Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram

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Chidambaram Temple
Thillai Natarajar-Koothan Koil
A view of north-side gopuram of the temple
A view of north-side gopuram and pond of the temple
Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram is located in India
Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram
Location in Tamil Nadu
Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram is located in Tamil Nadu
Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram
Location in Tamil Nadu
Geography
Coordinates 11°23′58″N 79°41′36″E / 11.39944°N 79.69333°E / 11.39944; 79.69333Coordinates: 11°23′58″N 79°41′36″E / 11.39944°N 79.69333°E / 11.39944; 79.69333
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District Cuddalore District
Location Chidambaram
Culture
Sanctum Nataraja (Shiva)[1]
Tradition Shaivism (Agama)[2]
Architecture
Architecture Dravidian
Inscriptions Tamil, Sanskrit
The main gopuram of Chidambaram Natarajar temple

Nataraja Temple, also referred to as the Cidambaram Nataraja temple or Thillai Nataraja temple, is a Hindu temple dedicated to NatarajaShiva as the lord of dance – in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.[1][3][4] The temple has mythical roots and a Shiva shrine existed at the site when the town was known as Thillai.[3][5] Chidambaram, the name of the city and the temple literally means "atmosphere of wisdom" or "clothed in thought", the temple architecture symbolizes the connection between the arts and spirituality, creative activity and the divine.[1][6][7] The temple wall carvings display all the 108 karanas from the Natya Shastra by Bharata Muni, and these postures form a foundation of Bharatanatyam, a classical Indian dance.[1][3]

The present temple was built in the 10th century when Chidambaram was the capital of the Chola dynasty, making it one of the oldest surviving active temple complexes in South India. After its 10th century consecration by the Cholas who considered Nataraja as their family deity,[8] the temple has been damaged, repaired, renovated and expanded through the 2nd millennium. Most of the temple's surviving plan, architecture and structure is from the late 12th and early 13th centuries, with later additions in similar style.[9] While Shiva as Nataraja is the primary deity of the temple, it reverentially presents major themes from Shaktism, Vaishnavism, and other traditions of Hinduism. The Chidambaram temple complex, for example, has the earliest known Amman or Devi temple in South India, a pre-13th century Surya shrine with chariot, shrines for Ganesha, Murugan and Vishnu, one of the earliest known Shiva Ganga sacred pool, large mandapas for the convenience of pilgrims (choultry, ambalam or sabhai) and other monuments.[10][11] Shiva himself is presented as the Nataraja performing the Ananda Tandava ("Dance of Delight") in the golden hall of the shrine Pon Ambalam (பொன் அம்பலம்).[12]

The temple is one of the five elemental lingas in the Shaivism pilgrimage tradition, and considered the subtlest of all Shiva temples (Kovil) in Hinduism.[1] It is also a site for performance arts, including the annual Natyanjali dance festival on Maha Shivaratri.[13]

Etymology

The town used to be called Tillai, likely derived from the mangrove of Tillai (தில்லை) trees (Exocoeria agallocha) that grow here and the nearby Pichavaram wetlands.[14]

The site became the capital of Cholas in the 10th century, and they renamed it to Chidambaram (சிற்றம்பலம்) and built the current temple for their family deity of Nataraja Shiva. The word Chidambaram comes from the Tamil word Chitrambalam (also spelled Chithambalam) meaning "wisdom atmosphere". The roots are citt or chitthu means "consciousness or wisdom", while and ampalam means "atmosphere".[7][15] This composite word comes from its association with Shiva Nataraja, the cosmic dancer and the cultural atmosphere for arts.[7] The word Chidambaram is translated by James Lochtefeld as "clothed in thought".[1]

The town and temple name appears in medieval Hindu texts by various additional names such as Kovil (lit. "the temple"), Pundarikapuram, Vyagrapuram, Sirrampuram, Puliyur and Chitrakuta.[16] Additional names for Chidambaram in Pallava era and North Indian texts include Kanakasabha, Ponnambalam, Brahmastpuri and Brahmapuri.[17]

Location

The Nataraja temple in Chidambaram is located in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of the Kollidam River (Kaveri), 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west from the coast of Bay of Bengal, and 220 kilometres (140 mi) south of Chennai. The closest major airport is about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north in Pondicherry (IATA: PNY). The National Highway 32 (old numbering: NH-45A) passes through Chidambaram. The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and private companies operate services connecting it to major cities in the state.[18] The site is linked to the Indian Railways with daily express trains to South Indian cities.[19]

