Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

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The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an event that took place during the formation of Islam. It was a pivotal treaty between the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, representing the state of Medina, and the Quraysh tribe of Mecca in March 628 (corresponding to Dhu al-Qi'dah, 6 AH). It helped to decrease tension between the two cities, affirmed a 10-year peace, and authorised Muhammad's followers to return the following year in a peaceful pilgrimage, later known as The First Pilgrimage.[1][2][3]

Attempted pilgrimage

Muhammad had a premonition that he entered Mecca and did tawaf around the Ka'bah. His companions in Madinah were delighted when he told them about it. They all revered Mecca and the Ka'bah and they yearned to do tawaf there. In 628, Muhammad and a group of 1,400 Muslims marched peacefully without arms towards Mecca, in an attempt to perform the Umrah (pilgrimage). They were dressed as pilgrims, and brought sacrificial animals, hoping that the Quraish would honour the Arabian custom of allowing pilgrims to enter the city. The Muslims had left Medina in a state of ihram, a premeditated spiritual and physical state which restricted their freedom of action and prohibited fighting. This, along with the paucity of arms carried, indicated that the pilgrimage was always intended to be peaceful.[4]

Muhammad and his followers camped outside of Mecca, and Muhammad met with Meccan emissaries who wished to prevent the pilgrims' entry into Mecca. After negotiations the two parties decided to resolve the matter through diplomacy rather than warfare, and a treaty was drawn up.[5]

Treaty

The treaty was written by Ali ibn Abi Talib.

Umar's opposition

After the treaty was signed, most of the pilgrims objected to Muhammad giving in on most points to the Quraysh, refusing to use the name of Allah and refusing to call himself the Messenger of God. One condition of the treaty was to return any Muslim who escaped Mecca back to the Quraysh. The handing over of Abu Jandal to the Quraysh led to Umar questioning Muhammad and asking him are you not the Messenger of God?.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12].[13] Umar later said that if a hundred men had supported him, he would have refuted the treaty.[14][15][16]

Significance

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was, and still is, very important in Islam. After the signing of the treaty, the Quraysh of Mecca no longer considered Muhammad to be a rebel or a fugitive from Mecca. They also recognized the Islamic state in Medina by signing the treaty. The treaty also allowed the Muslims who were still in Mecca to practice Islam publicly. Further, as there was no longer a constant struggle between the Muslims and the polytheists, many people saw Islam in a new light, which led to many more people accepting Islam. In addition, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah paved the way for many other tribes to make treaties with the Muslims. The treaty also serves as an example that Islam was not merely spread with the sword, as Muhammad had an army that could have attacked Mecca, but Muhammad chose to make a treaty instead of attacking.[17]

A verse of the Quran was revealed about the treaty, which translates to, "Verily we have granted thee a manifest victory" (Quran 48:1).

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2007). Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 175&ndash, 181. ISBN 978-0-06-115577-2.
  3. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2002). Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8129-6618-3.
  4. ^ Andrae; Menzel (1960) p. 156; See also: Watt (1964) p. 183
  5. ^ "The Event Of Hudaybiyyah". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  6. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. pp. 183–186.
  7. ^ Glubb, Sir John. The Great Arab Conquests.
  8. ^ Bodley, R.V.C. The Messenger - the Life of Mohammed.
  9. ^ al-Samawi, Muhammad al-Tijani. Then I was Guided.
  10. ^ "The Treaty of Hudaybiyah". Questions on Islam. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  11. ^ Ibn Hisham. ibid, Volume 3. p. 331.
  12. ^ ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. ibid, Volume 4. p. 330.
  13. ^ Muslim. Sahih, Volume 3. p. 1412.
  14. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 185.
  15. ^ Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Taurus Parke Paperbacks. p. 251.
  16. ^ Andre, Tor. Mohammed - the Man and his Faith.
  17. ^ "Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)". islamqa.info. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  • The Oxford History of Islam by John Esposito (Oxford U. Press, 1999)
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