Transmasculine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Transmasculine is an umbrella term describing individuals who were assigned female at birth but identify on the male side of the gender spectrum.[1][2] A transmasculine individual may identify with many aspects of masculinity but not wish to describe themselves as "a man",[3] and so may choose to behave in ways that are typically associated with women.[1]

Medical history

Transsexuality was first coined in the 1960s in an article called The Transsexual Phenomenon by Harry Benjamin.[4] A transsexual is defined as "a person who strongly identifies with the opposite sex and may seek to live as a member of this sex especially by undergoing surgery and hormone therapy to obtain the necessary physical appearance (as by changing the external sex organs)".[5] “Surgical attempts at changing sex first made it into the public eye in the early 1910s when Eugen Steinbach, a psychologist at the University of Vienna, won international acclaim for his “transplantation” experiments on rats and guinea pigs”.[6] By 1915, experimental transplants had started at Steinbach’s urging. Testicles of healthy men were removed and transplanted to men who’d lost theirs due to injury or disease.[6] Further experimentation resulted in sexual organ transplants from sheep, rams, and apes to men.[6] At this time, there had been no experimentation in mixing sexual organs between men and women. Most of critical sex-change experimentation took place in Berlin between 1920 and 1930.[6] One account regarding a sex-change operation began in 1912, where a female-to-male “transvestite” had a breast removal and uterus removal and finally, in 1921, had both ovaries removed as well. Next, “a male-to-female underwent castration in 1920 and had an ovary implanted in 1921”.[6] The definition of transsexual and transsexuality sparked movement in changing the lives of transsexuals. In 1965, there was little to no institutional support for those who identified with another gender but by 1975, there were institutions widely performing experimental sex changes.

Social changes

Violence against Trans men: Hate crimes victimize trans men regularly. These hate crimes have the hope to change or end the sexual expression along with the overall sexuality of trans men. When these hate crimes are actually sex crimes, it is referred to as corrective rape.[7] In order to ensure that these sex crimes do not result in fatality, strides must be made.[8]

Sexual Health: Transmasculine individuals often find a lack of understanding and compassion from certain health professionals and providers.[9] Rates of receipt of Pap tests among transgender men are lower than rates among cisgender women.[10]

Sexuality: Trans men can be gay, bisexual, pansexual, polysexual, asexual, demisexual, etc. A decent sum of trans men do not identify themselves with any conventional sexual orientations.[11] History and literature have shown how being attracted to those of the same gender is less common than being attracted to those of the opposite sex.[12] It is also important to note that gender pronouns cannot be assumed.[13] A trans man can be referred to by whichever pronoun is chosen.

Bathroom Bill: The bathroom bill is the legislation that intended to regulate which individuals should go to which bathroom. This begun when Gavin Grumm, a trans male student in Virginia, was banned from using the boys' bathroom at school.[14] This was a bill that became significant for all transgender individuals, and all of society in general. The controversy is whether people will have to go to the bathroom that is designated for the sex they were assigned at birth.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b MacDonald, Trevor; Noel-Weiss, Joy; West, Diana; Walks, Michelle; Biener, Marylynne; Kibbe, Alanna; Myler, Elizabeth (2016). "Transmasculine individuals' experiences with lactation, chestfeeding, and gender identity: A qualitative study". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 16: 106. PMC 4867534Freely accessible. PMID 27183978. doi:10.1186/s12884-016-0907-y. 
  2. ^ "the definition of transmasculine". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
  3. ^ Steinmetz, Katy. "A Comprehensive Guide to Facebook’s New Options for Gender Identity". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2016-09-11. 
  4. ^ Reay, Barry (2014). "The Transsexual Phenomenon: A Counter-History". Journal of Social History. 47 (4): 1042–70. doi:10.1093/jsh/shu018. 
  5. ^ "Definition of TRANSSEXUALITY". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-11-17. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Meyerowitz, Joanne (2004). How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [page needed]
  7. ^ http://www.bangkokpost.com/archive/trans-community-still-faces-violence/976353[full citation needed]
  8. ^ http://www.advocate.com/commentary/2016/2/17/6-ways-combat-fatal-violence-against-trans-men[full citation needed]
  9. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/shannon-weber/transmasculinity-sexual-h_b_11818110.html[full citation needed]
  10. ^ Peitzmeier, Sarah M.; Khullar, Karishma; Reisner, Sari L.; Potter, Jennifer (2014). "Pap Test Use is Lower Among Female-to-Male Patients Than Non-Transgender Women". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 47 (6): 808–12. PMID 25455121. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.031. 
  11. ^ "Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Definitions". Human Rights Campaign. 
  12. ^ Michael Shankle (2013). The Handbook of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health: A Practitioner's Guide to Service. Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 1136573550. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  13. ^ "What does all this stuff mean?". Visiting: Once You've Arrived. Twin Oaks Community, Virginia. 
  14. ^ Richer, Alanna Durkin (October 28, 2016). "Supreme Court to rule in Gloucester transgender case". WAVY-TV. Associated Press. 
  15. ^ Lopez, German (April 7, 2016). "Tennessee's anti-transgender bathroom bill, explained". Vox. 
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