Chidambaram is a temple town, with the Nataraja complex spread over 40 acres (0.16 km2) within a nearly square courtyard in the center. Its side roads are aligned to the east-west, north-south axis. It has double walls around its periphery with gardens. It has had entrance gateways on all four sides.[20]

History

Nataraja – Shiva as the cosmic dancer, inspired the 10th-century Chola kings to rebuild the Chidambaram temple with stone and gold. A silver Nataraja, not Shivalinga, is the principal icon in this temple.[21]

The Nataraja temple has ancient roots, likely following the temple architecture tradition that is found all over South India from at least the 5th-century. Textual evidence, such as those of the Sangam tradition, suggest a temple existed here along with Madurai in ancient times,[22] but the town is not named Chidambaram in these pre-5th century texts.[23] The earliest mention of "dancing god of Chidambaram" as Shiva is found in 6th and early 7th century texts by Appar and Sambadar.[23] The Suta Samhita embedded inside Skanda Purana and variously dated between 7th and 10th century mentions the Chiadambaram dance. The surviving Nataraja temple has a structure that is traceable to the early Chola dynasty. Chidambaram was the early capital of this dynasty, and Shiva Nataraja was their family deity. The Chidambaram temple town remained important to the Cholas, albeit with increasing competition from other temple towns when Rajaraja Chola I moved the capital to Thanjavur, built a new city and the massive Brihadeeswarar Temple dedicated to Shiva in early 11th-century, which is now a world heritage site.[24][25][26]

Nataraja Shiva and his "dance of bliss" is an ancient Hindu art concept. It is found in various texts such as Tatva Nidhi which describes seven types of dance and their spiritual symbolism, Kashyapa Silpa which describes 18 dance forms with iconographic details and design instructions, as well as Bharata's ancient treatise on performance arts Natya Shastra which describes 108 dance postures among other things. Reliefs and sculptures of Nataraja have been found across the Indian subcontinent, some dating to 6th-century and earlier such as in Aihole and Badami cave temples.[27][28][note 1]

The Chidambaram temple built on this heritage, yet creatively evolved the idea into forms not found elsewhere. The earliest historically verifiable Shiva temple at Chidambaram is traceable in inscriptions that date to the rule of Aditya Chola I in early 10th century, and far more during the rule of 10th century Chola king Parantaka I.[8][2] For them, the dancing Shiva was the kula-nayaka (family guide or deity) and Chidambaram was the capital they built.[30] These inscriptions and texts from this period suggest that the significance of the Agama texts and Shaiva Bhakti movement was strengthening within the Chola leadership and thought.[2]

The copper plate inscriptions of Parantaka I (c. 907-955 CE) describe him as the "bee at the lotus feet of Shiva" who built the golden house for Shiva, with Chit-sabha, Hema-sabha, Hiranya-sabha and Kanaka-sabha (all mandapam, pillared pilgrim rest places). He is referred to as "Pon veinda Perumal", which means "one who covered with gold" the Chit-sabha of Chidambaram.[31] Both Aditya I and his Chola successor Parantaka I were active supporters of arts and temple building. They converted many older brick and wooden temples into more lasting temples from cut stone as the building blocks in dozens of places across South India.[32]

The temple, according to inscriptions found in South India and Southeast Asia, was also historic recipient of a precious jewel from the king of Angkor who built the Angkor Wat through Chola king Kulothunga, who submitted it to the temple in 1114 CE.[33] Kulothunga I and his son expanded the Chidambaram Nataraja temple expanse six fold.[34]

Chidambaram temple thrived during the Chola dynasty rule through mid 13th century, along with the later Shiva-based Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram capitals, as well as Vishnu-based Srirangam temple towns. Its facilities infrastructure was expanded. Naralokaviran, the general of king Kulothunga Chola I was responsible for building the steps that lead to Sivaganga water pool, a goddess shrine, a shrine for child saint Thirugnana Sambanthar, temple gardens and a pilgrim road network in and around Chidambaram. He constructed a hall for recitation of Tevaram hymns and engraved the hymns in copper plates.[35] The thousand pillar choultry, with friezes narrating Hindu texts, was built in late 12th-century.[35] Between the second half of the 12th century and the early 13th century, the Chola kings added colorful and high gopura stone gateways as easily identifiable landmarks, starting with the western gopura. Thereafter, about mid 13th century, the Pandya dynasty ended the Chola dynasty.[36] The Hindu Pandyas were liberal supporters of Chidambaram temple, along with other Shiva and Vishnu temples, just like the Chola. Sundara Pandya added the huge eastern gopura at Chidambaram, beginning the colossal gateway tradition.[36] Most of the structure and plans currently seen in the Chidambaram complex, including the mandapas with their pillar carvings, the various shrines with polished granite sculptures, the sacred water pool and the early gopurams are from the 12th and 13th century, attributed to the late Chola and early Pandya kings.[37]

Invasions

Subrahmanya shrine in ruins, early 19th century
A Mandapam in 1869
One of the temple's pillared halls before demolition in late 19th-century.

