Terence Tao
Terence "Terry" ChiShen Tao FAA FRS (simplified Chinese: 陶哲轩; traditional Chinese: 陶哲軒; pinyin: Táo Zhéxuān) (born 17 July 1975, Adelaide), is an AustralianAmerican mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics. He currently focuses on harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, algebraic combinatorics, arithmetic combinatorics, geometric combinatorics, compressed sensing and analytic number theory. As of 2015^{[update]}, he holds the James and Carol Collins chair in mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Tao was a corecipient of the 2006 Fields Medal and the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics.
Contents
 1 Personal life
 2 Research and awards
 3 Early years: PDEs, Kakeya conjecture, and Horn conjecture
 4 Green–Tao theorem and compressed sensing
 5 Random matrices, Hardy–Littlewood prime tuples conjecture, approximate groups
 6 Higher order Fourier analysis, Dirac–Motzkin conjecture, Navier–Stokes equation, Prime gaps, Erdős discrepancy problem
 7 Notable awards
 8 Book publications
 9 See also
 10 References
 11 External links
Personal life
Family
Tao's father, Dr. Billy Tao (Chinese: 陶象國; pinyin: Táo Xiàngguó), was a pediatrician who was born in Shanghai and earned his medical degree (MBBS) from the University of Hong Kong in 1969.^{[2]} Tao's mother, Grace (Chinese:梁蕙蘭, English: Leung Wailan), is from Hong Kong; she received a firstclass honours degree in physics and mathematics at the University of Hong Kong.^{[3]} She was a secondary school teacher of mathematics and physics in Hong Kong.^{[4]} Billy and Grace met as students at the University of Hong Kong.^{[5]} They then emigrated from Hong Kong to Australia.^{[6]}
Tao has two brothers living in Australia, both of whom represented Australia at the International Mathematical Olympiad.
 Nigel Tao was part of the team at Google Australia that created Google Wave.^{[7]} He now works on the Go programming language.
 Trevor Tao is an International Master in Chess. He has a double degree in mathematics and music and is an autistic savant.^{[7]}
Tao's wife, Laura, is an engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.^{[8]} They live with their son and daughter in Los Angeles, California.
Childhood
Tao exhibited extraordinary mathematical abilities from an early age, attending university level mathematics courses at the age of 9. He and Lenhard Ng are the only two children in the history of the Johns Hopkins' Study of Exceptional Talent program to have achieved a score of 700 or greater on the SAT math section while just nine years old. Tao scored a 760.^{[9]} In 1986, 1987, and 1988, Tao was the youngest participant to date in the International Mathematical Olympiad, first competing at the age of ten, winning a bronze, silver, and gold medal. He remains the youngest winner of each of the three medals in the Olympiad's history, winning the gold medal shortly after his thirteenth birthday.
At age 14, Tao attended the Research Science Institute. When he was 15 he published his first assistant paper. He received his bachelor's and master's degrees at the age of 16 from Flinders University under Garth Gaudry. In 1992 he won a Fulbright Scholarship to undertake postgraduate study in the United States. From 1992 to 1996, Tao was a graduate student at Princeton University under the direction of Elias Stein, receiving his PhD at the age of 20.^{[10]} He joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles in 1996. When he was 24, he was promoted to full professor at UCLA and remains the youngest person ever appointed to that rank by the institution.
Research and awards
Within the field of mathematics, Tao is known for his collaboration with Ben J. Green of Oxford University; together they proved the Green–Tao theorem. Known for his collaborative mindset, by 2006 Tao had worked with over 30 others in his discoveries,^{[11]} reaching 68 coauthors by October 2015.
