Time in Russia

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Time in Russia
     KALT Kaliningrad Time UTC+2 (MSK–1)
     MSK Moscow Time UTC+3 (MSK±0)
     SAMT Samara Time UTC+4 (MSK+1)
     YEKT Yekaterinburg Time UTC+5 (MSK+2)
     OMST Omsk Time UTC+6 (MSK+3)
     KRAT Krasnoyarsk Time UTC+7 (MSK+4)
     IRKT Irkutsk Time UTC+8 (MSK+5)
     YAKT Yakutsk Time UTC+9 (MSK+6)
     VLAT Vladivostok Time UTC+10 (MSK+7)
     MAGT Magadan Time UTC+11 (MSK+8)
     PETT Kamchatka Time UTC+12 (MSK+9)

There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00. Daylight saving time is not used in Russia (since March 2011).

List of zones

Since 4 December 2016, the time zones are as follows:[1][2]

Time zone name Time of day and abbreviation UTC offset MSK offset Area covered Population[3]
Kaliningrad Time 05:06, 21 August 2017 USZ1 [refresh] UTC+02:00 MSK–1h Kaliningrad Oblast 969,000
Moscow Time 06:06, 21 August 2017 MSK [refresh] UTC+03:00 MSK+0h Most of European Russia (excluding federal subjects in UTC+02:00, UTC+04:00 and UTC+05:00 time zones) 89,282,000
Samara Time 07:06, 21 August 2017 SAMT [refresh] UTC+04:00 MSK+1h Astrakhan Oblast, Samara Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Udmurtia and Ulyanovsk Oblast 9,507,000
Yekaterinburg Time 08:06, 21 August 2017 YEKT [refresh] UTC+05:00 MSK+2h Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast and Yamalia 20,986,000
Omsk Time 09:06, 21 August 2017 OMST [refresh] UTC+06:00 MSK+3h Omsk Oblast 1,978,000
Krasnoyarsk Time 10:06, 21 August 2017 KRAT [refresh] UTC+07:00 MSK+4h Altai Krai, Altai Republic, Kemerovo Oblast, Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, Tomsk Oblast and Tuva 12,854,000
Irkutsk Time 11:06, 21 August 2017 IRKT [refresh] UTC+08:00 MSK+5h Irkutsk Oblast and Buryatia 3,393,000
Yakutsk Time 12:06, 21 August 2017 YAKT [refresh] UTC+09:00 MSK+6h Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai and most of the Sakha Republic (excluding districts in UTC+10:00 and UTC+11:00 time zones) 2,794,000
Vladivostok Time 13:06, 21 August 2017 VLAT [refresh] UTC+10:00 MSK+7h Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and the Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky and Verkhoyansky districts of the Sakha Republic 3,471,000
Magadan Time 14:06, 21 August 2017 SRET [refresh] UTC+11:00 MSK+8h Magadan Oblast, Sakhalin Oblast, and the Abyysky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Srednekolymsky and Verkhnekolymsky districts of the Sakha Republic 665,000
Kamchatka Time 15:06, 21 August 2017 PETT [refresh] UTC+12:00 MSK+9h Chukotka and Kamchatka Krai 368,000

Daylight saving time

Daylight saving time in Russia was originally introduced on 30 June [13 July, N.S.] 1917 by a decree of the Russian Provisional Government. However, it was abandoned by a Decree of the Soviet government five months later.

Daylight saving time was re-introduced in the USSR on 1 April 1981, by a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Daylight saving time began on 1 April and ended on 1 October each year, until mid-1984, when the USSR began following European daylight saving time rules, moving clocks forward one hour at 02:00 local standard time on the last Sunday in March, and back one hour at 03:00 local daylight time on the last Sunday in September until 1995, after which the change back occurred on the last Sunday in October. The usage of daylight saving time continued after the Soviet collapse but ended in 2011, when Russia stopped observing daylight saving time.

