Turkish Assyrians

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Assyrians/Syriacs in Turkey
Tur Abdin.svg
Map of Syriac settlements in their homeland, Tur Abdin
Total population
28,000–50,000 [1][2][3](likely more due to refugees from Syria and Iraq)
Regions with significant populations
Mainly Southeastern Anatolia Region
Languages
Turkish, Turoyo dialect of Neo-Aramaic
Religion
Majority Syriac Orthodox; minority Chaldean, Syriac Catholic, or Assyrian Pentecostal/Assyrian Evangelical
Related ethnic groups
Mhallami people

Assyrians/Syriacs in Turkey are an indigenous Semitic-speaking ethnic group and minority of Turkey (and also northern Iraq and northeast Syria) with a presence in the region dating to as far back as the 25th century BC, making them the oldest ethnic group in the nation. Some regions of what is now south eastern Turkey were an integral part of Mesopotamia from the 25th century BC to the 7th century AD, including its final capital, Harran.

They are Eastern Aramaic speaking Christians, with most being members of the Syriac Orthodox Church, Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Pentecostal Church, Assyrian Evangelical Church, or Ancient Church of the East.

The Syriacs were once a large ethnic minority in the Ottoman Empire, living in the Hakkari, Sirnak and Mardin provinces, but, following the Seyfo Genocide, most were murdered or forced to emigrate to join fellow Syriacs in northern Iraq, northeast Syria, and northwest Iran. Now, they live in small numbers in eastern Turkey and Istanbul.

Ottoman era

The Ottoman Empire had an elaborate system of administering the non-Muslim "People of the Book." That is, they made allowances for accepted monotheists with a scriptural tradition and distinguished them from people they defined as pagans. (Buddhists and Hindus as well as some African groups were the ones with which they came in contact.[citation needed]) As People of the Book (or dhimmi), Jews, Christians and Mandaeans (in some cases Zoroastrians) received second-class treatment but were tolerated.

In the Ottoman Empire, this religious status became systematized as the "millet" administrative pattern. Each religious minority answered to the government through its chief religious representative. The Christians that the Ottomans conquered gradually but definitively with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 were already divided into many ethnic groups and denominations, usually organized into a hierarchy of bishops headed by a patriarch.

As for the 5 Assyrian Tribes of Hakkari, The Shimun Patriarchate in Qodshanis, who the Tribes worshipped because it was the Assyrian Church of the Easts Holy See: was directly subservient to the Sublime Porte, who the See paid the taxes to which they collected from the tribes.[4]

The Syriac Orthodox Church under the Ottomans started out under the Armenian patriarchate but petitioned the Sublime Porte for separate status, mainly as western contacts allowed them a voice of their own.[citation needed] Thus the Syriac Orthodox received recognition as a separate community "millet" as did the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East. The last was the most remote of the Churches in distance from the Porte (in Istanbul).

Those who had converted to Protestantism did not want to pay an annual tribute to the older churches through local bishops who then passed some of it up to the Patriarch who then passed some of it to the Porte in the form of taxes. They wanted to deal directly with the Porte, across ethnic lines (even if through a Muslim administrator), in order to have their own voice and not be subjected to the rule of the Patriarchal system. This general Protestant charter was granted in 1850.[5])

Republic of Turkey

Süryani in ethnic map of Turkey.

Unlike other persecuted Christian groups like the Greeks and Armenians, The Assyrian community of Turkey managed to sustain its numbers after the Assyrian Genocide- but they had many hardships nevertheless. By the 1980s the Assyrian population of Turkey was at around 70,000 people,[6] although down from the 300,000 or so in total who survived after the genocide. The currently diminished number of 28,000 Assyrians today was caused largely due to Kurdish insurgencies in the 1980s and the bad state of most of the Middle East, along with the forever looming issue of Turkish governmental discrimination.[7] By the end of the conflict in the late 1990s, less than 1,000 Assyrians were still in Tur Abdin or Hakkari, with the rest living in Istanbul.

In 2001, the Turkish government invited Assyrians/Syriacs to return to Turkey,[8] but some speculate that the offer was more of a publicity stunt, as a land law passed a short time before caused Assyrians who owned untilled farms or land with forests on them (which a large amount did, as those in diaspora could not till or maintain the properties they owned while living elsewhere) to have the land they owned confiscated by the state and sold to third parties. Another law made it illegal for non Turkish nationals to purchase land in Mardin province, where most Assyrians would have immigrated to.[7] Regardless of those laws a few did come, such as those who still had their citizenship and could buy property and managed to avoid having their land taken – but many more who could have come back could not due to the laws passed.

Some Assyrians who have fled from ISIS have found temporary homes in the city of Midyat. A refugee center is located near Midyat, but due to there being a small Assyrian community in Midyat, many of the Assyrian refugees at the camp went to Midyat hoping for better conditions than what the refugee camp had. To their supine, many refugees were in fact given help and accommodations by the local Assyrian community there, perhaps wishing that the refugees stay, as the community in Midyat is in need of more members.[9]

Religion

The Assyrians are an ethnoreligious group divided into a variety of different Christian churches, and those churches vary dramatically in liturgy and structure, and even dictate identity (see Terms for Syriac Christians). The predominant Christian denomination among Assyrians in Turkey is the Syriac Orthodox Church, with their 15,000–20,000 followers being called Syriacs. The second largest denomination is the Chaldean Catholic Church in Turkey, which has around 7,000–8,000 members who live primarily in Diyarbakir, Mardin, Sirnak province and Istanbul. In fact, Diyarbakir was the city in which the Chaldean Catholic church was first founded when it split from the Assyrian Church of the East in 1552. Prior to the Assyrian Genocide there was also a large community of Nestorians, or followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, and Syriac Catholics. The Nestorians lived in the Hakkari mountains on the southeastern edge of Turkeys border, which is now part of the modern day Sirnak and Hakkari provinces. Additionally, The Patriarch of the Nestorian church had his See based in a village in that region known as Qodshanis after him and his followers settled there in the 1660s, making Turkey the center of their church structure. As for the Syriac Catholics, the Syriac Catholic Church had their see in Mardin during the 1800s after being driven out of Aleppo due to oppression by the Syriac Orthodox Church, and a large community lived in the Southeast in the Tur Abdin region up until being massacred and forced to flee during the Assyrian Genocide to Lebanon, where the See was reestablished. There is still a tiny Syriac Catholic community that lives in Mardin, but other than that most Syriac Catholics now live in Iraq, Syria, or Lebanon. Assyrian Protestant Churches exist in Turkey as well.

References

  1. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld - World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Turkey : Syriacs". Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  2. ^ "Turkey". Ethnologue.
  3. ^ "Turquie: situation générale". Axl.cefan.ulaval.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  4. ^ Nisan 2002, p.188: "The wild Christian tribes of Hakkari, whither no Government of any sort has ever extended, still pay tribute to their Patriarch for transmission to the Sultan; and not taxes through the tax collector."
  5. ^ John Joseph, Muslim–Christian Relations and Inter-Christian Rivalries in the Middle East: The Case of the Jacobites in an Age of Transition, State Univ of New York Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87395-600-1
  6. ^ "The Assyrians of Turkey are a remnant population of the formerly large Assyrian Jacobite faction. They number about 70,000 souls." http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/assyrians-in-iran#pt3
  7. ^ a b "Turkey's Duplicitous Game With Assyrians". www.aina.org. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  8. ^ Gusten, Susanne (April 4, 2012). "Hopes to Revive the Christian Area of Turkey". The New York Times.
  9. ^ "Middle Eastern Christians Flee Violence for Ancient Homeland". National Geographic. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2017.

See also

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