In a book review, the mathematician Timothy Gowers remarked on Tao's accomplishments:
“  Tao's mathematical knowledge has an extraordinary combination of breadth and depth: he can write confidently and authoritatively on topics as diverse as partial differential equations, analytic number theory, the geometry of 3manifolds, nonstandard analysis, group theory, model theory, quantum mechanics, probability, ergodic theory, combinatorics, harmonic analysis, image processing, functional analysis, and many others. Some of these are areas to which he has made fundamental contributions. Others are areas that he appears to understand at the deep intuitive level of an expert despite officially not working in those areas. How he does all this, as well as writing papers and books at a prodigious rate, is a complete mystery. It has been said that Hilbert was the last person to know all of mathematics, but it is not easy to find gaps in Tao's knowledge, and if you do then you may well find that the gaps have been filled a year later.  ” 
Tao has won numerous honours and awards over the years.^{[12]}
He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Australian Academy of Science (Corresponding Member), the National Academy of Sciences (Foreign member), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Mathematical Society.^{[13]} In 2006 he received the Fields Medal "for his contributions to partial differential equations, combinatorics, harmonic analysis and additive number theory", and was also awarded the MacArthur Fellowship. He has been featured in The New York Times, CNN, USA Today, Popular Science, and many other media outlets.^{[14]}
By 2016 Tao had published about 300 research papers and 17 books.^{[15]} He has an Erdős number of 2.^{[16]}
Early years: PDEs, Kakeya conjecture, and Horn conjecture
He received the Salem Prize in 2000, the Bôcher Memorial Prize in 2002, and the Clay Research Award in 2003, for his contributions to analysis including work on the Kakeya conjecture and wave maps. In 2005, he received the American Mathematical Society's Levi L. Conant Prize with Allen Knutson for a proof of the Horn conjecture, and in 2006 he was awarded the SASTRA Ramanujan Prize.
Green–Tao theorem and compressed sensing
In 2004, Ben Green and Tao released a preprint proving what is now known as the Green–Tao theorem. This theorem states that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions of prime numbers. The New York Times described it this way:^{[17]}^{[18]}
“  In 2004, Dr. Tao, along with Ben Green, a mathematician now at the University of Cambridge in England, solved a problem related to the Twin Prime Conjecture by looking at prime number progressions—series of numbers equally spaced. (For example, 3, 7 and 11 constitute a progression of prime numbers with a spacing of 4; the next number in the sequence, 15, is not prime.) Dr. Tao and Dr. Green proved that it is always possible to find, somewhere in the infinity of integers, a progression of prime numbers of equal spacing and any length.  ” 
For this and other work Tao was awarded the Australian Mathematical Society Medal of 2004.
He was awarded a Fields Medal in August 2006 at the 25th International Congress of Mathematicians in Madrid. He was the first Australian, the first UCLA faculty member, and one of the youngest mathematicians to receive the award.^{[19]}^{[20]}
An article by New Scientist^{[21]} writes of his ability:
“  Such is Tao's reputation that mathematicians now compete to interest him in their problems, and he is becoming a kind of Mr Fixit for frustrated researchers. "If you're stuck on a problem, then one way out is to interest Terence Tao," says Charles Fefferman [professor of mathematics at Princeton University].^{[19]}  ” 
Tao was a finalist to become Australian of the Year in 2007.^{[22]} He is a corresponding member of the Australian Academy of Science, and in 2007 was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society.^{[23]}^{[24]} In the same year Tao also published Tao's inequality,^{[25]} an extension to the Szemerédi regularity lemma in the field of information theory.
In April 2008, Tao received the Alan T. Waterman Award, which recognizes an early career scientist for outstanding contributions in their field. In addition to a medal, Waterman awardees also receive a $500,000 grant for advanced research.^{[26]}
In December 2008, he was named the Lars Onsager lecturer^{[27]} of 2008, for "his combination of mathematical depth, width and volume in a manner unprecedented in contemporary mathematics". He was presented the Onsager Medal, and held his Lars Onsager lecture entitled "Structure and randomness in the prime numbers"^{[28]} at NTNU, Norway.
Tao was also elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009.^{[29]}
In 2010, he received the King Faisal International Prize jointly with Enrico Bombieri.^{[30]} Also in 2010, he was awarded the Nemmers Prize in Mathematics^{[31]} and the Polya Prize (SIAM) jointly with Emmanuel Candès for their work on Compressed Sensing.^{[32]}
Random matrices, Hardy–Littlewood prime tuples conjecture, approximate groups
In 2007, Tao and Van H. Vu solved the circular law conjecture.
In 2010, joint work with Ben Green culminated in the proof of the HardyLittlewood prime tuples conjecture for any linear system of finite complexity.
Tao also made contributions to the study of the Erdős–Straus conjecture in 2011, by showing that the number of solutions to the Erdős–Straus equation increases polylogarithmically as n tends to infinity.
