Timeline of the Catholic Church

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As traditionally the oldest form of Christianity, along with the ancient or first millennial Orthodox Church, the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Churches and the Church of the East,[1] the history of the Roman Catholic Church is integral to the history of Christianity as a whole. This article covers a period of just under two thousand years.

Over time, schisms have disrupted the unity of Christianity. The major divisions occurred in c.144 with Marcionism,[2] 318 with Arianism, 1054 to 1449 (see East–West Schism) during which time the Orthodox Churches of the East parted ways with the Western Church over doctrinal issues (see the filioque) and papal primacy, and in 1517 with the Protestant Reformation. This Church has been the driving force behind some of the major events of world history including the Christianization of Western and Central Europe and Latin America, the spreading of literacy and the foundation of the universities, hospitals, the Western tradition of monasticism, the development of art and music, literature, architecture, contributions to the scientific method, just war theory and trial by jury. It has played a powerful role in global affairs, including the Reconquista, the Crusades, the Inquisition, the Investiture Controversy, the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century.

Ministry of Jesus and founding

Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator
  • Although the calculations of Dionysius Exiguus put the birth of Jesus in the year that in consequence is called AD 1, history places his birth more likely some time between 6 and 4 BC.
  • c. 28: Jesus' baptism, start of ministry, and selection of the Apostles. The Gospel of Luke indicates that Christ was baptized during the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar which is dated in 28 AD (found in Luke 3:1,21,22). Christian Gospels strongly suggest Peter as leader and spokesman of the Apostles of Jesus, being mentioned the most number of times in the Gospels. Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John, constitute the inner circle of the Apostles of Jesus, being witnesses to specific important events of the life of Jesus; preachings of Jesus, such as the Sermon on the Mount; and performance of miracles, such as raising the dead back to life, feeding five-thousand, walking on water, etc.
  • c. 31: Peter declares and other followers believe Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah promised by Yahweh according to the Jewish Scriptures and the predictions of the Hebrew prophets. Entry into Jerusalem, start of Passion of Christ. Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius and Herod Antipas, after the Sanhedrin, under the High Priest Caiaphas, accuse Jesus of blasphemy. He was then crucified under Pontius Pilate. According to his followers, three days later, "God raised him from the dead". Forty days after his resurrection (Ascension), the Christian Gospels narrate that Jesus instructed His disciples thus: "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of time." (Matthew 28:18–20). Ten days later (Pentecost) Peter makes the first sermon converting 3,000 to be baptized.

Early Christianity

313–476

Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini

477–799

Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

800–1453

Notre-Dame Cathedral – designed in the Gothic architectural style.

