Tümen Zasagt Khan

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Tümen Jasagtu Khan
Khagan of the Mongols
Emperor of the Northern Yuan Dynasty
Reign 1558–1592
Predecessor Darayisung Gödeng Khan
Successor Buyan Sechen Khan
Born 1539
Died 1592 (aged 52–53)
Full name
House Borjigin
Dynasty Northern Yuan
Father Darayisung Gödeng Khan

Tümen Zasagt Khan (Mongolian: Түмэн засагт хаан, Tümen zasagt xaan) was a 16th-century Mongol Khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia who reigned from 1558[1] to 1592. He was the successor of Darayisung Gödeng Khan and had direct rule over the Chahar. It was during his rule that the Mongols conquered Daur and Evenks. Unlike his father, he succeeded in uniting the entire Mongol people, including the Western Mongols, with little bloodshed.

Tümen, who was born in 1539, was the first of three sons of Darayisung Gödeng Khan. By being recognized as Khagan, Altan validated his authority.[2] However, coordinating Altan Khan's actions, Tümen won over Uriyangkhai and Daur Mongols.[3] His relatives, Abtai Khan and Khutughtai Sechen Khung Taiji, brought a large portion of the Four Oirats back into the Mongol fold. In addition to his successful invasions of Ming China, Tümen conquered Koko Nur and appointed his son ruler there.

Tümen and other Mongol princes decided to adopt Tibetan Buddhism. In 1576, Tümen was converted by Ilduni Sanggiduktshi Garma Lama into Buddhism. He assembled the Six Tumens, and codified laws.[4] He made reforms on state laws and exempted the Mongol nobles from some taxes. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Yekhe Zasag of Genghis Khan. Thenceforwards he was called Jasagtu, who made peace with the Right Wing Tumens and gave their leaders official titles. He compelled the three Jurchen tribes such as Jurjis in Manchuria and Yekhe Tungusians, to pay tribute.[5]

Zasaghtu Khan died in 1592.

Tümen's Empire: Mongolia and its neighbors in 1580

See also


  1. ^ Our great Qing: the Mongols, Buddhism and the state in late imperial China By Johan Elverskog, p.68
  2. ^ Our great Qing: the Mongols, Buddhism and the state in late imperial China By Johan Elverskog, p.22
  3. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast By Ahmad Hasan Dani, Chahryar Adle, Irfan Habib, Karl M. Baipakov, p.213
  4. ^ H.H.Howorth, History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century: Part 1, p.378
  5. ^ Saghan Secen, $208
Tümen Zasagt Khan
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Darayisung Gödeng Khan
Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Succeeded by
Buyan Sechen Khan
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