In the north, the Indian subcontinent had been conquered by the Delhi Sultanate. Muslim armies had begun raiding central India for plunder by late 13th century. In 1311, the Ala ud Din Khilji's Muslim general Malik Kafur and his Delhi Sultanate forces went deeper into the Indian peninsula for loot and to establish annual tribute paying Muslim governors.[38] The records left by the court historians of the Delhi Sultanate state that Malik Kafur raided Chidambaram, Srirangam and other Tamil towms, destroyed the temples, and the Chidambaram Shiva temple was one of the sources of gold and jewels booty he brought back to Delhi.[39][40][41]

The temple towns of Tamil Nadu were again targeted for loot in 1320s. However, when the news of another invasion spread in Tamil lands, the community removed them into the Western Ghats or buried numerous sculptures and treasures in the land and concealed chambers underneath temples sites before the Muslim armies reached them. A large number of these were rediscovered in archaeological excavations at the site in and after 1979, including those in Chidambaram.[42][43][44] According to Nagaswamy, those who buried the temple artworks followed the Hindu Agama texts such as Marici Samhita and Vimanarcanakalpa that recommend ritually burying precious metal murtis as a means of protection when war and robbery is imminent. Over 200 such items have been recovered, including relevant hordes of copper plate inscriptions.[44]

The Islamic invasion in the 14th century, states George Michell – a professor and art historian of Indian architecture, brought an abrupt end to the patronage of Chidambaram and other temple towns.[45] The Delhi Sultan appointed a Muslim governor, who seceded within the few years from the Delhi Sultanate and began the Madurai Sultanate. This Sultanate sought tribute from the temple towns, instead of supporting them. The Muslim Madurai Sultanate was relatively short-lived, with Hindu Vijayanagar Empire removing it in late 14th century.[45] The Vijayanagara rulers restored, repaired and expanded the temple through the 16th century, along with many other regional temples. These kings themselves went on pilgrimage to Chidambaram, and gifted resources to strengthen its walls and infrastructure.[46]

A 1847 sketch of gopuram with ruined pillars, published by James Fergusson

The destruction of Vijayanagara Empire in late 16th century by an alliance of Sultanates, followed within a few decades by entrance of Portuguese, French and British colonial interests brought geopolitical uncertainties to Chidambaram and other temple towns. The Portuguese were already a major Coromandel Coast trading group by early 17th century, a region to which Chidambaram belonged.[47] The Portuguese began building forts, garrison and churches in Coromandel Coast region after the demise of Vijayanagara, triggering the intervention of the French and the British. By mid 17th century, the temple complex was within the patronage of Nayakas, who repaired the temple and repainted the frescoes on mandapa ceilings. According to Michell, these restorations likely occurred about 1643 CE during the reign of Shrirangadeva Raya III.[48]

According to British reports, Chidambaram temple town had to bear the "brunt of several severe onslaughts" between the French and the British colonial forces several times particularly in the 18th-century.[49]

Mythology

The Chidambaram temple mythology is contained in the 12th-century text Chidambara-mahatmya. The central episode states that Shiva visits sages in the mythical Pine Forest in the form of a beggar accompanied by Mohini, none other than Vishnu in the avatar of a beautiful woman. Mohini triggers lustful interest of the sages, while Shiva performs Tandava dance that triggers the carnal interest of the wives of these sages. The sages ultimately realise how superficial their austerities have been. The episode becomes widely known. Two sages named Patanjali (also called Sesha-bodied in the south for his connection to Vishnu) and Vyaghrapada (also called Tiger-footed sage) want to see the repeat performance of this "dance of bliss" in the Thaillai forest, Chidambaram. They set up a Shivalinga, pray, meditate and wait. Their asceticism impresses Shiva who appeared before them in Chidambaram and performed "the dance" against "the wall, in the blessed hall of consciousness". This is how this temple started, according to the mahatmya embedded in the Tamil Sthalapurana.[50] According to Kulke, the late medieval text Chidambaramahatmya may reflect a process of Sanskritisation, where these North Indian named sages with Vedic links became incorporated into regional temple mythology.[23]

Description

Nataraja temple plan. 1: East gopura; 2: South gopura; 3: West gopura; 4: North gopura; 5: 1000 pillar hall (choultry); 6: Shivaganga pool; 7: Devi temple; 8: Shiva Sanctum + Chit Sabha + Kanaka Sabha; 9: Vishnu shrine.

