Transport in Melbourne

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Map of Melbourne
Road map of the Melbourne metropolitan area by OpenStreetMap

Transport in Melbourne, Australia, includes the world's largest tram network; bus (323 routes) and coach service; a 16-line rail network, Australia's second-largest; a five-line regional rail network; interstate rail service, operated by NSW TrainLink and Great Southern Rail (the Overland); Australia's largest freeway network;[1] two airports, including Tullamarine (Australia's second-busiest); the Port of Melbourne, Australia's busiest for container and general cargo); taxi, hire-car and other small commercial-passenger vehicle services, and a public bike-hire system (since mid-2010).

According to the 2006 census, Melbourne has the second-highest rate of public transport usage among Australian capital cities (17.7 percent)—second to Sydney's 26.3 percent and ahead of Brisbane's 17.5 percent.[2] The 2009 share of public transport (measured in passenger kilometres) was about 11 percent, with private motor vehicles accounting for the remaining 89 percent.[3] Melbourne has the most road space per capita of any Australian city; its freeway network is comparable to Los Angeles and Atlanta,[4] and it is home to much of Australia's automotive industry (although Holden, Ford and Toyota were scheduled to pull out at the end of 2017,[5] 2013[6] and the end of 2017,[7] respectively). In 2002, the state government set an "aspirational goal" as part of Melbourne 2030 for modal share to decrease to 80 percent; however, the 2008 Eddington Report concluded that the modal share of private vehicles was likely to remain the same (or increase) to over 90 percent in 2005.[8] With public-transport growth[9] and a 2008 study of road congestion, VicRoads figures showed no increase in car travel on Melbourne's roads[10] (possibly because the roads had reached capacity).

