Trichoglossus

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Trichoglossus
Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus moluccanus) on fence, Sydney.jpg
Rainbow lorikeet (T. moluccanus)
perching on a garden fence in Sydney, Australia
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Subfamily: Loriinae
Genus: Trichoglossus
Stephens, 1826

Trichoglossus is a genus of lorikeet in the Psittaculidae or true parrot superfamily. The genus is distributed widely through Australia, Wallacea and Melanesia, with outliers in the Philippines and Micronesia. Members of the genus are characterised by barring, sometimes prominently, on the upper breast.[1]

Taxonomy

The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek terms tricho- "hair", and glõssa "tongue".[2] There are uncertainties in the classification. The main uncertainty is the delineation of the species Trichoglossus haematodus, which has until now been broadly defined with many subspecies. However several are found in remote areas and have been little studied, with some arguing for their classification as separate species. Furthermore, the three species of the related genus Psitteuteles have been sometimes classified as members of Trichoglossus.

The genus contains several species and subspecies:[3][4]

Trichoglossus Stephens 1826

  • Trichoglossus ornatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (ornate lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus forsteni (Bonaparte, 1850) (sunset lorikeet)
    • T. f. djampeanus (Hartert, 1897) (Djampea lorikeet)
    • T. f. stresemanni (Meise, 1929) (Stresemann's lorikeet)
    • T. f. mitchellii (Gray,GR, 1859) (Mitchell's lorikeet)
    • T. f. forsteni (Bonaparte, 1850) (scarlet-breasted lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus weberi (Büttikofer, 1894) (leaf lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus capistratus (Bechstein, 1811) (marigold lorikeet)
    • T. c. fortis (Hartert, 1898) (Edward's lorikeet)
    • T. c. capistratus (Bechstein, 1811) (marigold lorikeet)
    • T. c. flavotectus (Hellmayr, 1914) (Wetar lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus haematodus (Linnaeus, 1771) (coconut lorikeet)
    • T. h. haematodus (Linnaeus, 1771) (green-naped lorikeet)
    • T. h. intermedius (Rothschild & Hartert, 1901) (blue-faced lorikeet)
    • T. h. nigrogularis (Gray,GR, 1858) (dark-throated lorikeet)
    • T. h. caeruleiceps (Albertis & Salvadori, 1879) (pale-headed lorikeet)
    • T. h. nesophilus (Neumann, 1929) (Ninigo Lorikeet)
    • T. h. flavicans (Cabanis & Reichenow, 1876) (olive-green lorikeet)
    • T. h. massena (Bonaparte, 1854) (Massena's lorikeet)
    • T. h. micropteryx (Stresemann, 1922) (southern green-naped lorikeet)
    • T. h. deplanchii (Verreaux,J & Des Murs, 1860) (Deplanche's lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus rosenbergii (Schlegel, 1871) (Biak lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus moluccanus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) (rainbow lorikeet)
    • T. m. septentrionalis (Robinson, 1900) (Northern Moluccan lorikeet)
    • T. m. moluccanus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) (Swainson's lorikeet)
    • T. m. eyrei (Mathews, 1912) (Lake Eyre lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus rubritorquis (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827) (red-collared lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus euteles (Temminck, 1835) (olive-headed lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus flavoviridis (Wallace, 1863) (citrine lorikeet)
    • T. f. meyeri (Walden, 1871) (Meyer's lorikeet)
    • T. f. flavoviridis (Wallace, 1863) (citrine lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus johnstoniae (Hartert, 1903) (Mindanao lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus rubiginosus (Bonaparte, 1850) (Pohnpei lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus (Kuhl, 1820) (scaly-breasted lorikeet)