Architecture

The temple is spread over an 40 acres (16 ha) area, within layers of concentric courtyards. The inner sanctum, its connecting mandapams and pillared halls near it are all either squares or stacked squares or both. The complex has nine gopurams, several water storage structures of which the Shivaganga sacred pool is the largest with a rectangular plan. The temple complex is dedicated to Nataraja Shiva and theological ideas associated with Shaivism concepts in Hinduism. However, the temple also includes shrines for Devi, Vishnu, Subrahmanyar, Ganesha, Nandi and others. The plan has numerous gathering halls called sabha, two major choultry called the 100 pillared and 1,000 pillared halls, inscriptions and frescoes narrating Hindu legends about gods, goddesses, saints and scholars.[51][52]

Courtyards

The Nataraja Temple complex is embedded inside four prakarams (prakramas, courtyards). Each of the courtyard has walls that were defensively fortified after the 14th-century plunder and destruction. The outermost wall around the fourth courtyard has four simple, insignificant gateways. The walls and gateways of the fourth courtyard were added in the 16th century by Vijayanagara rulers after they had defeated the Madurai Sultanate, and this outermost layer was heavily fortified by the Nayakas in the 17th-century.[53][54] These face the four large gopurams that are gateways into the third courtyard. These gopurams are also landmarks from afar. Inside the third courtyard, near the northern gopuram, is the Shivaganga tank, the thousand pillar mandapam, the Subrahmanyar (Murugan, Kartikeya) shrine and the shrine for Parvati (as Shivakama Sundari). The other three gateways are closer to the sanctum. The four gopurams pilgrims and visitors to enter the temple from all four cardinal directions. The complex is interconnected through a maze of pathways.[53][54]

The courtyard walls and gateways are made from cut stones with some brick structure added in. The gardens and palm groves are in the fourth courtyard, outside the walls of the third courtyard walls with the four large gopurams. These were restored or added in by the Vijayanagara rulers in the 16th century.[55]

Towers: gopurams

Two distinct styled gopurams of the Chidambaram temple. The artwork narrate religious and secular stories from Hindu texts.

The temple has nine major gopuram gateways connecting the various courtyards. Four of these are huge and colorful, visible from afar, a symbolic and convenient landmark for pilgrims. These gateway towers or gopurams each have 7 storeys facing the East, South, West and North.[53][54] The first edition of the four gopuram superstructures were likely built between 1150 and 1300 CE. The earliest was likely the western gopuram, which is also the smaller of the four. This is generally dated to about 1150 CE. The eastern gopura was likely completed by about 1200 CE, southern gopura by mid 13th century, while the northern was added in late 13th century. The four high gopurams were destroyed, rebuilt, repaired, enlarged and redecorated several times after the 13th century.[53][54] This has made the gopurams difficult to place chronologically, yet useful in scholarly studies of the history of the Nataraja temple.[56]

All gopuras are built of precisely cut large stone blocks all the way to the main cornice. Upon this is a stone, brick and plaster structure with layers of pavilions. Above these talas (storeys) is a Dravidian style barrel vaulted roof, crowned with thirteen kalasa finials. All four are approximately similar in size and 14:10:3 ratio, about 42.7 metres (140 ft) high, 30.5 metres (100 ft) wide and 9.1 metres (30 ft) deep.[54]

Artwork on the gopura

Each gopuram is colorful and unique in its own ways. They narrate stories from various Hindu texts, showing religious and secular scenes from the various Hindu traditions. This art is presented in each gopuram with anthropomorphic figure panels and about fifty niches with stone sculptures in every gopuram.[53][54] The scenes include multiple panels about the legend of Shiva-Parvati wedding with Brahma, Vishnu, Saraswati and Lakshmi attending, dancing Ganesha, Shiva in his various aspects, Durga in the middle of her war with a demon, Skanda ready for war, seated Nandi, musicians, dancers, farmers, merchants, sadhu in namaste posture, dancing dvarapalas near the vertical center line and others. The artists and architects who built these gopura may have had a rationale in the relative sequence and position of the artwork with respect to each other and on various levels, but this is unclear and a subject of disagreement among scholars.[53][57][58]

The artwork on gopuram showing Parvati-Shiva kalyansundram wedding legend. Near the newly weds are Saraswati, Lakshmi, Vishnu and others.