In 2012 he and Jean Bourgain received the Crafoord Prize in Mathematics from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.^{[33]}^{[34]} Also, in 2012, he was selected as a Simons Investigator.^{[35]} He proved that every odd integer greater than 1 is the sum of at most five primes.^{[36]}
In 2012, in joint work with longtime coauthor Ben Green, proofs were announced for the DiracMotzkin conjecture and the "orchardplanting problem" (which asks for the maximum number of lines through exactly 3 points in a set of n points in the plane, not all on a line). That same year, Tao published the first monograph on the topic of Higher Order Fourier Analysis.
In 2014 Tao received a CTY Distinguished Alumni Honor from Johns Hopkins Center for Gifted and Talented Youth in front of 963 attendees in 8th and 9th grade that are in the same program that Tao graduated from. That year, Tao presented work on a possible attack of the notorious Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness Millennium Problem, by establishing finite time blowup for an averaged threedimensional NavierStokes equation. That year he also, jointly with several coauthors, proved several results on short and long prime gaps.
In September 2015, Tao announced a proof of the Erdős discrepancy problem, using for the first time entropyestimates within analytic number theory.^{[37]}
Notable awards
 Salem Prize (2000)
 Bôcher Memorial Prize (2002)
 Clay Research Award (2003)
 Australian Mathematical Society Medal (2005)
 Ostrowski Prize (2005)
 Levi L.Conant Prize (2005)
 ISAAC award^{[38]}(2005)
 Fields Medal (2006)
 MacArthur Award (2006)
 SASTRA Ramanujan Prize (2006)
 Sloan Fellowship (2006)
 Fellow of the Royal Society (2007)
 Alan T. Waterman Award (2008)
 Onsager Medal (2008)
 Inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2009)
 King Faisal International Prize (2010)
 Nemmers Prize in Mathematics (2010)
 Polya Prize (2010)
 Crafoord Prize (2012)
 Inaugural recipient of the Center for Excellence in Education's Joseph I. Lieberman Award^{[39]} (2013)
 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics (2015, awarded in 2014)
 Royal Medal (2014)
 Johns Hopkins CTY Distinguished Alumnus (2014)
 PROSE award (2015)
Book publications
 Solving Mathematical Problems: A Personal Perspective,^{[40]} Oxford University Press, 2006
 Analysis, Vols I and II, Hindustan Book Agency, 2006
 Additive Combinatorics, with Van H. Vu, Cambridge University Press, 2006^{[41]}
 Nonlinear dispersive equations: local and global analysis, CBMS regional series in mathematics, 2006.
 Structure and Randomness: pages from year one of a mathematical blog, American Mathematical Society. 2008
 Poincaré's legacies: pages from year two of a mathematical blog, Vols. I and II, American Mathematical Society, 2009
 An Epsilon of Room, I: Real Analysis: pages from year three of a mathematical blog, American Mathematical Society, 2011^{[42]}
 An Epsilon of Room, II: pages from year three of a mathematical blog, American Mathematical Society, 2011^{[43]}
 An Introduction to Measure Theory. American Mathematical Society, 2011, (online version)
 Topics in Random Matrix Theory, American Mathematical Society, 2012 (online version)
 Higherorder Fourier Analysis, American Mathematical Society, 2012 (online version)
 Compactness and Contradiction, American Mathematical Society, 2013 (online version)
 Hilbert's Fifth Problem and Related Topics, American Mathematical Society, 2014 (online version)
 Expansion in Finite Simple Groups of Lie Type, American Mathematical Society, 2015 (online version)
See also
 Arithmetic combinatorics
 Circular law
 Erdos discrepancy problem
 Green–Tao theorem
 Influence of nonstandard analysis
 Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness
 Tao's inequality
 Twin prime conjecture
 Toeplitz square peg problem
 Lonely runner conjecture
 Goldbach weak conjecture
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} "Vitae and Bibliography for Terence Tao". 12 Oct 2009. Retrieved 20100121.
 ^ Dr Billy Tao, Healthshare.
 ^ Terence Tao: the Mozart of maths, 7 March 2015, Stephanie Wood, The Sydney Morning Herald.
 ^ Oriental Daily, Page A29, 24 August 2006.
 ^ Terence ChiShen Tao, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
 ^ Wen Wei Po, Page A4, 24 August 2006.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Nigel makes Waves: Google's bid to overthrow email, Asher Moses, Sydney Morning Herald, 20091002
 ^ "History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places  Smithsonian". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ Radical acceleration in Australia: Terence Tao
 ^ It's prime time as numbers man Tao tops his Field Stephen Cauchi, 23 August 2006. Retrieved 31 August 2006.