On 27 March 2011, clocks were advanced as usual, but they did not go back on 30 October 2011, effectively making Moscow Time UTC+04:00 permanently.[4] On 26 October 2014, following another change in the law, the clocks in most of the country were moved back one hour, but summer Daylight Time was not reintroduced; Moscow Time returned to UTC+03:00 permanently.[5] Since this reform, most Russian territories have a standard time ahead of mean solar time, including time in some cites ahead it even by one hour. For example, St. Petersburg at 30°E [+2h (*solar time)] has UTC+03:00, Yekaterinburg at 60°E (+4h*) has UTC+05:00, and Vladivostok at 132°E (+9h*) has UTC+10:00.

History

Russian Empire

In the Russian Empire, most of the nation observed solar time. During the late 19th century, Moscow Mean Time was introduced on 1 January [13 January, N.S.] 1880, originally at GMT+02:30:17.[6] 2:30:17 corresponds to 37.6166667°, the longitude of Moscow. Other parts of Russia kept solar time for several years. At this time, Russia had the Julian calendar with 12 or 13 days less date compared to Western Europe, so it is possible to say the Moscow actually had GMT-285:29:43 (GMT-11d 21h 29m 43s) (29 February [12 March, N.S.] 1800 − 28 February [12 March, N.S.] 1900), GMT-309:29:43 (GMT-12d 21h 29m 43s) (29 February [13 March, N.S.] 1900 − 3 July [16 July, N.S.] 1916) and GMT-309:28:41 (GMT-12d 21h 28m 41s) (3 July [16 July, N.S.] 1916 − 31 January [13 February, N.S.] 1918). Russia adopted the Gregorian calendar on Thursday, 14 February 1918, which most of Europe already used.

Soviet Union

After the Soviet Union was created, Moscow Time became UTC+2 and the various other time zones (up to UTC+12) were introduced throughout Russia and the rest of the Soviet Union, for example Irkutsk Time GMT+7 (Irkutsk has since this always been MSK+5).[6] Between 1917-1922 the time was less ordered, with daylight savings time some of those years, some with two hours addition, and some of those years with one or two hours extra winter time.[6]

On 21 June 1930, the Soviet Union advanced all clocks by one hour, effectively making the nation run on daylight saving time all year (the so-called decree time).

On 1 April 1981, daylight saving time (two hours ahead of standard time) was re-introduced; clocks were moved one hour forward on 1 April (the last Sunday of March since 1985) and one hour back on 1 October (the last Sunday of September since 1984, the last Sunday of October since 1996).[6]

On 1 April 1981, 00:00:00, Oymyakonsky District changed its time zone from MSK+6 to MSK+8.[7]

The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+9 to UTC+12, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+9 to UTC+11.[citation needed]

On 1 April 1982, 00:00:00, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug changed its time zone from MSK+10 to MSK+9, thus eliminating Anadyr Time (MSK+10 or UTC+13 without DST).[8]

The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+14 to UTC+13, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+13 to UTC+12.

On 27 March 1988, 02:00:00, Saratov and Volgograd oblasts changed its time zone from MSK+1 to MSK.[9][10]

The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+5 to UTC+4, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+4 to UTC+3.

On 26 March 1989, the following changes were introduced, which, in particular, some oblasts switched to Moscow Time (thus eliminating Samara Time; MSK+1 or UTC+4 without DST):

Some oblasts switched from Moscow Time to Eastern European Time:

Russian Federation

Russia and most republics in the Soviet Union abolished the decree time (not moving the clocks) on 31 March 1991, but Russia reversed this the following year (except Samara Oblast which was already in UTC+04:00).[citation needed]

On 29 September 1991, 03:00:00, Samara Oblast changed its time zone from MSK to MSK+1 (thus reinstating Samara Time; MSK+1). So the zone boundaries on 20 October, Samara Oblast changed its time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+4.[11]

On 23 May 1993, 00:00:00, Novosibirsk Oblast changed its time zone from MSK+4 to MSK+3.[12]

The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+8 to UTC+7, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+7 to UTC+6.