History

  • 1837: The Hoddle Grid, Melbourne's first street system, is laid out.
  • 1844: Princes Bridge on St Kilda Road, a toll bridge and the first over the Yarra River, opens.
  • 1849: Melbourne's main streets are paved.
  • 1850: Tolls are removed from Princes Bridge.
  • 1854: Flinders Street railway station and the first rail line to Sandridge (Port Melbourne) open.
  • 1858: The Spencer Street station is built, connecting Melbourne to the rest of Victoria.
  • 1885: First cable tram to Hawthorn
  • 1889: First electric tram between Doncaster and Box Hill
  • 1890: Doncaster railway line first proposed.
  • 1912: Electrification of the suburban rail network
  • 1919: Present Flinders Street station opens as the main suburban railway terminus.
  • 1934: Flinders Street declared the world's busiest station.
  • 1940: The Ashworth Improvement Plan details proposed improvements to suburban rail in the inner city.
  • 1966: St Kilda Junction remodelled and Queens Way underpass created for new highways at Dandenong Road and Punt Road.
  • 1969: Melbourne Transportation Plan commissioned, including a recommendation for Western Ring Road.
  • 1970: The West Gate Bridge collapses, and the Melbourne Underground Rail Loop Authority is established.
  • 1971: The Melbourne Underground Rail Loop project begins.
  • 1977: First section of Eastern Freeway opens, with land reserved for a Doncaster railway line. The $202 million toll West Gate Bridge opens. Hoddle Highway is created from a four-lane widening of Hoddle Street and the demolition of buildings on the east side of Hoddle Street.
  • 1980: The Lonie Report recommends replacing half the tram system with buses, but is rejected.
  • 1981: First stage of the Melbourne Underground Rail Loop opens.
  • 1982: A transport bill is introduced in the Victorian Parliament.
  • 1983: Transport Act 1983 receives royal assent on 23 June and becomes effective on 1 July. The act creates the State Transport Authority, the Metropolitan Transit Authority, the Road Construction Authority and the Road Traffic Authority. Victorian Railways, the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board and the Country Roads Board are abolished.
  • 1985: Tolls removed from the West Gate Bridge.
  • 1989: Construction of the $631 million Western Ring Road begins. The Public Transport Corporation and VicRoads replace the State Transport Authority, Metropolitan Transit Authority, Road Construction Authority and Road Traffic Authority on 1 July.
  • 1992: A new government is elected in October under Premier Jeff Kennett. Alan Brown is appointed Minister for Public Transport and Bill Baxter Minister for Roads and Ports. The Ministry of Transport is replaced by the Department of Transport, and transport administration functions are transferred from the Public Transport Corporation to the secretary of the Department of Transport.
  • 1994: Free City Circle Tram begins.
  • 1995: The Dandenong to Cranbourne rail extension opens, and the Public Transport Competition Act is passed by Parliament.
  • 1996: Construction of the $2 billion CityLink tollway begins, and the Rail Corporations Act is passed by Parliament.
  • 1997: Design of the franchising of the public transport network begins.
  • 1998: Legislation establishes the Director of Public Transport to manage public transport service and VicTrack, to own public-transport land and assets.
  • 1999: The Western Ring Road and the Bolte Bridge, the second major road over the Yarra River, open. The state government commissions the Linking Victoria study.[11] The Director of Public Transport, VicTrack and the franchising of services begin.
  • 2002: Transport Minister Peter Batchelor announces that the airport rail link to Tullamarine would not viable for another 10 years, and commits to upgrading Skybus Super Shuttle service to the airport.[12] The state government commissions a Melbourne 2030 planning report, aimed at addressing population growth of up to a million new residents. With recommendations for transport, including the expansion of major activity centres (such as Dandenong and Camberwell) with access to public transport and tripling of the Dandenong line, the document aimed for 20% of trips in Melbourne to be made by public transport by 2020.
  • 2003: The $23 million Box Hill tram-light rail extension opens.[13]
  • 2004: The Linking Melbourne: Metropolitan Transport Plan summarised findings of the Inner West Integrated Transport Study, North East Integrated Transport Study, Outer Western Suburbs Transport Strategy, Whittlesea Strategic Transport Infrastructure Study and Northern Central City Corridor Strategy, recommending $1.5 billion in investment. The Southern Cross Station redevelopment (which ran late and over budget), Docklands light-rail extension and the Regional Fast Train system were planned for the Commonwealth Games. The $30.5 million Vermont South tram extension begins.[14]
  • 2005: The $2.5 billion EastLink Freeway project begins.
  • 2006: The state government releases Meeting our Transport Challenges, a $10 billion plan to improve public transport and roads. It includes a "Think Tram" project to reduce tram travel times and recommendations for a (delayed) SmartBus system for the eastern suburbs. The Rail Safety Act, Victoria's first rail-safety statute, becomes effective on 1 August. New transport-ticketing regulations begin. The state's first independent rail and bus safety regulator and rail, bus and marine safety investigator begin on 1 August.
  • 2007: Myki, a new public-transport ticketing system which was delayed and over budget, is scheduled to be introduced. The state government commissions an east-west transport plan. Public-transport ticketing zone 3 is abolished. An accreditation scheme for taxi, bus and other commercial passenger-vehicle drivers and for taxi-industry licence-holders, operators and network-service providers begins on 1 July. Australia's first "Copenhagen style" cycleways are implemented in Swanston Street, Carlton;[15] Tim Pallas rejects a Melbourne City Council plan for a Copenhagen-style cycleway on St Kilda Road.[16] The Accident Towing Services Act is passed by Parliament.