The earliest built western gopuram is the only one with inscriptions below each artwork that identifies what it is. The artwork on it includes Durga fighting the evil, shape shifting buffalo demon and Skanda sitting on peacock and dressed up for war.[54] Other artwork found on the eastern gopuram include Surya, Ganapati, Vishnu, Sridevi (Lakshmi), Tripurasundari, Brahma, Saraswati, Varuna, Durga, Agni, several rishis, Yamuna goddess, Kama and Rati, the Buddha, the Vedic sages such as Narada and Agastya, Pantanjali, Somaskanda legend, Ardhanarishvara (half Shiva, half Parvati), Harihara (half Vishnu, half Shiva), several forms of dancing Shiva and others.[59]

The surviving south gopuram called the Sokkaseeyan Thirunilai Ezhugopuram was constructed by a Pandya king identified from the presence of the dynasty's fish emblem sculpted on the ceiling. The Pandyas sculpted two fishes facing each other when they completed gopurams (and left it with one fish, in case it was incomplete).[60] Other artwork found on the southern gopuram include Chandesha, Ganapati, Vishnu, Sridevi (Lakshmi), several Devis, Brahma, Saraswati, Surya, Chandra, Durga, Indra, Agni, several rishis, Ganga and Yamuna goddesses, Kama and Rati, the Buddha, the Vedic sages such as Narada, Pantanjali, Somaskanda legend, Ardhanarishvara (half Shiva, half Parvati), Harihara (half Vishnu, half Shiva), several forms of dancing and standing Shiva such as Pashupata, Kiratarjuna and Lingobhava, as well as others.[59]

The eastern gopura wall shows all 108 dance postures from the Natya Shastra.[61] The other gopuras also have dance images.[62]

The eastern gopuram features the 108 reliefs of Natya Shastra dance postures (22 cm each in a separate niche) and faces the sanctum.[63][64][65] The eastern gopuram is credited to king Koperunsingan II (1243-1279 A.D.) as per epigrahical records[66] and was repaired with support from a woman named Subbammal in late 18th century.

The northern gopuram was repaired and finished by the Vijayanagara king Krishnadevaraya (1509-1530 A.D.) in the 16th century.[35] The eastern and northern gopura also depicts the wide range of narratives as the southern and western gopuram.[59]

The idols of Pachaiappa Mudaliar and his wife Iyalammal have been sculpted on the eastern gopuram. The Pachaiappa Trust to date has been responsible for various functions in the temple and also maintain the temple car. The eastern gopuram is renowned for its complete enumeration of 108 poses of Indian classical dance – Bharathanatyam, detailed in small rectangular panels along the passage that leads to the gateway.

Shrines

The Chidambaram temple complex includes gopura, vimana and the sacred pool.

The temple complex has many shrines, most related to Shaivism but elements of Vaishnavism and Shaktism are included. The innermost structures such as the sanctum and the shrines all have square plans, but the gateways do not align except the innermost two courtyards.[53][54]

Shaivism

The sanctum of the temple is set inside the innermost 1st prakara which is a square with about 44 metres (144 ft) side. This prakara is offset towards the west inside the 2nd prakara, which is also a square with about 105 metres (344 ft) side.[53] The Shiva sanctum is unusual as it does not have a Shivalinga, rather it has the Chit Sabha (consciousness gathering, also called chit ambalam) with an image of Shiva Nataraja. This introspective empty space has a curtained space that is 3.5 meter long and 1.5 meter wide. It is called the rahasya (secret) in Hindu texts. It consists of two layers, one red, the other black. According to George Michell, this is a symbolism in Hinduism of "enlightenment inside, illusion outside". It is replaced on the tenth day of the main festivals.[67] The Chidambaram Rahasya is the "formless" representation of Shiva as the metaphysical Brahman in Hinduism, sometimes explained as akasha linga and divine being same as Self (Atman) that is everywhere, in everything, eternally.[68][69][70]

Facing the Chit Sabha is the Kanaka Sabha (also called pon ambalam), or the gathering of dancers. These two sanctum spaces are connected by five silver guilded steps called the panchakshara. The ceiling of the Chit Sabha is made of wooden pillars coated with gold, while copper coats the Kanaka Sabha is copper colored.[71]

Durga in the Shivakamasundari shrine, in her Mahishasuramardini form killing the buffalo demon below her foot.