On 28 May 1995, 00:00:00, Altai Krai and Altai Republic changed its time zone from MSK+4 to MSK+3.[13]

On 30 March 1997, 02:00:00, Sakhalin Oblast changed its time zone from MSK+8 to MSK+7.[14]

On 1 May 2002, 03:00:00, Tomsk Oblast changed its time zone from MSK+4 to MSK+3.[15]

11 time zones in Russia from 2004 to 2010

On 1 January 2004, 00:00:00, New Siberian Islands, Tomponsky District and Ust-Maysky District changed its time zone from MSK+6 to MSK+7.[16]

April 2010: 9 zones

The following time zone changes occurred on 28 March 2010, which, in particular, led to abolition of two of the eleven time zones.

Although the Russian government wants to reduce the number of time zones even further, there have been protests in far-eastern Russia on the recent changes, including protests and a 20,000-strong petition in support of Kamchatka returning to UTC+12.[21]

September 2011: 9 zones, "permanent DST".

The decree No. 725[22] (31 August 2011) changed UTC offset for Moscow Time and the other time zones. Moscow Time Zone now used UTC+04:00 all year around. The notions of decree time and daylight saving time were abolished in the law, but in fact, this law mandated permanent daylight saving time (or even double daylight saving time in regions that had not abolished the decree time). Some areas changed offset from Moscow:

Some districts of the Sakha Republic switched from Magadan Time (Zone 9) to Vladivostok Time (from Zone 8):

Some districts of the Sakha Republic switched from Vladivostok Time (Zone 8) to Yakutsk Time (Zone 7):

Blue Yakutsk Time (MSK+6), pink Vladivostok Time (MSK+7), red Magadan Time (MSK+8).

October 2014: 11 zones

As a result of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, local authorities in the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol decreed that clocks in the newly proclaimed Russian federal subjects should jump ahead two hours at 10 p.m. on 29 March 2014 to switch from Eastern European Time (UTC+2) to Moscow Time (UTC+4).[23]

On 22 July 2014, further changes were passed, which took effect on 26 October 2014. All of Russia moved back one hour, so Moscow Time became UTC+3. Some areas changed offset from Moscow:[24]

Annual DST changes is not observed.[25]

Time zones in Russia, difference with standard time:
  -2 h ± 30 min
  -1 h ± 30 min
  ± 30 min
  +1 h ± 30 min
  +2 h ± 30 min

The following time zone changes occurred on 27 March 2016:[26]

  • Sakhalin Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+10:00 to UTC+11:00 (from Vladivostok to Srednekolymsk time), except Severo-Kurilsky District, which was already in UTC+11:00 (Srednekolymsk Time)
  • Zabaykalsky Krai moved forward one hour from UTC+08:00 to UTC+09:00 (from Irkutsk to Yakutsk time)
  • Altai Krai and Altai Republic moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)
  • Astrakhan and Ulyanovsk oblasts moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time)

The following time zone change occurred on 24 April 2016:[27]

  • Magadan Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+10:00 to UTC+11:00 (from Vladivostok to Srednekolymsk time)

After these changes, the UTC+11:00 time zone is also named Magadan Time or Sakhalin Time.[28]

The following time zone change occurred on 29 May 2016:[29]

  • Tomsk Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)

The following time zone change occurred on 24 July 2016:[30]

  • Novosibirsk Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)

The following time zone change occurred on 4 December 2016:[31][32]

  • Saratov Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time)

Railway time

All timetables on Russian Railways (except Sakhalin railways) follow Moscow Time.[33] Airports, however, follow local time.[34]

tz database

http://efele.net/maps/tz/russia – data from 2009

For Russia, the tz database contains several zones in the file zone.tab.

List of zones

The list below shows the 16 zones for Russia as defined in the file zone.tab of the database. The database aims to identify regions that had the same time offset rules since 1970.

Two federal subjects are contained in more than one tz zone. The Sakha Republic is divided into three: west, central, east. Sakhalin Oblast is divided into two: Sakhalin Island with Kurilsky and Yuzhno-Kurilsky districts in the Kuril Islands, and Severo-Kurilsky District in the Kuril Islands.

Two zones, namely Asia/Omsk and Asia/Novosibirsk, each cover area that did not observe the same rule set since 1970, all now using Omsk Time.