  • 2008: The Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project, a dredging project to deepen Melbourne's shipping channels, begins. The $18 billion Eddington Transport Report, aimed at reducing traffic congestion, focuses on East-West routes and includes a controversial 18-kilometre road tunnel and 17-kilometre rail tunnel and a new rail line from Werribee to Deer Park, Victoria but does not address greenhouse emissions.[17] The Eastlink freeway tunnel opens, and the Monash-CityLink-West Gate freeway upgrade begins. The Department of Transport replaces the Department of Infrastructure. The Australian Greens Victoria transport plan is released. Public Transport Minister Lynne Kosky postpones an airport link 20 years.[18] The Victorian Transport Plan, the state government's fourth "long-term" transport statement since 2002, is released.[19] New Melbourne Lord Mayor Robert Doyle proposes returning vehicle traffic to Swanston Street.
  • 2009: The Accident Towing Services Act mandates new standards for tow-truck operations (including licence holders and drivers) on 1 January. The Transport Integration Bill (later the Transport Integration Act) is introduced in the Victorian Parliament on 10 December. Myki is introduced in late December on suburban trains. The Major Transport Projects Facilitation Act 2009, speeding planning consents and delivery of rail, road and port projects, is passed by Parliament and begins on 1 September.
  • 2010: A Fair Fines package begins on 1 February as part of Transport (Infringements) Regulations 2010, with infringement penalties for minors reduced by two-thirds and a graduated-penalties programme eliminated. The Transport Integration Act is passed by the Victorian Parliament in February, and becomes law on 1 July. Melbourne Bike Share, a public bicycle-hire service, is planned for mid-year. The Transport Act 1983 is renamed the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983 on 1 July.[20] Public-transport and marine-safety regulators merge to create the Director, Transport Safety on 1 July after the merger of Director, Public Transport Safety (Public Transport Safety Victoria) and Director, Marine Safety (Marine Safety Victoria). The Victorian Regional Channels Authority and the Port of Hastings Corporation are merged with the Port of Melbourne Corporation on 1 September. The new state government, elected on 27 November under Premier Ted Baillieu with Terry Mulder as Minister for Public Transport and Minister for Roads, Denis Napthine as Minister for Ports and Edward O'Donoghue as Parliamentary Secretary for Transport, promises to create the Victorian Public Transport Development Authority to plan and manage public transport in Victoria and Melbourne. The Tourist and Heritage Railways Act and the Marine Safety Act 2010 are passed by the Victorian Parliament. The Bus Safety Act begins on 31 December.
  • 2011: Terry Mulder announces the government's intention in March to hold a Taxi Industry Inquiry, which begins in late May headed by Allan Fels. The Transport Legislation Amendment (Taxi Services Reform and Other Matters) Act 2011 passes the Victorian Parliament on 29 June, empowering the Taxi Industry Inquiry and creating the Taxi Services Commission (which begins operations on 19 July). The Transport Legislation Amendment (Port of Hastings Development Authority) Act 2011 passes the Victorian Parliament on 16 August, creating the Port of Hastings Development Authority. The Tourist and Heritage Railways Act and the Tourist and Heritage Railways Regulations 2011 become effective on 1 October. the Transport Legislation Amendment (Public Transport Development Authority) Act 2011 passes the Victorian Parliament on 27 October, empowering Public Transport Victoria (which begins operations on 15 December). The Port Management Amendment (Port of Melbourne Licence Fee) Bill 2011, introduced in the Victorian Parliament in early December, proposes a $75 million annual fee to be paid by the Port of Melbourne Corporation to the Victorian government.
  • 2012: The Port of Hastings Development Authority begins operations on 1 January, reversing the merger of the former Port of Hastings Corporation and the Port of Melbourne Corporation. The Public Transport Development Authority (now known as Public Transport Victoria) takes over train, tram and bus service in Victoria on 2 April, in accordance with the Transport Legislation Amendment (Public Transport Development Authority) Act 2011. The extension of the Epping railway line to South Morang is completed in April. The Port of Melbourne Corporation becomes liable on 1 July for a $75 million licence fee to the government, in accordance with the Port Management Amendment (Port of Melbourne Licence Fee) Act 2012. The Marine Safety Act 2010 begins on 1 July, setting new standards for commercial and recreational vessels; the Marine Act 1988 is repealed. Strict drug controls (for anyone in charge of a vessel) and zero blood-alcohol controls introduced for commercial vessel operators are introduced by the Transport Legislation Amendment (Drug and Alcohol Controls and Other Matters) Act 2012 on 1 December. The federal government approves plans for Avalon Airport to become Melbourne's second international airport. The Metcard ticketing system ends in December, leaving Myki Melbourne's sole public-transport ticketing system. Laws are enacted late in the year to support the opening and operation of the Peninsula Link freeway.
  • 2013: The Peninsula Link freeway opens in January. A $78 million "handover area" building project begins at train stations.[21] The Director of Public Transport and the Transport Ticketing Authority are abolished on 1 July, and their functions become part of Public Transport Victoria. The Taxi Services Commission becomes the state's taxi and hire-car regulator on 1 July, replacing the Victorian Taxi Directorate (which was abolished).
  • 2015: The Regional Rail Link opens in June, separating regional Ballarat, Bendigo and Geelong service from the suburban service. Two new stations are built, at Tarneit and Wyndham Vale.
  • 2016: The government began removing level crossings and running the rail under the roads. Along the Cranbourne-Pakenham line from Caulfield to Dandenong the rail was elevated the entire length.[22]
  • 2017: Work began on Metro tunnels which would increase the capacity on the City Loop.[23]
  • 2018: The federal and state governments announced that they would be funding a connection to the airport as part of the existing rail network.[24]
  • 2018: The state government announces a suburban train loop to connect the existing train lines in the suburbs, so that a commuter does not have to travel into the city to change train lines. It would include the building of some new stations, and would link up to the new Melbourne Airport station.[25]

