Timeline of railway electrification in Norway

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A small blue locomotive hauling three wooden passenger cars parked at a wooden platform
The Thamshavn Line became Norway's first electrified when it opened in 1908.
A four-car multiple unit running across a snow-covered plain with mountains in the background
Class 73 train near Dombås on the Dovre Line

The Norwegian railway network consists of 2,552 kilometers (1,586 mi) of electrified railway lines, constituting 62% of the Norwegian National Rail Administration's 4,114 kilometers (2,556 mi) of line.[1] The first three mainline systems to be electrified were private ore-hauling lines. The Thamshavn Line opened in 1909, and remained in revenue use until 1973, after which it was converted to a heritage railway.[2] It is the world's oldest remaining alternating-current railway and the only narrow gauge railway in the country to have been electrified.[3] It was followed by Norsk Transport's Rjukan and Tinnoset Lines two years later,[4] and Sydvaranger's Kirkenes–Bjørnevatn Line in 1922.[5] The Norwegian State Railways' (NSB) first electrification was parts of the Drammen Line in 1922 and the ore-hauling Ofoten Line in 1923, which connects to the Iron Ore Line in Sweden. The use of El 1 locomotives on the Drammen Line proved a large cost-saver over steam locomotives, and NSB started electrifying other lines around Oslo; from 1927 to 1930, the remainder of the Drammen Line, and the continuation along the Randsfjorden and Sørlandet Lines to Kongsvinger were converted, along with the first section of the Trunk Line. In 1935, the Hardanger Line became the first section of new NSB track to be electrified. From 1936 to 1940, NSB electrified the Østfold Line as well as more of the Sørland Line and the Bratsberg Line, connecting all electric lines west of Oslo.[3]

During the 1940s, NSB electrified the Sørland Line, although the final section from Egersund to Stavanger was not converted until 1956.[3] In 1957, the Kirkenes–Bjørnevatn Line became the only line to remove the electrification and replace the electric locomotives with diesel power.[5] The 1950s saw the electrification of several regional and commuter lines around Oslo, including the Kongsvinger Line, the Trunk Line and the Dovre Line from Lillestrøm to Hamar, the Vestfold Line and the Eastern Østfold Line. This was largely due to NSB's program to remove all steam locomotives, either by electrification or by dieselization. In the late 1950s and 1960s, several to-be electrified lines were operated with diesel locomotives as an interim solution. The 1960s saw the remaining two steam lines in Southern Norway, the Bergen and Dovre Lines, electrified along with the Gjøvik Line. The Bergen Line was completed in 1964 and the Dovre Line completed in 1970. This finished all the planned electrifications, and the authorities deemed the remaining lines unprofitable to electrify because of low traffic. During the 1990s, a new program was attempted, this time to electrify the entire network, but only the Arendal Line was converted before the program was canceled. However, new lines around Oslo, including the Lieråsen and Oslo Tunnels on the Drammen Line, and the Gardermoen and Asker Lines were electrified at the time they opened. Further plans have been launched, in particular the section of the Nordland Line from Trondheim to Steinkjer, which is part of the Trøndelag Commuter Rail, and the Meråker Line, which connects to the electrified Central Line in Sweden.[6]

In 2008, electric traction accounted for 90% of the passenger kilometers, 93% of the tonne kilometers and 74% of the energy consumption of all trains running in Norway, with the rest being accounted for by diesel traction.[7] Technology for electric railways was demonstrated in Germany in 1879;[8] the first revenue line took electric traction into use in 1881.[9] The first electric industrial railway in Norway opened in 1892 at Skotfos Bruk near Skien. Two years later, parts of the Oslo Tramway were electrified.[10] The first alternating current (AC) line became operational in 1892, while the first line to use a single-phase, single overhead wire power supply opened in Germany in 1903.[11] In 1912, all German railway agreed to use the 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC standard, which was later adopted first by Sweden and then by NSB.[11] Several of the private lines that preceded NBS's electrification chose different standards. Sydvaranger chose to install the only mainline direct current (DC) and third rail system.[3]

Timeline

Map of the railway lines in Norway.
electrified lines
non-electrified lines
disused or heritage lines
A small wooden train station building with a railway ferry in the background
Mæl Station where the Rjukan Line connects with the Tinnsjø railway ferry
A three-unit locomotive hauls an ore train out of a tunnel, surrounded by snow.
Dm3-hauled ore train on the Ofoten Line
Two commuter trains parked at a mid-sized station
Voss Station is the terminus of the Bergen Commuter Rail, operated with Class 69 units.
A four-car multiple unit running down a single track with fields on both sides and a forest in the background
Class 70 train near Tangen on the Dovre Line
A four-car multiple unit running along a double-track line between two cliffs; in the background is a motorway.
Class 73b train on the double-track section of the Østfold Line near Vestby
A small station with two platforms; above are three overhead wires and the area is surrounded by forest
Overhead wires at Movatn Station on the Gjøvik Line