On the last Sunday in October 2011, daylight-saving time ended in tzdata, but all zones moved forward one hour. In other words, the clocks did not change, but the names of the time zones reverted permanently to their standard time variants and there will be no more daylight-saving time.[citation needed]

If available, the change column lists the offset changes that caused a creation of a new zone in the tz database.

"Initial zone" means that in 1970 there was already a difference in time offset from the offsets in any other zone.

C.c. Coordinates tzid Comments UTC offset (without DST, permanent since 2011) Covered area Split from[citation needed] Changes
RU +5443+02030 Europe/Kaliningrad Moscow-01 - Kaliningrad +02:00 Kaliningrad Oblast Initial zone 1989-03-26 Change from UTC+03 to UTC+02
RU +5545+03735 Europe/Moscow Moscow+00 - west Russia +03:00 Most of European Russia. Complete list given here. Initial zone
RU +4844+04425 Europe/Volgograd Moscow+00 - Caspian Sea +03:00 Kirov Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, and Astrakhan Oblast Europe/Samara 1992-03-29 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+04 to UTC+03
RU +5312+05009 Europe/Samara Moscow+00 (Moscow+01 after 2014-10-26) - Samara, Udmurtia +04:00 Samara Oblast and Udmurtia Initial zone 2010-03-28 Change from UTC+04 to UTC+03
RU +5419+04822 Europe/Ulyanovsk +04:00 Ulyanovsk Oblast Europe/Moscow 2016-03-27 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+03 to UTC+04
RU +5651+06036 Asia/Yekaterinburg Moscow+02 - Urals +05:00 Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, and Yamalia Initial zone
RU +5500+07324 Asia/Omsk Moscow+03 - west Siberia +06:00 Altai Krai, Altai Republic, and Omsk Oblast
RU +5502+08255 Asia/Novosibirsk Moscow+03 - Novosibirsk +06:00 Novosibirsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast.
RU +5345+08707 Asia/Novokuznetsk Moscow+03 (Moscow+04 after 2014-10-26) - Kemerovo +07:00 Kemerovo Oblast Asia/Novosibirsk 2010-03-28 Zone creation, causing change from Krasnoyarsk Time to Novosibirsk Time[36]
RU +5601+09250 Asia/Krasnoyarsk Moscow+04 - Yenisei River +07:00 Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and Tuva Republic
RU +5216+10420 Asia/Irkutsk Moscow+05 - Lake Baikal +08:00 Irkutsk Oblast and Buryatia
RU +6200+12940 Asia/Yakutsk Moscow+06 - Lena River +09:00 Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, and western Sakha Republic
RU +4310+13156 Asia/Vladivostok Moscow+07 - Amur River +10:00 Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and central Sakha Republic Initial zone
RU +4658+14242 Asia/Sakhalin Moscow+07 - Sakhalin Island +10:00 Sakhalin Island, and western Kuril Islands Asia/Magadan 1997-03-30 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+11 to UTC+10
RU +643337+1431336 Asia/Ust-Nera Moscow+07 - Oymyakonsky +10:00 Oymyakonsky District Asia/Yakutsk 1981-04-01 Changed to Magadan time
RU +5934+15048 Asia/Magadan Moscow+08 (Moscow+07 after 2014-10-26) - Magadan +10:00 Magadan Oblast Initial zone 2014-10-26 Split: Magadan Oblast changed to Vladivostok time, other areas using new Srednekolymsk time
RU +6728+15343 Asia/Srednekolymsk Moscow+08 - E Sakha, N Kuril Is +11:00 eastern Kuril Islands, and eastern Sakha Republic Asia/Magadan 2014-10-26
RU +5301+15839 Asia/Kamchatka Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Kamchatka +12:00 Kamchatka Krai Initial zone 2010-03-28 Change from UTC+12 to UTC+11
RU +6445+17729 Asia/Anadyr Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Bering Sea +12:00 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Initial zone

Deleted zones

Asia/Ulan Ude was a time zone identifier from the zone file of the tz database. The reference point was Ulan-Ude. It was added in tz version 2011e.[37] Edition 2011i did not contain it anymore. The area remained at Asia/Irkutsk. The contained data in zone.tab was:

RU
+5150+10736
Asia/Ulan_Ude
Moscow+05 - Buryatia

The covered area was Republic of Buryatia.