 ^ The Singular Mind of Terry Tao, 26 July 2015, www.nytimes.com
 ^ "Vitae". UCLA. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 20130825.
 ^ "Media information". UCLA. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ http://ams.math.unibielefeld.de/mathscinet/search/publications.html?pg1=IID&s1=361755
 ^ "Who am I?". UCLA. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ Kenneth Chang (13 March 2007). "Journeys to the Distant Fields of Prime". New York Times.
 ^ "Corrections: For the Record". New York Times. 13 March 2007.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "2006 Fields Medals awarded" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society. American Mathematical Society. 53 (9): 1037–1044. October 2006.
 ^ "Reclusive Russian turns down math world's highest honour". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). 22 August 2006. Retrieved 20060826.
 ^ NewScientist.com, Prestigious Fields Medals for mathematics awarded, 22 August 2006.
 ^ National Australia Day Committee, 2007 Australian of the Year Finalists. Retrieved 20130312.
 ^ Annual report, Australian Academy of Science, 2008.
 ^ Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society, retrieved 20100609.
 ^ http://www.mathematik.unibielefeld.de/ahlswede/homepage/public/217.pdf
 ^ National Science Foundation, Alan T. Waterman Award. Retrieved 20080418.
 ^ http://www.ntnu.no/imf/onsager
 ^ NTNU's Onsager Lecture, by Terence Tao on YouTube

^ "Alphabetical Index of Active AAAS Members" (PDF). amacad.org. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
His 2009 induction ceremony is here.  ^ King Faisal Foundation – retrieved 20100111.
 ^ "Major Math and Science Awards Announced: Northwestern University News". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ "SIAM: George Pólya Prize". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ "The Crafoord Prize in Mathematics 2012 and The Crafoord Prize in Astronomy 2012". Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20141113.
 ^ "4 Scholars Win Crafoord Prizes in Astronomy and Math – The Ticker  Blogs  The Chronicle of Higher Education". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ "Simons Investigators 2012". Simons Foundation. Retrieved 20131028.
 ^ Tao, Terence (2012). "Every odd number greater than 1 is the sum of at most five primes". arXiv:1201.6656 [math.NT].
 ^ quantamagazine.org
 ^ http://mathisaac.org/Award.html
 ^ "CEE Presents Dr. Terence Tao with the Joseph I. Lieberman Award for his Significant Contribution to Mathematics". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
 ^ Solving Mathematical Problems: A Personal Perspective, Oxford University Press 2006
 ^ Green, Ben (2009). Review: Additive combinatorics by Terence C. Tao and Van H. Vu (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.). 46. pp. 489–497.
 ^ An Epsilon of Room, I: Real Analysis, American Mathematical Society, 2011, online version
 ^ An Epsilon of Room, II, online version
External links
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Terence Tao 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Terence Tao. 
 Terence Tao's home page
 Tao's research blog
 Tao's MathOverflow page
 Beautiful minds THE AUSTRALIAN 11 August 2007
 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Terence Tao", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 Terence Tao at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
 Terence Tao's entry in the Numericana Hall of Fame
 "Terence Tao's results". International Mathematical Olympiad.
 1975 births
 20thcentury American mathematicians
 21stcentury American mathematicians
 Additive combinatorialists
 American people of Chinese descent
 American people of Hong Kong descent
 Australian emigrants to the United States
 Australian mathematicians
 Australian people of Hong Kong descent
 Australian people of Chinese descent
 Clay Research Award recipients
 Combinatorialists
 Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
 Fellows of the American Mathematical Society
 Fellows of the Australian Academy of Science
 Fellows of the Royal Society
 Fields Medalists
 Flinders University alumni
 International Mathematical Olympiad participants
 Living people
 MacArthur Fellows
 Mathematical analysts
 Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences
 Number theorists
 People from Adelaide
 People from Los Angeles
 Princeton University alumni, 1990–99
 Recipients of the SASTRA Ramanujan Prize
 University of California, Los Angeles faculty
 Fulbright Scholars
 Chinese mathematicians
 20thcentury mathematicians
 21stcentury mathematicians
 American academics of Chinese descent
 American people of Cantonese descent
 Australian people of Shanghainese descent
 American people of Shanghainese descent