Public transport

Melbourne's public-transport system integrates rail, tram and bus service. Its tram network, the world's largest, connects with the bus and rail networks. Almost 300 bus routes and 16 rail lines serve greater Melbourne and its suburbs. Metropolitan, rural and interstate railway networks link together at the Southern Cross railway station, in Melbourne's central business district.

A 2009 space syntax analysis of Melbourne's public-transport network (excluding buses, which were considered too inefficient) found that only 8.8 percent of greater Melbourne (about 448,000 residents) was within 30 minutes of any location in the greater Melbourne area, and only 10–15 percent of the city's residents could access appropriate, timely public transport. Melbourne's public-transport system handled seven percent of all trips within the metropolitan area;[26] the figure increased to nine percent in early 2009, with the passenger-kilometre share increasing to 11 percent.[3]

Since World War II Melbourne has become a dispersed, car-oriented city, leading to a decline in public-transport use by commuters.[27] The old transport pattern still reflected Melbourne’s prewar form.[27] The city's public-transport system was franchised by the government in 1999 through the Director of Public Transport, who contracted out rail and tram service. In 2006, the franchising programme was estimated to have cost taxpayers $1.2 billion more than if the system had remained publicly operated. With the 2009 franchise extensions, taxpayers would pay an estimated $2.1 billion more by 2010.[28]

Melbourne's ticketing system is the myki contactless smart card, which operates on all the city's trains (Metro and V/Line), trams and buses and requires commuters to "touch-on" and "touch-off" at each entry and exit point.[29] Myki's rollout began on 29 December 2009 with Melbourne's metropolitan railway network, and progressed to trams, buses and the regional V/Line. It completely replaced the Metcard on 30 June 2013.[30] The magnetic stripe card Metcard system, which required validation, could be used on all trains, trams and buses in the metropolitan system and on some regional trains and coaches.

A public bike-hire system began in mid-2010 but, due to helmet laws, its use has been lower than in other cities with similar systems. A government attempt has been made to rectify this by having helmet vending machines at some major bike stations, allowing spur-of-the-moment travel without risking a fine. Its success has been debated, as public debate about helmet laws continues.

Melbourne's train system is unique in that its stations are closer together than those of similar systems, and most of its mass transport would actually be considered hybrids elsewhere; its tramway is, by definition (excluding station distances), a tramway-light rail hybrid.[31] Similarly, Melbourne trains are commuter-heavy rail hybrids. Passenger trains in Victoria, however, have separate regional and inter-city rail systems.

Smoking tobacco has been prohibited in sheltered areas of train stations and tram and bus stops; in 2012 and 2013, 2,002 people were issued infringement notices. In October 2013, the state government announced a plan to ban smoking on all Victorian railway-station platforms and raised tram stops.[32]

Bus

The bus network consists of about 50 bus companies under a franchise agreement with the state Government. About 300 routes are in operation, with a range of service frequency. Twenty-one night bus routes run every 30 to 60 minutes, and many routes run hourly to connect with trains at suburban stations. The SmartBus bus rapid transit service operates on the following routes:

  • 703 - Middle Brighton-Blackburn
  • 900 - Rowville-Caufield
  • 901 - Frankston-Melbourne Airport
  • 902 - Chelsea-Airport West
  • 903 - Altona-Mordialloc
  • 905, 908 - City-The Pines Shopping Centre
  • 906 - City-Warrandyte
  • 907 - City-Mitcham

Although all Melbourne buses use the myki ticketing system, the Skybus Super Shuttle is a non-myki airport bus service. Several local government councils operate free community bus service in their local areas.