1454–1599

Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

1600–1699

1700-1799

19th century

20th century

21st century

Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century
  • April 30, 2000 : Pope John Paul II canonized St. Faustina and designated the Sunday after Easter as Divine Mercy Sunday in the General Roman Calendar, with effect from the following year.
  • January 1, 2001: The 21st century and the new millennium begin. The Church solemnizes the start of the third Christian millennium by extending into part of the year 2001 the jubilee year that it observes at 25-year intervals and that, in the case of the year 2000, it called the Great Jubilee.
  • January 6, 2001: John Paul II issues Novo Millennio Ineunte, a program for the Church in the new millennium, wherein he placed sanctity through a training in prayer as the most important priority of the Catholic Church in consonance with its purpose.
  • January 18, 2002: Former American priest John Geoghan is convicted of child molestation and sentenced to ten years in prison, as part of the ongoing sex abuse scandal. The Geoghan case was one of the worst scandals of the Catholic Church in the USA.
  • 2004: Cambridge University Press publishes Hans Urs von Balthasar's The Cambridge Companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar.
  • April 2, 2005: Pope John Paul II dies at the age of 84. His funeral is broadcast to every corner of the globe through the modern media. Millions of Catholic pilgrims journey to Rome to pay final respects.
  • April 19, 2005: German-born Cardinal Joseph Alois Ratzinger is elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI, thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st century and the 3rd millennium.
  • August 18, 2005: Pope Benedict XVI attends the World Youth Day in Cologne, Germany, his first trip outside Italy.
  • September 12, 2006: Pope Benedict XVI delivers address on Faith, Reason in University of Regensburg. Benedict maintained that in the Western world, to a large degree, only positivistic reason and philosophy are valid. A concept of reason which excludes the divine, is incapable of entering into the dialogue of cultures, according to Benedict.[21] He quoted negative views of Emperor Manuel II Paleologus, regarding Islam, which several weeks after it was delivered, created violent reactions among Muslims in several parts of the world.[22][23][24][25][26]
  • June 11, 2007 Pope Benedict XVI reverted the decision of his predecessor regarding papal elections, and restored the traditional two-thirds majority required [27]
  • July 7, 2007: Motu proprio Summorum Pontificum is issued by Pope Benedict XVI explicitly liberating the Roman Missal of 1962 as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. Hopes of healing the schism between the SSPX and the Catholic Church is implied in accompanying letter to the motu proprio.
  • October 28, 2007: Pope Benedict XVI authorizes the largest beatification ceremony in Church history involving 498 Spanish Martyrs who were killed during the Civil War in Spain.
  • 2007: James MacMillan composes The Sacrifice. In 1992, he composed Veni, Veni, Emmanuel.
  • May 2008: A solemn declaration agreed on between Pope Benedict XVI and Muslims, led by Mahdi Mostafavi, stressed that genuine religion is essentially non-violent and that violence can be justified neither by reason nor by faith.[28]
  • July 2008: Pope Benedict XVI participates in Sydney Australia in the World Youth Day and announces Spain as the country to host the next one.
  • January 2009: The Holy See remitted the excommunications of the bishops of the Society of St. Pius X, which has been criticized for its schimatic nature with the Magisterium
  • 2012: Hildegard of Bingen is made a Doctor of the Church.
  • February 2013: Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI
  • March 2013: Jorge Bergoglio elected as Pope Francis and is the first Latin American and the first Jesuit to be elected Pope.
  • 12 May 2013 : Pope Francis canonized over 800 Catholics that were killed by Turks in Otranto, 1480. With this he surpassed the record of St. John Paul II in canonizing the most saints in a pontificate.
  • February 2015 : Charles Maung Bo and Soane Patita Mafi are the first cardinals from Myanmar and Tonga.
  • 8 December 2015 to 20 November 2016 : The Extraordinary Jubilee Year of Mercy, Rome received 21.3 million pilgrims, shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe received 22 million pilgrims, and World Youth Day in Krakow received 3 million pilgrims. According to archbishop Fisichella, president of Pontifical Council for New Evangelization, between 56% and 62% of all Catholics participated in the events while pilgrims in Rome mostly came from Germany, US, Poland, Spanish speaking countries and there were many who came from China,Chad, Rwanda, Nepal and Cook Islands.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Orthodox Church and some other predominantly non-Western Churches are also apostolic in origin — i.e., they also trace their origins back to the founding of the Church at the time of the Apostles
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Marcionites". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. : "...they were perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known."
  3. ^ Chadwick, Henry, pp. 23–24.
  4. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. John the Evangelist". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  5. ^ St. John the Evangelist, ewtn.com, retrieved September 30, 2006
  6. ^ McMullen, p. 44.
  7. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis – Constantine I, retrieved February 23, 2007
  8. ^ S.R.E. Humbert, Adversus Graecorium calumnias 6, in Patrologie Cursus Completus, series Latina, e.d. J.P.Migne, 1844, p.143
  9. ^ Duffy, p. 29.
  10. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, volume 3 (Washington: Catholic University Press, 2002), 556-557
  11. ^ Duffy, p. 30.
  12. ^ J. P. Rodriguez, with forward by Orlando Patterson CHRONOLOGY OF WORLD SLAVERY (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999). 50.
  13. ^ Rodriguez, p. 53.
  14. ^ Rodriguez, 57.
  15. ^ Rodriguez, 61, 150.
  16. ^ Rodriguez, 62.
  17. ^ "Suave Molecules of Mocha" Archived March 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization, New Partisan – A Journal of Culture, Arts and Politics, March 7, 2005, retrieved October 23, 2006
  18. ^ Rodriguez, 297.
  19. ^ Hubert Jedin, Church history, 619
  20. ^ Schism of SSPX Pete Vere, My Journey out of the Lefebvre Schism: All Tradition Leads to Rome, Catholic Education Resource Center, retrieved November 20, 2006
  21. ^ Benedict XVI, Meeting with the representatives of science in the Aula Magna of the University of Regensburg (September 12, 2006)
  22. ^ Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections from official Vatican website, retrieved October 18, 2006
  23. ^ "Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization" by Pope Benedict XVI, Zenit News Agency, retrieved October 18, 2006
  24. ^ Pope Is Regretful That His Speech Angered Muslims, Sep. 17, 2006, L.A. Times, retrieved October 18, 2006[dead link]
  25. ^ Al Qaeda threat over pope speech, Sep. 18, 2006, CNN.com retrieved October 18, 2006[dead link]
  26. ^ Qaeda-led group vows "jihad" over Pope's speech, Sep. 18, 2006, Reuters, retrieved October 18, 2006
  27. ^ Moto Proprio, De Aliquibus Mutationibus, June 11, 2007
  28. ^ Kleiber, Reinhard (2008). "Iran and the Pope Easing Relations". Quantara. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 

Further reading

  • The History of the Catholic Church, From the Apostolic Age to the Third Millennium James Hitchcock, Ph.D. Ignatius Press, 2012 ISBN 978-1-58617-664-8
  • Triumph: The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church. Crocker, H.W.
  • Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51613-4

External links

  • History of the Catholic Church
  • Timeline of Church History at Orthodoxwiki.
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