Shaktism

The main Devi shrine in the Nataraja temple complex is offset towards the north of the sanctum inside the third prakara, and found to the west of the Shivaganga pool. It is called the Shivakamasundari shrine, dedicated to Parvati. The temple faces east and has an embedded square plan, though the stacked squares created a long rectangular space. The shrine has its own walls and an entrance gateway (gopura). Inside is the dedicated mandapas and brightly colored frescoes likely from the 17th-century Vijayanagara period.[72] These narrate the story of Shiva and Vishnu together challenging the "learned sages, ascetics and their wives" in the forest, by appearing in the form of a beautiful beggar that dances (bhikshatanamurti) and a beautiful girl that seduces (Mohini) respectively. Another set of frescoes are secular depicting temple festivities and daily life of people, while a stretch narrates the story of Hindu saints named Manikkavachakar and Mukunda.[73][74]

The shrine had artwork narrating the Devi Mahatmya, a classic Sanskrit text of Shaktism tradition. However, in 1972, these were removed given their dilapidated state. These were replaced with a different story.[75] Other parts of the paintings and shrine also show great damage.[76]

The sanctum of the Shivakamasundari shrine is dedicated to Devi, where she is Shiva's knowledge (jnana shakti), desire (iccha sakti), action (kriya sakti) and compassion (karuna sakti).[77] The oldest Shivakamasundari sculpture at the site representing these aspects of the goddess has been dated to the king Parantaka I period, about 950 CE.[77]

Vaishnavism

The Nataraja temple complex incorporates Vaishnava themes and images like many Hindu temples in South India. A Vishnu shrine, for example, is found inside the sanctum of the temple in its southwest corner. According to George Michell and others, Chola kings revered Shiva with Tyagaraja and Nataraja their family deity, yet their urban Shaiva centers "echo a very strong substratum of Vaishnava traditions". This historic inclusiveness is reflected in Chidambaram with Vishnu Govindraja in the same sanctum home by the side of Nataraja.[78] After the turmoil of the 14th century when the temple was attacked and looted, there was period when some priests sought to restore only Shaiva iconography according to extant Portuguese Jesuit records. However, the Vijayanagara rulers insisted on the re-consecration of all historic traditions.[79] The temple inscriptions confirm that Vishnu was included along with Shiva in the temple's earliest version, and was reinstalled when the temple was reopened by the Vijayanagara kings.[80][81]

Some texts from the time of king Kulottunga II give conflicting reports, wherein the Shaiva texts state that the king removed the Vishnu image while Vaishnava texts state that they took it away and installed it in Tirupati, sometime about 1135 CE. The scholar Vedanta Desika re-established the co-consecration in 1370 CE, about the time Vijayanagara Empire conquered Chidambaram and northern Tamil lands from the Madurai Sultanate.[80] The current shrine, states Michell, is from 1539 financed by king Achyutaraya and it features a reclining figure of Vishnu.[82]

The Govindaraja shrine is one of the 108 holy temples of Vishnu called divyadesam, revered by the 7th-9th-century saint poets of Vaishnava tradition, Alwars.[83] Kulashekhara Alwar mentions this temple as Tillai Chitrakutam and equates Chitrakuta of Ramayana fame with this shrine.[84] The shrine has close connections with the Govindaraja temple in Tirupati dating back to saint Ramanuja of the 11-12th century.[85][86]

The circumambulation paths in shrines, the mandapa's moulded plinth and the pilgrim hall pillars of the Nataraja temple are carved with reliefs showing dancers and musicians.

Others

The Nataraja temple has a pre-13th century Surya shrine. The image is unusual as it depicts a three headed Surya same as Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu, with eight hands holding iconographic items of these deities, along with two lotuses in a pair of hands in front, accompanied by two small female figures possibly Usha and Pratyusha, standing on a chariot drawn by seven horses and Aruna as charioteer.[87][88] The temple also has a significant shrine for Ganesha in the southwest corner and a Subrahmanyar shrine in the northwest corner of the third courtyard.[89][90]

Halls: sabha

There are 5 ambalams or sabhas (halls) inside the temple.

  • Nrithya sabhai or Natya sabhai, a 56-pillared hall lies to the south of the temple's flag mast (kodi maram or dwaja sthambam) where Nataraja outdanced Kali and established his supremacy[64]
  • Raja sabhai or the 1000-pillared hall which symbolizes the yogic chakra of thousand pillared lotus or Sahasraram (which in yoga is a chakra) at the crown of the head and is a seat where the soul unites with God. This chakra is represented as a 1000-petalled lotus. Meditating by concentrating at the Sahasrara Chakra is said to lead to a state of union with The Divine Force and is the pinnacle of yogic practice. The hall is open only on festive days[64]
  • Deva Sabhai, which houses the Pancha moorthis (pancha - five, moorthis - deities, namely the deities of Ganesh, Somaskanda (seated posture of Lord Shiva with Pavarthi and Skanda), Sivananda Nayaki, Muruga and the image of Chandikeswarar.

