Timeline of voting rights in the United States

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This is a timeline of voting rights in the United States.

Timeline

  • 1789: The Constitution grants the states the power to set voting requirements. Generally, states limited this right to property-owning or tax-paying white males.
  • 1790: The Naturalization Act of 1790 allows white men born outside of the United States to become citizens with the right to vote.
  • 1792: Beginning of the abolition of property qualifications for white men, from 1792 (Kentucky) to 1856 (North Carolina) during the periods of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy.[1]
  • 1792-1838: Free black males lose the right to vote in several Northern states including Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
  • 1868: Citizenship is guaranteed to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, setting the stage for future expansions to voting rights.
  • 1870: Non-white men and freed slaves are guaranteed the right to vote by the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. However, for many years, some states were very successful at suppressing this vote (see Jim Crow Laws).
  • 1887: Citizenship is granted to Native Americans who are willing to disassociate themselves from their tribe by the Dawes Act, making them technically eligible to vote.
  • 1913: Direct election of Senators, established by the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, gave voters rather than state legislatures the right to elect senators.[2]
  • 1920: Women are guaranteed the right to vote by the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In practice, the same restrictions that hindered the ability of non-white men to vote now also applied to non-white women.
  • 1924: All Native Americans are granted citizenship and the right to vote, regardless of tribal affiliation. By this point, approximately two thirds of Native Americans were already citizens.[3][4]
  • 1943: Chinese immigrants given the right to citizenship and the right to vote by the Magnuson Act.
  • 1961: Residents of Washington, D.C. are granted the right to vote in U.S. Presidential Elections by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution.
  • 1964: Tax payment prohibited from being used as a condition for voting in federal elections by the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
  • 1965: Protection of voter registration and voting for racial minorities, later applied to language minorities, is established by the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This has also been applied to correcting discriminatory election systems and districting.
  • 1966: Tax payment and property requirements for voting are prohibited in all U.S. elections by the Supreme Court in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections.
  • 1971: Adults aged 18 through 21 are granted the right to vote by the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. This was enacted in response to Vietnam War protests, which argued that soldiers who were old enough to fight for their country should be granted the right to vote.[2][5]
  • 1972: Requirement that a person reside in a jurisdiction for an extended period — 14th Amendment; Dunn v. Blumstein, 405 U.S. 330 (1972).[6][7][7]
  • 1973: Washington, D.C. local elections, such as Mayor and Councilmen, restored after a 100-year gap in Georgetown, and 190-year gap in the wider city, ending Congress's policy of local election disfranchisement started in 1801 in this former portion of Maryland — see: D.C. Home rule.
  • 1986: United States Military and Uniformed Services, Merchant Marine, other citizens overseas, living on bases in the United States, abroad, or aboard ship are granted the right to vote by the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act.[8]
  • 2006: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was extended for the fourth time by George W. Bush, being the second extension of 25 years.[9]
  • 2013: Supreme Court ruled in a 5-4 decision that Section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act is unconstitutional. Section 4(b) states that if states or local governments wants to change their voting laws, they must appeal to the Attorney General.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Stanley L. Engerman, University of Rochester and NBER; Kenneth L. Sokoloff, University of California, Los Angeles and NBER (February 2005). "The Evolution of Suffrage Institutions in the New World" (PDF): 16, 35. By 1840, only three states retained a property qualification, North Carolina (for some state-wide offices only), Rhode Island, and Virginia. In 1856 North Carolina was the last state to end the practice. Tax-paying qualifications were also gone in all but a few states by the Civil War, but they survived into the 20th century in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. 
  2. ^ a b "AP Tests: AP Test Prep: The Expansion of Suffrage". CliffsNotes. 10 January 2010. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. 
  3. ^ Madsen, Deborah L., ed. (2015). The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature. Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 1-317-69319-1. 
  4. ^ The American Indian Vote: Celebrating 80 Years of U.S. Citizenship, Democratic Policy Committee, October 7, 2004, archived from the original on 2007-09-27, retrieved 2007-10-15 
  5. ^ "Milestones in Voting History / Voting Rights and Citizenship". 
  6. ^ Congressional Research Service. "The Right to Travel". CRS Annotated Constitution. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Pascoe, Elaine (1997). The Right To Vote. United States: The Millbrook press. 
  8. ^ Registration and Voting by Absent Uniformed Services Voters and Overseas Voters in Elections for Federal Office, U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Voting Section, archived from the original on 2001-04-20, retrieved 2007-01-05 
  9. ^ "Voting Rights Act Reauthorization 2006 | NAACP LDF". www.naacpldf.org. Retrieved 2016-12-07. 
  10. ^ Schwartz, John. "A Guide to the Supreme Court Decision on the Voting Rights Act". Retrieved 2016-12-07. 

External links

  • U.S. Voting Rights Infoplease
  • U.S. Voting Rights Timeline Northern California Citizenship Project
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