Species details

Species of Trichoglossus in taxonomic sequence
Common and binomial names[3] Image Description Range
Ornate lorikeet
Trichoglossus ornatus
Trichoglossus ornatus -San Antonio Zoo-8d.jpg
25 cm (10.0 in) long. The head is dark blue on top and face below eyes and chin is red. Red at back of the head and yellow on sides of neck. Front of neck to chest has transverse bars of red and blue. Green abdomen with sparse variable yellow scalloping. Beak is orange-red, irises are dark orange, eye-ring is dark grey, and legs are grey.[5] Sulawesi and surrounding islands[6]
Rainbow lorikeet
Trichoglossus moluccanus
Trichoglossus haematodus -Tanganyika Wildlife Park-8a-4c.jpg
Some classifications list about 20 subspecies; although, several are sometimes listed as separate species (see below). The photograph (left) is T. h. haematodus. Australia, (Introduced to Hong Kong.)[7]
Olive-headed lorikeet
Trichoglossus euteles
Trichoglossus euteles -captive-8a-3c.jpg
24 cm (9.5 in) long. Mainly green with an olive coloured head which is demarcated by a green collar. Its beak is orange-red, its irises are red, and its legs are grey.[5] Lesser Sundas: Indonesia and Timor-Leste[8]
Citrine lorikeet
Trichoglossus flavoviridis
Trichoglossus flavoviridis -Loro Parque-6a-4c.jpg
20 cm (8.0 in) long. Mainly green with green and yellow scalloping on its front. Its head is yellow and brown.[5] Sulawesi, Sulu Islands[9]
Mindanao lorikeet
Trichoglossus johnstoniae
Mindanao Lorikeet (Trichoglossus johnstoniae)-3c.jpg
20 cm (8 in) long. Mainly green with yellow transverse striations on its front. Its face is red and there is a dark purple band around its head. There is extensive yellow areas on the lower surface of its wings. Its legs are greenish-grey. The beak is orange, the eye-ring is dark grey, the irises are red.[5] Mindanao (Philippines)[10]
Pohnpei lorikeet
Trichoglossus rubiginosus
Pohnpei Lorikeet-4c.jpg
24 cm long. It is mainly reddish-maroon with vague approximately transverse striations of darker maroon. The head a slightly darker maroon. The flight feathers and tail are olive-yellow. Its legs are grey. The male has an orange beak and yellow-orange irises, while the female has a yellow beak and light grey irises.[5] Pohnpei (Micronesia)[11]
Scaly-breasted lorikeet
Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus
Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus -Australia-8a-3c.jpg
23 cm (9.0 in) long. Mainly green with an all green head. Lowerparts are barred with short transverse yellow and green striations. Orange on lower surface of wings.[5] Eastern Australia[12]

Rainbow lorikeet species complex

The rainbow lorikeet has about 20 subspecies in some classifications; although, several of these are sometimes split off to form up to four additional species: The parentheses in the scientific names of the birds in the table are used to indicate that a taxon is sometimes considered to be a full species and sometimes listed as a subspecies of the rainbow lorikeet.

Subspecies of rainbow lorikeet that are sometime classified as separate species
Common and binomial names[3] Image Description Range
Sunset lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) forsteni
Trichoglossus haematodus -Newport Aquarium-8a-2c.jpg
Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the rainbow lorikeet The Indonesian island of Sumbawa, Tanahjampea and Kalaotoa
Leaf lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) weberi
Trichoglossus haematodus weberi -8-1c.jpg
Mostly green. Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the rainbow lorikeet Flores, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia[13]
Marigold lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) capistratus
Trichoglossus haematodus capistratus -Lion Country Safari-8-3c.jpg
Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the rainbow lorikeet Islands of Sumba, Wetar and Timor in south-east Asia
Red-collared lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) rubritorquis
Trichoglossus haematodus rubritorquis -Lion Country Safari-6-4c.jpg
Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the rainbow lorikeet Northern Australia, including north Kimberley and North West Queensland, but excluding Far North Queensland.[14]

References

  1. ^ Low, p.69.
  2. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  3. ^ a b c "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.020)". www.zoonomen.net. Retrieved 20 March 2009. 
  4. ^ "Avibase v. 05 (Jan, 2017)". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 15 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Forshaw (2006). plate 13.
  6. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus ornatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  7. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus moluccanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  8. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus euteles". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  9. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus flavoviridis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  10. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus johnstoniae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  11. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus rubiginosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  12. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2004.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  13. ^ Forshaw (2006). plate 15.
  14. ^ Forshaw (2006). plate 12.

Cited texts

External links

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