Temple Tanks

Sacred pool sketched in 1870s.
It is locally called the Sivaganga (சிவகங்கை).

The Chidambaram temple is well endowed with several water bodies within and around the temple complex.

  • Sivaganga (சிவகங்கை) tank[91] is in the third corridor of the temple opposite to the shrine of Shivagami.[64] It is accessed by flights of stone steps leading from the shrine.[92]
  • Paramanandha koobham is the well on the eastern side of the Chitsabhai hall from which water is drawn for sacred purposes.[93]
  • Kuyya theertham is situated to the north-east of Chidambaram in Killai near the Bay of Bengal and has the shore called Pasamaruthanthurai.[93]
  • Pulimadu is situated around a kilometer and a half to the south of Chidambaram.[93]
  • Vyagrapatha Theertham is situated on to the west of the temple opposite to the temple of Ilamai Akkinaar.[93]
  • Anantha Theertham is situated to the west of the temple in front of the Anantheswarar temple.[93]
  • Nagaseri tank is situated to the west of the Anantha thirtham.[93]
  • Brahma Theertham is situated to the north-west of the temple at Thirukalaanjeri.[93]
  • Underground channels at the shrine drain excess water in a northeasterly direction to the Shivapiyai temple tank (சிவப்பியை குளம்) of the Thillai Kali Temple, Chidambaram. Due to poor maintenance, it has not been in use.[94]
  • Thiruparkadal is the tank to the south-east of the Shivapiyai tank.[93]

Inscriptions

There are several inscriptions available in the temple and referring to the Chidambaram temple in neighbouring areas. Most inscriptions available pertain to the periods of Cholas - Rajaraja Chola I (985-1014 CE), Rajendra Chola I (1012-1044 CE), Kulothunga Chola I (1070-1120 CE), Vikrama Chola (1118-1135 CE), Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 -1178 CE), Kulothunga Chola III (1178-1218 CE) and Rajaraja Chola III (1216-1256 CE). Pandya inscriptions date from Thribhuvana Chakravarthi Veerapandiyan, Jataavarman Thribhuvana Chakravarthi Sundarapaandiyan (1251-1268 CE) and Maaravarman Thribhuvana Chakravarthi Veerakeralanaagiya Kulashekara Pandiyan (1268-1308 CE). Pallava inscriptions are available for king Avani Aala Pirandhaan Ko-pperum-Singha (1216-1242 CE). Vijayanagara Kings mentioned in inscriptions are Veeraprathaapa Kiruttina Theva Mahaaraayar (1509-1529 CE), Veeraprathaapa Venkata Deva Mahaaraayar, Sri Ranga Theva Mahaaraayar, Atchyutha Deva Mahaaraayar (1529-1542 CE) and Veera Bhooopathiraayar. One of the inscriptions from the descendant of Cheramaan Perumal nayanar, Ramavarma Maharaja has been found.

Temple Car

The temple car of Natraja used during festival processions.
An 1820 painting of Nataraja in a temple chariot.

The Chidambaram temple car is used for processions twice a year, where it is drawn by several thousand devotees during the festivals.[citation needed]

Significance of the architecture

The temple sanctum contains a silver sculpture of Shiva in his Ānanda-tāṇḍava Nataraja aspect. It signifies:

  • The demon under Lord Nataraja's feet signifies that ignorance is under His feet.[95]
  • The fire in His hand (power of destruction) means He is the destroyer of evil.[95]
  • The raised hand (Abhaya or Pataka mudra) signifies that He is the savior of all life forms.[95]
  • The arc of fire called Thiruvashi or Prabhavati signifies the cosmos and the perpetual motion of the earth.
  • The drum in His hand signifies the origin of life forms.[95][96]
  • The lotus pedestal signifies Om, the sound of the universe.
  • His right eye, left eye and third eye signify the sun, moon and fire/knowledge, respectively.
  • His right earring (makara kundalam) and left earring (sthri kundalam) signify the union of man and woman (right is man, left is woman).
  • The crescent moon in His hair signifies benevolence and beauty.[95]
  • The flowing of river Ganges through His matted hair signifies eternity of life.
  • The dreading of His hair and drape signify the force of His dance.[95]