Tram

Green-and-white tram
D1-class tram operated by Yarra Trams

Melbourne has the world's largest tram network, consisting of 245 kilometres (152 mi) of track, nearly 500 trams on 28 routes, and 1,813 tram stops. Two light-rail routes are also part of the network, which is part of Public Transport Victoria.

The tram network is operated by Keolis Downer (a joint venture doing business as Yarra Trams in Melbourne) on a lease from VicTrack. Trams operate on many major roads in the inner suburbs, with fewer operating in the middle and outer suburbs. Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route (intended for visitors to Melbourne), and privately run Colonial Tramcar Restaurant trams travel through the city during the evening.

Suburban rail

Long blue-and-white train
X'Trapolis 100 train, operated by Metro Trains Melbourne

Melbourne's metro train network is operated by Metro Trains Melbourne, which replaced Connex Melbourne on 30 November 2009.[33] The 16-line rail network is part of the metro and uses the myki ticketing system. Portions of lines which are part of the V/Line network and cover the metropolitan area are also covered by myki. With the exception of the Stony Point line and the greater metropolitan V/Lines, the suburban rail network is electrified and has a fleet of 326 EMU trains.

Regional Rail

Silver, purple and green four-car train
V/Line VLocity diesel train

Melbourne is the centre of a statewide railway network consisting of lines used for freight and passenger service. Intrastate passenger service is operated by V/Line, with a fleet of locomotive-hauled trains and diesel multiple units. Seven passenger railway lines connect Melbourne to towns and cities in Victoria, four of which were upgraded as part of the Regional Fast Rail project. The centre of the regional passenger railway network is the Southern Cross railway station, in Melbourne's central business district. The city is also connected to Sydney by the NSW TrainLink XPT, and to Adelaide by Great Southern Rail's The Overland.

Statistics

The average length of time people spend commuting on public transit in Melbourne on a weekday is 80 minutes, and 28 percent of public-transit riders ride for over two hours daily. The average length of time people wait at a stop for public transit is 14 minutes; 20 percent of riders wait an average of over 20 minutes daily. The average single-trip public-transit distance is 9.8 kilometres (6.1 mi), and 26 percent of riders travel over 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) in one direction.[34]

Mode shares

Bar graph
Chart of Melbourne metropolitan transport usage from 2000 to 2009, based on state-government figures
2008 metropolitan trips[35]
Public transport 9%
Car 91%
2006 CBD trips[36][full citation needed]
Public transport 80%
Car 20%
Motorized trips[citation needed]
Private car (driver or passenger) 2,190
Metro train 201.2
Tram 170
Bus 91.3

Fares

Melbourne's public-transport system is divided into two zones, in addition to the free tram zone in the central business district and some surrounding areas. Myki has two forms of tickets: myki money (in which money is loaded on a myki and the system selects the "best fare") and the myki-pass, where commuters pre-purchase tickets (or passes).

Myki money two-hour fare
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 1+2
Full $4.10 $2.80 $4.10
Concession $2.05 $1.40 $2.05
Myki money daily fare
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 1+2
Full $8.20 $5.60 $8.20
Concession $4.10 $2.80 $4.10
Myki daily fare caps
Weekend cap $6.00
Public-holiday cap $6.00
Senior cap $4.10
Myki pass weekly fare
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 1+2
Full - $26.00 $37.60
Concession - $13.00 $18.80
Myki pass 28-365-day fare (daily)
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 1+2
Full - $3.06 $4.62
Concession - $1.53 $2.31[37]

Rail freight

Orange freight train
Pacific National locomotive at the Melbourne Steel Terminal, June 2006

The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port.[38] Shipping lines operate to about 300 cities around the world, and 3,200 ships visit the port each year. The port is in Melbourne's inner west, near the junction of the Maribyrnong and Yarra Rivers. The Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project, a dredging project to deepen Melbourne's shipping channels, began on 8 February 2008.

See caption
Container crane and ship at Swanson Dock East

Melbourne has an extensive network of railway lines and yards to serve freight traffic. The lines have two gauges – 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) broad gauge and 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge – and are not electrified. Freight trains have their own lines in the city's inner western suburbs, but in other areas trains are required to share the tracks with Metro Trains Melbourne and V/Line passenger service. Most freight terminals are in the inner suburbs near the port, between Melbourne's central business district and Footscray. A number of suburban stations had their own goods yards, with freight trains running on the suburban network (often with the E or L class electric locomotives), until the 1980s.

