Wasl, retrieved 11 October 2016 
  26. ^ Pan, Chia-Lin (1949), "The Population of Libya", Population Studies, 3 (1): 100–125, doi:10.1080/00324728.1949.10416359 
  27. ^ El-Hatip, Alyaa (2014), "Filistin Türkmenlerinin Genel Durumu", Ortadoğu Türkmenlerİ Sempozyumu, ORSAM, p. 95, Batı Şaria Türkmenlerinin sayısı 35-40 bini bulmaktadır. 
  28. ^ Kardaş, Şaban (2014), "Takdim", Ortadoğu Türkmenlerİ Sempozyumu, ORSAM, p. 6, Filistin Türkmenlerinin sayısı hakkında sağlıklı bir bilgi bulunmamaktadır. Araplarla iç içe yaşadıkları için bu zor olmakla beraber bazı araştırmacılar şu anda 400-500 bin kişi arasında olduklarını tahmin etmektedir. 
  29. ^ BBC (2015). "Who are the Turkmen in Syria?". There are no reliable population figures, but they are estimated to number between about half a million and 3.5 million. 
  30. ^ Sertoglu, Sedat (1998), Haftaya Bakış, 7 (6), Bakış Basın Yayın Organizasyon, p. 35, Bugün Tunus'ta Türk kökenli 2 milyon insan yaşadığı bildirilmekte ve Dunlardan 60-70 yaşın üzerindekiler Türkçe bilmektedirler. .
  31. ^ Turks living in the UAE vote in presidential elections
  32. ^ "Yemen Raporu". Union of NGOs of The Islamic World. 2014. p. 26. Bu noktadan hareketle, bölgede yaklaşık 10 bin ila 100 bin arasında Türk asıllı vatandaş bulunduğu tahmin edilmektedir. 
  33. ^ International Crisis Group 2008, 16.
  34. ^ Library of Congress, Iraq: Other Minorities, Library of Congress Country Studies, retrieved 2011-11-24 
  35. ^ Jawhar 2010, 314.

Bibliography

  • Akar, Metin (1993), "Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler", Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7: 91–110 
  • Baedeker, Karl (2000), Egypt, Elibron, ISBN 1-4021-9705-5 
  • Doğanay, Hayati (1995), "Cumhuriyetin 70.Yılında Türk Dünyası'nın Siyasi Sınırları", Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 1 (1): 23–56 
  • Hizmetli, Sabri (1953), "Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir'in Eğitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış" (PDF), Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 32 (0): 1–12 
  • International Crisis Group (2008), Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?, Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008: International Crisis Group 
  • Jawhar, Raber Tal’at (2010), "The Iraqi Turkmen Front", in Catusse, Myriam; Karam, Karam (eds.), Returning to Political Parties?, The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, pp. 313–328, ISBN 1-886604-75-4  .
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays:Volume 94 of Social, economic, and political studies of the Middle East, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-13322-4 .
  • Kibaroğlu, Mustafa; Kibaroğlu, Ayșegül; Halman, Talât Sait (2009), Global security watch Turkey: A reference handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-34560-0 .
  • Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, ISBN 1-902339-09-6 .
  • Özkaya, Abdi Noyan (2007), "Suriye Kürtleri: Siyasi Etkisizlik ve Suriye Devleti'nin Politikaları" (PDF), Review of International Law and Politics, 2 (8), retrieved 2010-09-10 
  • Pan, Chia-Lin (1949), "The Population of Libya", Population Studies, 3 (1): 100–125, doi:10.1080/00324728.1949.10416359 
  • Park, Bill (2005), Turkey's policy towards northern Iraq: problems and perspectives, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-38297-1 .
  • Taylor, Scott (2004), Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq, Esprit de Corps Books, ISBN 1-895896-26-6 

External links

  • Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Labour and Social Security
  • Dış İlişkiler ve Yurtdışı İşçi Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü
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