Bhakti movement

There is no reference to the temple in Sangam literature of the 1st to 5th centuries and the earliest mention is found in 6th century Tamil literature.[97] The temple and the deity were immortalized in Tamil poetry in the works of Thevaram by three poet saints belonging to the 7th century - Thirugnana Sambanthar, Thirunavukkarasar and Sundaramoorthy Nayanar.[98] Thirugnana Sambanthar has composed 2 songs in praise of the temple, Thirunavukkarasar aka Appar 8 Tevarams in praise of Nataraja and Sundarar 1 song in praise of Nataraja. Sundarar commences his Thiruthondar thogai (the sacred list of Lord Shiva's 63 devotees) paying his respects to the priests of the Thillai temple - "To the devotees of the priests at Thillai, I am a devotee". The works of the first three saints, Thirumurai were stored in palm leaf manuscripts in the temple and were recovered by the Chola King Rajaraja Chola[63] under the guidance of Nambiandarnambi.

Manikkavasagar, the 10th century saivite poet has written two works, the first called Tiruvasakam (The sacred utterances) which largely has been sung in Chidambaram and the Thiruchitrambalakkovaiyar (aka Thirukovaiyar), which has been sung entirely in the temple. Manikkavasagar is said to have attained spiritual bliss at Chidambaram. The Chidambaram Mahatmiyam composed during the 12th century explain the subsequent evolution and de-sanskritization.[97]

Temple administration and daily rituals

Worship Forms

A unique feature of this temple is the bejeweled image of Lord Nataraja as the main deity. It depicts Lord Shiva as the master of Koothu-Bharata Natyam and is one of the few temples where Lord Shiva is represented by an anthropomorphic murthi rather than the classic, anionic Lingam.

At Chidambaram, the dancer dominates, not the linga as in other Shiva shrines. The Chitsabha houses a small sphatika(crystal) linga (Chandramoulisvara), believed to be a piece that fell from the crescent adorning Lord Shiva's head and installed by Adi Shankara. The linga is associated with the intangible fifth element, akasha (ether or space),[63] the eternal infinite expanse where the dance of Lord Shiva takes place daily puja is offered to the linga and also to a small gem-carved figure of Ratnasabhapati.

Festivals

Natyanjali Festival in the temple

A whole year for men is said to be a single day for the gods. Just as six poojas are performed in a day at the sanctum sanctorum, six anointing ceremonies are performed for the principal deity - Nataraja in a year. They are the Marghazhi Thiruvaadhirai (in December - January ) indicating the first puja, the fourteenth day after the new moon (chaturdasi) of the month of Masi (February - March) indicating the second pooja, the Chittirai Thiruvonam (in April- May), indicating the third pooja or uchikalam, the Uthiram of Aani (June–July) also called the Aani Thirumanjanam indicating the evening or the fourth puja, the chaturdasi of Aavani (August - September) indicating the fifth puja and the chaturdasi of the month of Puratasi (October - November) indicating the sixth pooja or Arthajama. Of these the Marghazhi Thiruvaadhirai (in December - January) and the Aani Thirumanjanam (in June - July ) are the most important. These are conducted as the key festivals with the main deity being brought outside the sanctum sanctorum in a procession that included a temple car procession followed by a long anointing ceremony.[99] Several hundreds of thousands of people flock the temple to see the anointing ceremony and the ritualistic dance of Shiva when he is taken back to the sanctum sanctorum. Lord Shiva, in his incarnation of Nataraja, is believed to have born on full moon day in the constellation of Ardra, the sixth lunar mansion. Lord Shiva is bathed only 6 times a year, and on the previous night of Ardra, the bath rituals are performed on a grand scale.[100] Pots full of milk, pomegranate juices, coconut water, ghee, oil, sandal paste, curds, holy ashes, and other liquids and solids, considered as sacred offering to the deity are used for the sacred ablution.[100]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Dance and performance arts are not unique to Shiva in Hindu texts, including the Tamil literature. Many other deities, including Vishnu, Durga, Krishna, Ganesha, Kartikeya are all envisioned as dancers amongst other things. However, with Shiva the idea is most evolved.[29]

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External links

  • Shiva as 'Cosmic Dancer': On Pallava Origins for the Nataraja Bronze, Sharada Srinivasan (2004)
  • The Great Ārdrā Darśanam Festival: Performing Śaiva Ritual Texts in Contemporary Chidambaram, Aleksandra Wenta (2013)
  • The Citamparam Temple Complex and Its Evolution, Paul Younger (1986)
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