Toungoo dynasty

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Toungoo dynasty

တောင်ငူမင်းဆက်
1510–1752
Toungoo Empire at its greatest extent (1580)
Toungoo Empire at its greatest extent (1580)
Capital Toungoo (Taungoo) (1510–39)
Pegu (Bago) (1539–99)
Ava (Inwa) (1599–1613)
Pegu (Bago) (1613–35)
Ava (Inwa) (1635–1752)
Common languages Official
Burmese
Regional
Religion
Official
Theravada Buddhism
Government Monarchy
• 1530–50
Tabinshwehti
• 1550–81
Bayinnaung
• 1605–28
Anaukpetlun
• 1629–48
Thalun
• 1733–52
Mahadhammaraza Dipadi
Legislature Hluttaw
History  
• Founding of dynasty
1485
• Independence from Ava
16 October 1510
1510–99
1599–1752
• End of dynasty
23 March 1752
Area
1580 1,550,000 km2 (600,000 sq mi)
1650 750,000 km2 (290,000 sq mi)
Population
• 1580
6000000
• 1650
3000000
Currency ganza kyat and silver kyat
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ava Kingdom
Hanthawaddy Kingdom
Shan states
Lan Na
Siam
Lan Xang
Manipur
Konbaung dynasty
Siam
Lan Xang
Manipur
Today part of

The Toungoo dynasty (Burmese: တောင်ငူမင်းဆက်, [tàʊɴŋù mɪ́ɴ zɛʔ]; also spelt Taungoo dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752. Its early kings Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung succeeded in reunifying the territories of the Pagan Kingdom for the first time since 1287 and in incorporating the Shan States for the first time. At its peak, the First Toungoo Empire also included Manipur, Chinese Shan States, Siam and Lan Xang. But the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia collapsed in the 18 years following Bayinnaung's death in 1581.

The dynasty quickly regrouped under the leadership of Nyaungyan Min and his son, Anaukpetlun, who succeeded in restoring a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan States and Lan Na by 1622. The Restored Toungoo kings, now based in Ava (Inwa), created a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into the 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years.

The kingdom entered a gradual decline due to the "palace rule" of its kings. Starting from the 1720s, the kingdom was beset with pesky raids by the Meitei people of the Chindwin River and a nagging rebellion in Chiang Mai. Raids by the Meitei intensified in the 1730s, reaching increasingly deeper parts of central Burma. In 1740, the Mon people in Lower Burma began a rebellion, founding the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. The Hanthawaddy armies captured Inwa in 1752 and ended the 266-year-old Toungoo dynasty.

History

King Mingyi Nyo founded the First Taungoo Dynasty (1485–1599) at Taungoo far up the Sittaung River south of Inwa towards the end of the Ava Kingdom in 1510. After the conquest of Inwa by the Shan people in 1527, many Bamars migrated to Taungoo, which became a new centre.

Mingyi Nyo's son, King Tabinshwehti, unified most of Burma, consolidating his power and pushing southward, over-running the Irrawaddy Delta and crushing the Hanthawaddy capital of Bago. In 1544, Tabinshwehti was crowned as king of all Burma at the ancient capital of Bagan. By this time, the geopolitical situation in Southeast Asia had changed dramatically. The Shan gained power in a new kingdom in the north, the Ayutthaya Kingdom had established itself as a suzerain power around the Chao Praya river basin, while the Portuguese Empire had arrived in the south and conquered Malacca.

With the coming of European traders, Burma was once again an important trading centre, and Tabinshwehti moved his capital to Bago due to its strategic position for commerce. He then began assembling an army for an attack on coastal Rakhine State to the west. Tabinshwehti's forces were defeated at Arakan but he was able to gain control of Lower Burma up to Pyay. He led his retreating army eastward to the Ayutthaya Kingdom, where he was again defeated in the Burmese–Siamese War (1547–49). A period of unrest and rebellions among other conquered peoples followed and Tabinshwehti was assassinated in 1550.