The following list contains a chronology of when the various sections of mainline railway lines were electrified. The list excludes industrial and short branch lines, as well as systems installed at ports and yards. The list contains the date when the electrification was taken into regular use on each section.[12] It also notes if a section was opened as an electric railway, and if the line was prepared as an electric line, but where this was not taken into use immediately. The list contains the line and section to be electrified,[12] and its length. The length indicates the length of the mainline section at the time of electrification. Due to changes of routes and shortening of lines, the current length of sections may be shorter. The sixth column shows the electrification system, including voltage and frequency in case of AC and no frequency in case of DC.

Opened as electric
†† Planned as electric
* Private
Date Line Section Length
(km)
Length
(mi)
System Ref(s)
10 July 1908 Thamshavn* ThamshavnSvorkmo 19.3 12.0 15 kV 6.6 Hz AC [2][13]
October 1908 Thamshavn* SvorkmoLøkken 6.0 3.7 15 kV 6.6 Hz AC [2][13]
11 July 1911††[note 1] Tinnoset* NotoddenTinnoset 30.0 18.6 10 kV 16 23 Hz AC [4][14]
30 November 1911††[note 2] Rjukan* RjukanMæl 16.0 9.9 10 kV 16 23 Hz AC [4][14]
23 December 1920 Kirkenes–Bjørnevatn* KirkenesBjørnevatn 7.5 4.7 750 V DC [5][15]
26 November 1922 Drammen Oslo VBrakerøya 50.8 31.6 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [16]
11 July 1923 Ofoten NarvikRiksgränsen 41.9 26.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [17]
1 September 1927 Trunk Oslo ØLillestrøm 21.0 13.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [18]
15 October 1928 Loenga–Alnabru Loenga–Alnabru 7.3 4.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [19]
10 April 1929 Sørlandet DrammenKongsberg 48.6 30.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [20]
6 May 1930 Drammen BrakerøyaDrammen 2.4 1.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [21]
1 April 1935 Hardanger VossGranvin 27.5 17.1 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [3][22]
29 January 1936 Sørlandet KongsbergHjuksebø 36.9 22.9 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [23]
7 May 1936 Bratsberg NotoddenBorgestad 60.6 37.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [24]
9 December 1936 Østfold Oslo ØLjan 7.2 4.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [25]
18 January 1937 Østfold LjanKolbotn 5.6 3.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [25]
1 September 1939 Østfold Kornsjø–Riksgrensen 1.0 0.6 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [26]
10 September 1939 Østfold HaldenKornsjø 32.5 20.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [27]
24 September 1939 Østfold KolbotnÅs 18.9 11.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [28]
9 January 1940 Østfold ÅsDilling 34.1 21.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [29]
1 May 1940 Østfold DillingFredrikstad 28.9 18.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [30]
15 July 1940 Østfold FredrikstadSarpsborg 15.2 9.4 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [31]
11 November 1940 Østfold SarpsborgHalden 27.2 16.9 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [31]
15 October 1942 Sørlandet NordagutuLunde 31.6 19.6 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [32]
18 April 1943 Sørlandet LundeNeslandsvatn 44.2 27.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [33]
18 February 1944 Sørlandet MarnardalSira 62.4 38.8 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [34]
20 March 1944 Vestfold SkienEikonrød 3.3 2.1 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [35]
24 November 1944††[note 3] Flåm MyrdalFlåm 20.4 12.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [3][36]
16 May 1946††[note 4] Sørlandet KristiansandMarnardal 36.7 22.8 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [3][32]
26 August 1948 Sørlandet NeslandsvatnNelaug 60.7 37.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [23]
1 June 1949 Sørlandet NelaugKristiansand 83.9 52.1 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [23]
19 July 1949 Brevik BorgestadBrevik 9.4 5.8 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [37]
1 February 1950 Sørlandet SiraEgersund 56.9 35.4 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [32]
15 June 1951 Kongsvinger Lillestrøm–Riksgrensen 114.6 71.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [38]
15 June 1953 Trunk LillestrømEidsvoll 46.9 29.1 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [39]
15 June 1953 Dovre EidsvollHamar 58.6 36.4 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [40]
2 July 1954 Bergen BergenVoss 106.7 66.3 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [41]
3 June 1956 Sørland EgersundStavanger 76.3 47.4 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [23]
5 October 1956 Vestfold EidangerLarvik 34.0 21.1 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [42]
20 May 1957 Vestfold LarvikTønsberg 43.0 26.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [32]
5 December 1957 Vestfold TønsbergDrammen 57.9 36.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [43]
11 December 1957 Horten SkoppumHorten 7.0 4.3 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [44]
5 December 1958 Eastern Østfold SkiSarpsborg 80.5 50.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [45]
4 October 1959 Randsfjorden HokksundHønefoss 54.0 33.6 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [46]
1 February 1961 Roa–Hønefoss RoaHønefoss 32.0 19.9 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [47]
1 February 1961 Alna GrefsenAlnabru 5.2 3.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [19]
1 February 1961 Gjøvik Loenga–Kværner 2.1 1.3 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [19]
1 February 1961 Gjøvik Oslo ØJaren 71.9 44.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [48]
1 December 1962 Bergen HønefossÅl 138.6 86.1 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [49]
17 February 1963 Gjøvik JarenEina 29.0 18.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [50]
21 August 1963 Gjøvik EinaGjøvik 22.9 14.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [50]
15 December 1963 Bergen ÅlUstaoset 36.5 22.7 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [51]
1 August 1964 Bergen Tunestveit–Bergen 12.0 7.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [50]
7 December 1964 Bergen UstaosetVoss 120.7 75.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [50]
1 November 1966 Dovre HamarFåberg 65.4 40.6 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [52]
5 November 1967 Dovre FåbergOtta 106.6 66.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [53]
29 September 1968 Dovre OttaHjerkinn 84.5 52.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [54]
1 November 1970 Dovre HjerkinnTrondheim S 171.1 106.3 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [32]
3 June 1973 Drammen AskerBrakerøya 15.5 9.6 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [55]
1 June 1980 Drammen Oslo SSkøyen 3.6 2.2 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [55]
15 June 1995 Arendal NelaugArendal 36.2 22.5 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [56]
8 October 1998 Gardermoen LillestrømEidsvoll 48.3 30.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [40]
22 August 1999 Gardermoen EtterstadLillestrøm 15.7 9.8 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [40]
1 August 2005 Asker SandvikaAsker 9.7 6.0 15 kV 16 23 Hz AC [57]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ The Tinnoset Line was taken into non-electrified use on 9 August 1909[14]
  2. ^ The Rjukan Line was taken into non-electrified use on 9 August 1909[14]
  3. ^ The Flåm Line was taken into non-electrified use on 15 October 1941[36]
  4. ^ The section from Kristiansand to Sira was taken into non-electrified use on 1 March 1944[32]