Airports

A plane taking off, with a control tower in the foreground
Melbourne Airport

Melbourne Airport, located in the north-western suburb of Tullamarine, is Australia's second-busiest airport. It serves over 30 airlines and 22 million international and domestic passengers annually.[39] The airport is a hub for passenger airlines Qantas, Jetstar Airways, Tiger Airways Australia and Virgin Australia, and cargo airlines Qantas Freight and Toll Priority.

Melbourne's second major passenger airport, Avalon Airport (Melbourne Avalon), is south-west of the city and north-east of Geelong. Avalon Airport, primarily used by Jetstar, operates flights to Brisbane, Sydney and Perth. AirAsia X was expected to begin low-cost flights from Avalon to Kuala Lumpur in October 2009, giving Melbourne a second international airport (unique among Australia's capital cities).

The city's first major airport, Essendon Airport, is no longer used for scheduled international flights. Although a small number of regional airlines operate from there, it is primarily used for general aviation and is also home to Victoria's air ambulance.

Moorabbin Airport, south of Melbourne, is primarily used for recreational flying and flying lessons. It has some regional-airline service, notably to King Island, Tasmania. Moorabbin is a Class D airport, and its ICAO airport code is YMMB. RAAF Williams, Point Cook, where the Royal Australian Air Force originated, is located near Melbourne's south-western limits.

Roads

Divided eight-lane highway
The Eastern Freeway, looking towards Melbourne

Since motor vehicles are the predominant travel mode, Melbourne's freeways and other roads are congested at peak hours. The city is one of the world's most car-dependent, due to inadequate public transport outside the inner city. Its freeway network is the largest of any Australian city,[1] with an extensive grid of arterial roads dating back to Melbourne's initial surveying. The city's total road length is 21,381 km (13,286 mi).[40]

The freeway network began with the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan, which included a grid of freeways which would cover the metropolitan area. The plans were reviewed four years later, and many inner-city projects were cancelled. Freeways built during the 1960s and 1970s include the South Eastern Arterial (now part of the Monash Freeway), the Tullamarine Freeway, the Lower Yarra Freeway (now the West Gate Freeway) and the Eastern Freeway.

Expansion took place over the next thirty years, with "missing links" between existing freeways built: completion of the Monash Freeway, CityLink and the Western Ring Road. The period also saw freeway expansion into the suburbs with the Mornington Peninsula Freeway, the Eastern Freeway extension, and the South Gippsland Freeway. In 2008, the EastLink toll freeway opened and existing freeways were further extended.

Despite government figures indicating slowed growth in road travel since 2006 (zero growth in 2008–09)[41] and the government's goal to reduce road use to 80 percent of all motorised trips, the state government announced a road-infrastructure investment to complete some projects from the 1969 transport plan (including Peninsula Link, East West Link and North East Link). Peninsula Link was completed in 2013.

Bicycles

Row of blue rental bicycles
Melbourne Bike Share station on Macarthur Street

Melbourne has an extensive network of bicycle paths and bike lanes, which are used for recreation and commuting. On 31 May 2010, Australia's first public bicycle-sharing system (Melbourne Bike Share) was introduced.[42] The complete system will consist of 50 docking stations with 600 bikes located throughout the city's central business district.[43]

Singaporean bike-sharing company oBike entered the Melbourne market in mid-2017. Unlike Melbourne Bike Share, oBikes do not need to be returned to a docking station.[44][45][46] The oBike system has been criticised, with complaints about bikes being abandoned (including in the Yarra River) and hung from trees[47] and large clusters of bicycles cluttering the footpath.[48]

Taxis

Yellow Toyota taxi
A Melbourne taxi

Taxis in Melbourne were regulated by the Taxi Services Commission on 1 July 2013,[a] and began operation on 19 July. The Taxi Industry Inquiry resulted in major reforms to Victoria's taxi industry, significantly impacting taxi service in Melbourne.[49] Taxis are required to be painted canary yellow and, since October 2008, those authorised to operate only at peak times, at night and at special events must have green tops. Melbourne has 4,660 licensed, metered taxis, including 443 wheelchair-accessible cabs.[50]

Ferries

Public Transport Victoria oversees two ferry services in Victoria:[51] the Westgate Punt (between Spotswood and Fishermans Bend) and the French Island Ferry, which operates between the Stony Point railway station, French Island and Cowes on Phillip Island.