Federal subjects with multiple offsets at the same time

Per a 2011 law, last amended in 2016,[38] the territory of Sakha Republic observes more than one offset.

Sakha Republic

See also

References

  1. ^ New time zones map of Russia from March 27, 2016, World Time Zone, 27 March 2016.
  2. ^ Time Zones Currently Being Used in Russia, Timeanddate.com.
  3. ^ Population of the Subjects of the Russian Federation, Russian Federal State Statistics Service, 2015.
  4. ^ "Медведев отменил зимнее время". Lenta.ru. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  5. ^ Russian clocks go back for last time, BBC News, 25 October 2014
  6. ^ a b c d Time Zone in Moscow, Russia
  7. ^ Clock Changes in Ust-Nera, Russia in 1981. Timeanddate.com.
  8. ^ Clock Changes in Anadyr, Russia in 1982. Timeanddate.com.
  9. ^ Clock Changes in Saratov, Russia in 1988. Timeanddate.com.
  10. ^ Clock Changes in Volgograd, Russia in 1988. Timeanddate.com.
  11. ^ Clock Changes in Samara, Russia in 1991. Timeanddate.com.
  12. ^ Time changes in year 1993 for Russia – Novosibirsk. Timeanddate.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  13. ^ Clock Changes in Barnaul, Russia in 1995. Timeanddate.com.
  14. ^ Clock Changes in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia in 1997. Timeanddate.com.
  15. ^ Clock Changes in Tomsk, Russia in 2002. Timeanddate.com.
  16. ^ Clock Changes in Khandyga, Russia in 2004. Timeanddate.com.
  17. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №171 от 19 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Камчатского края и Чукотского автономного округа времени десятого часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #171 of 19 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Tenth Time Zone on the Territory of Kamchatka Krai and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. ).
  18. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №740 от 14 сентября 2009 г. «О применении на территории Кемеровской области времени пятого часового пояса». (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #740 of 14 September 2009 On Using the Time of the Fifth Time Zone on the Territory of Kemerovo Oblast. ).
  19. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №166 от 17 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Удмуртской Республики времени второго часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #166 of 17 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Second Time Zone on the Territory of the Udmurt Republic. ).
  20. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №170 от 19 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Самарской области времени второго часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #170 of 19 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Second Time Zone on the Territory of Samara Oblast. ).
  21. ^ "Thousands Protest Time Zone Changes in Russia". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2011-01-15. 
  22. ^ Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации № 725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации».
  23. ^ "Crimea switches to Moscow time". Voice of Russia. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "New Russian time zones and the corresponding areas from October 26, 2014", World Time Zone, 22 July 2014.
  25. ^ "Russia Moving to Permanent Winter Time From October 26", RIA Novosti 22 July 2014, retrieved 26 July 2014
  26. ^ Russia Changes Several Time Zones, Timeanddate.com, 17 March 2016.
  27. ^ Russia Changes Time Zone in Magadan, Timeanddate.com, 7 April 2016.
  28. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/time/zone/russia/magadan
  29. ^ Proposed Time Change in Tomsk, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 27 April 2016.
  30. ^ Proposed Time Change in Novosibirsk, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 5 July 2016.
  31. ^ Proposed Time Change in Saratov, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 14 November 2016.
  32. ^ Vladimir Putin signed law on time change in Saratov Oblast, Vzglyad-info, 22 November 2016. (in Russian)
  33. ^ Russian Railways – Time tables
  34. ^ for example http://www.iktport.ru/
  35. ^ Новости NEWSru.com :: С 1 мая Томская область перешла в новый часовой пояс. Newsru.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  36. ^ proposed time zone package changes. Gmane. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  37. ^ proposeed time zone package changes Chile Russia Irkutsk Buryatia Morocco. Gmane. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  38. ^ Federal law of 03.06.2011 N 107-FZ (edition of 09.03.2016) "On the calculation of time", Consultant Plus. (in Russian)

External links

  • Moscow time
  • Map of time zones in Russia
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