References

  1. ^ Norwegian National Rail Administration, 2009a: 4
  2. ^ a b c Aspenberg, 2001: 19–23
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Aspenberg, 2001: 28
  4. ^ a b c Aspenberg, 2001: 23–25
  5. ^ a b c Aspenberg, 2001: 18–19
  6. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 28–29
  7. ^ Norwegian National Rail Administration, 2009b: 12
  8. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 9
  9. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 10
  10. ^ Aspenberg, 2001: 15
  11. ^ a b Aspenberg, 2001: 11
  12. ^ a b Norwegian National Rail Administration, 2009a: 34
  13. ^ a b Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 298
  14. ^ a b c d Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 160
  15. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 304
  16. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 197
  17. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 138
  18. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 54
  19. ^ a b c Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 60
  20. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 202, 232
  21. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 189–197
  22. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 184
  23. ^ a b c d Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 232
  24. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 220–222
  25. ^ a b Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 40
  26. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 48
  27. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 47–48
  28. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 40–42
  29. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 42–44
  30. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 44
  31. ^ a b Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 44–46
  32. ^ a b c d e f Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 86–90
  33. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 238–240
  34. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 250–253
  35. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 220
  36. ^ a b Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 186
  37. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 227
  38. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 62
  39. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 54–58
  40. ^ a b c Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 74
  41. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 179
  42. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 218
  43. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 212–214
  44. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 225
  45. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 37
  46. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 202
  47. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 156
  48. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 144
  49. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 162–166
  50. ^ a b c d Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 148 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "bh148" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  51. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 166
  52. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 80–82
  53. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 82–84
  54. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 84–86
  55. ^ a b Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 189
  56. ^ Bjerke and Holom, 2004: 266
  57. ^ Norwegian National Rail Administration, 2009a: 45

Bibliography

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