Cruise ships and ferries (including the Spirit of Tasmania, which crosses Bass Strait to Tasmania) dock at Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay. Privately run ferries and other vessels also travel from Southbank along the Yarra River, around the bay to Williamstown, and across Port Phillip Bay.

Legislation and regulation

Transport Integration Act

The main transport statute in Victoria is the Transport Integration Act 2010, which establishes and sets the charters of the state agencies charged with providing transport and managing the state's transport system. The Department of Transport is responsible for the integration and coordination of Victoria's transport system. Other key state agencies are:

A new state government was elected in late November 2010, which has made substantial changes to the act.[citation needed]

Governing bodies

Public Transport Victoria

A key government initiative was to create a public-transport development authority (PTDA). The government positioned the Victoria Transport Development Authority as an independent agency which would coordinate all aspects of the state's public transport.[52][53] According to the government, the authority would plan, co-ordinate, manage and administer metropolitan trams and metropolitan and regional buses and trains, replacing the previous structure of multiple agencies. The authority was established in late 2011,[54] and was expected to be fully operational by mid-2012.[55] Planning for Melbourne Airport and the Rowville and Doncaster rail lines would be overseen by the transport authority.[56][57] Public Transport Victoria has assumed the rail, tram and bus responsibilities of the Director of Public Transport and the activities of the Transport Ticketing Authority and MetLink, which have been abolished.

Taxi Services Commission

The government announced a Taxi Industry Inquiry and the establishment of a Taxi Services Commission (TSC) in early 2011.[58] The inquiry, headed by Allan Fels, was conducted by the TSC (which succeeded the Victorian Taxi Directorate, part of the office of the Director of Public Transport which – in turn –is part of the Department of Transport). The government introduced the Transport Legislation Amendment (Taxi Services Reform and Other Matters) Act 2011, which was enacted in late June 2011 to empower the inquiry. The TSC, established on 19 July 2011, became the state's taxi and hire-car regulator on 1 July 2013.

Port of Hastings Development Authority

The government reversed the late-2010 merger of the Port of Melbourne Corporation (PMC) and the Port of Hastings Corporation. Ports Minister Denis Napthine devised a new agency, the Port of Hastings Development Authority, to oversee the development of the port of Hastings as a competitor in container trade of the PMC.[59] The Transport Legislation Amendment (Port of Hastings Development Authority) Bill 2011 was passed by the Parliament of Victoria in late 2011, and the authority began operations on 1 January 2012.

Safety regulation and investigation

The safety of rail operations in Melbourne is regulated by the 2006 Rail Safety Act, which applies to commercial passenger and freight operations and tourist and heritage railways.[60] The act created a framework of safety requirements for all rail-industry participants, and requires rail operators who manage infrastructure and rolling stock to obtain accreditation before commencing operations. Accredited rail operators are required to have a safety-management system to guide their operations. Sanctions for violations of the safety requirements established by the Rail Safety Act are outlined in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983.[61]

Safety regulation of the bus and marine sectors is overseen by the Director, Transport Safety under the 2009 Bus Safety Act and the Marine Act 1988, respectively. The sectors are subject to a no-fault safety-investigation plan conducted by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety. The safety regulator for Melbourne's rail, bus and marine systems is Transport Safety Victoria, established under the Transport Integration Act 2010.

Rail, bus and marine operators in Victoria can be subjected to no-fault investigations by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety or the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB). The chief investigator is charged by Part 7 of the Transport Integration Act 2010 with investigating rail, bus and marine safety matters, including incidents. The ATSB has jurisdiction over rail matters (on a designated interstate rail network), marine matters (if the ship(s) is under Australian or AMSA regulation) and bus-safety matters (by invitation of a jurisdiction).

Ticketing and conduct requirements

Ticketing requirements for rail, tram and bus service in Victoria are primarily contained in Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006[62] and the Victorian Fares and Ticketing Manual.[63] Rules about safe and fair behaviour on trains and trams in Victoria are generally contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983[64] and Transport (Conduct) Regulations 2005.[65] Conduct requirements for buses are set out in that act and Transport (Passenger Vehicles) Regulations 2005.

