Tidung people

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Tidung people
Tidong
تيدوڠ
Molbog
Baloyrumahkhastidung.JPG
A traditional Tidung house, baloy from North Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Total population
76,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations

 Indonesia
27,000 (North Kalimantan)[2]


 Malaysia
28,515 (Sabah)[3]


 Philippines
13,680 (Palawan, Balabac Island)[4]
Languages
Tidong languages (Nonukan Tidong language, Sesayap Tidong language, Molbog language), also Indonesian/Malaysian/Filipino
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Banjarese, Bulungan, Kutai, Murut, Paser

The Tidung, Tidong (Jawi: تيدوڠ), known as Molbog in The Philippines, is a native group originating from northeastern part of Borneo and surrounding small islands. They lived on both sides of the border of Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.[1]

Tidung speak Tidong language, a Bornean language.[5] The Tidong are traditionally farmers practising slash-and-burn agriculture. Some are ocean fishermen. They grow sweet potatoes, cassava, lentils, fruits, and vegetables. Their farming methods are often accused of being the main cause of forest fires in Kalimantan.

The rise of the Muslim Tidung Sultanate molded the ethnogenesis character of the Tidung people. They collectively known as a Malayalised Dayak (Indonesian: Dayak berbudaya Melayu or Dayak-Melayu) people of Kalimantan similar to other native Muslim coastal Borneo groups, such as the Bulungan, Kutainese, Banjarese and Paserese people. Most Tidungese people perceived themselves as Malay due to the stronger self-affiliation with the Malay-Muslim identity.

Etymology

The term tidung in Tarakan language of the Tidung people literally means "hill" or "hill people". As with many other tribes of the Malay Archipelago, the term tidung is a collective term used to describe many closely related indigenous groups. The different groups of Tidung people describe themselves in all cases as Tidung people, however, they are summarized by modern ethnology as a common people group due to similarities in cultural and religious traditions.[6]

Settlement areas

The traditional territories of the Tidung people are at the Sembakung River, East Kalimantan and Sibuku River of their headwaters to the estuary north of Tarakan Island, Indonesia thence along the coast; south to the river-mouth of Bolongan River and northward up to Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia including Cowie Harbour. An enclave of Tidung people located at Labuk River, opposite the city of Klagan.[6] Their settlement can also found up north to Banggi and Balambangan Island in Kudat, Sabah and Balabac Island and Palawan Island in southern Philippines, in these areas they are known as Molbog people.[citation needed]

Demographics

For Malaysia in the state of Sabah, the census of 2010 (Census 2010) indicates a population of 28,515 Tidong.[3] Whereas, Tidung people in other states have no statistical relevance.

For Indonesia, the population of the Tidung people is estimated about 27,000 in the year of 2007.[2]

In The Philippines, their population is estimated to be 13,680.[4]

Language

Tidung among the languages of Kalimantan (orange #59, top)

The Tidung language spoken by the Tidung people is also part of other Murutic language, which in turn belongs to the Western Malayo-Polynesian languages.[7] The Tidung language is spoken in different dialects, namely:-[8]

Writing system

Prior to present-day Roman writing system, the Tidung people used Jawi script in their writings.

Folktales and Fables

Among the Tidung folktale includes:

  • Asal-usul Orang Tidung Tengara (The origin of Tidung Tenggara people)
  • Lasedne sinan pagun (The sink of Jelutong village)
  • Seludon Ibenayuk (The tale of Ibenayuk)
  • Si Benua dan Si Sumbing (Benua and Sumbing)
  • Seludon Yaki Yamus (The tale of Four-eyed king)
  • Seludon Batu Tinagad (The logged stone)
  • Yaki Balak (The story of Aki Balak)

References

  1. ^ a b "Tidong". Joshua Project. 
  2. ^ a b M. Paul Lewis (2009). "Summer Institute of Linguistics". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. ISBN 15-567-1216-2. 
  3. ^ a b 2010 Population and Housing Census. Communication from the Statistical Office. 2010. 
  4. ^ a b http://www.ethnologue.com/17/language/pwm/
  5. ^ Lewis,, M. Paul (2009). "Tidong. A language of Indonesia (Kalimantan)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version. 
  6. ^ a b Frank M. LeBar & George N. Appell (1972). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. Human Relations Area Files Press. p. 169. ISBN 08-753-6403-9. 
  7. ^ D.J. Prentice (1970). S.A. Wurm & D.C. Laycock, ed. The linguistic situation in northern Borneo in: Pacific Linguistic Studies in Honour of Arthur Capell. Pacific Linguistics, Series C. 
  8. ^ "Tidung". ethnologue. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
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