Tabinshwehti's brother-in-law, Bayinnaung, succeeded to the throne in 1550 and reigned 30 years, launching a campaign of conquest invading several states, including Manipur (1560) and Ayutthaya (1564). An energetic leader and effective military commander, he made Toungoo the most powerful state in Southeast Asia and extended his borders from Laos to Ayutthaya. Bayinnaung was poised to deliver a final, decisive assault on the kingdom of Arakan when he died in 1581. His son Nanda Bayin and his successors were forced to quell rebellions in other parts of the kingdom, and the victory over Arakan was never achieved.

The restored Taungoo or Nyaungyan Dynasty c. 1650.

Faced with rebellion by several cities and renewed Portuguese incursions, the Toungoo rulers withdrew from southern Burma and founded a second dynasty at Ava, the Nyaungyan or Restored Taungoo Dynasty (1597–1752). Bayinnaung's grandson, Anaukpetlun (1605–1628), once again reunited Burma in 1613 and decisively defeated Portuguese attempts to take over Burma. Anaukpetlun's successor Thalun (1629–1648) rebuilt the war torn country. Based on Thalun's revenue inquest in 1635, the Irrawaddy valley's population was estimated to be around 2 million.[1]

The dynasty survived for another century and a half until the death of Mahadammayaza in 1752. Encouraged by the French in India, Bago finally rebelled against Inwa, further weakening the state, which fell in 1752.

Family tree

Mingyi Swe
V. of Toungoo
~1490s–1549
r.1540–1549
Yaza Dewi
~1500-?
Queen
Mingyi Nyo
1459–1530
r. 1510–1530
Yadana Dewi
1490s-?
Central Palace
Queen
Soe Min
Hteik-Tin

~1460s-~1530s
Chief queen
Dhamma Dewi
~1514/15-1580s
Chief queen
Tabinshwehti
1516–1550
r. 1530–1550
Khay Ma Naw
Chief queen
Atula Thiri
~1518–1568
Chief queen
Bayinnaung
1516–1581
r. 1550–1581
Khin Pyezon
~1530s-?
Queen
Shin
Htwe Myat
Sanda Dewi
1517/18–1580s?
Chief queen
Hanthawaddy
Mibaya

~1536–1606
Chief queen
Nanda
1535–1600
r. 1581–1599
Nyaungyan
1555–1605
r. 1599–1605
Khin Hpone
Myint

~1560-1610s
Chief queen
Atula
Sanda Dewi

Chief queen
Anaukpetlun
1578–1628
r. 1605–1628
Khin
Myo Myat
Min Lat Mingala Dewi Thalun
1584–1648
r. 1629–1648
Khin Myo Sit Khin
Myat Hset
Minye
Deibba

1608–1629
r. 1628–1629
Khin
Hnin Paw

of Kengtung
Chief queen
Ne Myo
Ye Kyaw
Khin Ma
Min Sit
Atula Sanda
Dewi

Chief queen
Pindale
1608–1661
r. 1648–1661
Min Phyu
Chief queen
Pye
1619–1672
r. 1661–1672
Khin Ma Lat
Atula
Thiri

Chief queen
Minye
Kyawhtin

1651–1698
r. 1673–1698
Sanda Dewi Narawara
1650–1673
r. 1672–1673
Sanay
1673–1714
r. 1698–1714
Maha Dewi
Chief queen
Taninganway
1689–1733
r. 1714–1733
Mingala Dewi
Chief queen
Maha Dhamma
Yaza

1714–1754
r. 1733–1752
Nanda
Dipadi

Chief queen

References

  1. ^ Dr. Than Tun (December 1968). "Administration Under King Thalun". Journal of Burma Research Society. 51, Part 2: 173–188.
  • Victor B. Lieberman, "Burmese Administrative Cycles: Anarchy and Conquest, c. 1580–1760", Princeton University Press, 1984.
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