Notes

  1. ^ Taxi availability and service is a major issue in Melbourne and Victoria. On 28 March 2011 Premier Ted Baillieu announced a major inquiry into the taxi sector, conducted by the Taxi Services Commission and headed by Allan Fels. Legislation was passed by the Victorian Parliament in late June 2011 to create the commission.

References

  1. ^ a b "PTUA – 'The Alternative to Melbourne's Freeway Explosion'". Retrieved 26 July 2007. 
  2. ^ 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends, 2008. Abs.gov.au.
  3. ^ a b Evidence of mode shift in Australian cities (BITRE data) " Charting Transport. Chartingtransport.wordpress.com (8 January 2010).
  4. ^ [1] Archived 6 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ AUSmotive.com (11 December 2013). "Holden to cease local production in 2017". AUSmotive.com. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Ford Australia to close Broadmeadows and Geelong plants, 1,200 jobs to go". ABC News (Australia). 2013-05-23. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Hawthorne, Mark (10 February 2014). "Toyota to exit Australia, 30,000 jobs could go". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Millar, Royce; Mann, Simon (3 May 2008). "A city on the edge". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 
  9. ^ "Get used to crowded trains, says Lynne Kosky's right-hand man". 19 May 2009. 
  10. ^ Lucas, Clay (16 March 2009). "Hoddle Street chockers". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 
  11. ^ "{title}". Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 3 April 2008. 
  12. ^ "World Class Airport Bus Service To Slash Travel Time" (Press release). Minister for Transport. 12 June 2002. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2018. 
  13. ^ "Media Release: Melbourne'S New Tramline Unveiled". Dpc.vic.gov.au. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  14. ^ "Media Release: Vermont South Tram Extension One Step Closer". Dpc.vic.gov.au. 29 January 2004. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  15. ^ "Inner: Swanston RMIT to Melbourne University — Bicycle Victoria". Bv.com.au. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
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  17. ^ Millar, Royce; Lucas, Clay; Rood, David; Morton, Adam (3 April 2008). "$18 billion to link east and west". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  18. ^ Rail link way down the track from theage.com.au
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  20. ^ "Transport (Comliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983". Retrieved 21 July 2018. 
  21. ^ Kate Stowell (6 June 2013). "Holding cells being built at Melbourne train stations" (Video upload). ABC. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  22. ^ "Home | Level Crossing Removal Authority". levelcrossings.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2018-08-29. 
  23. ^ "Home". metrotunnel.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2018-08-29. 
  24. ^ Henriques-Gomes, Luke (2018-07-22). "Melbourne airport rail link: Daniel Andrews matches Turnbull's $5bn". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-29. 
  25. ^ Henriques-Gomes, Luke (2018-08-28). "Massive Melbourne suburban train loop pledged by Victorian government". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-29. 
  26. ^ "Study: Metropolitan Transport Forum" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2009. 
  27. ^ a b Gleeson, B., Curtis, C., & Low, N. (2003). ‘Barriers to Sustainable Transport in Australia’, in N. Low and B. Gleeson (eds.), Making Urban Transport Sustainable, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 201–220.
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  29. ^ http://ptv.vic.gov.au/tickets/myki/touching-on-and-off
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  33. ^ New train, tram companies open for business, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 30 November 2009.
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  54. ^ See the Transport Legislation Amendment (Public Transport Development Authority) Act 2011.
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  58. ^ Premier of Victoria, media release, 28 March 2011.
  59. ^ Dr Denis Napthine, Minister for Ports, press release, "Big Plans for Port of Hastings", 30 March 2011.
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Further reading

  • Dodson, Jago; Sipe, Neil (December 2005), Oil Vulnerability in the Australian City, Australia: Urban Research Program, Griffith University, ISBN 1-920952-50-0 
  • Davison, Graeme (2004), Car Wars: How the Car Won Our Hearts and Conquered Our Cities, Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin, ISBN 9781741142075 

External links

  • Victorian Department of Transport
  • Transport for Melbourne - An advocacy alliance for improved public transport planning in Melbourne that publicly launched in 2016.

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