Tehran Province

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Tehran Province
استان تهران
Province
[[File:|Azadi Tower|266px]]
Roudbar-e Ghasran Road
Former building of Parliament of Iran
Tangeh Savashi
Tehran skyline view from top of Milad Tower
Jameh Mosque in Varamin
Tughrul Tower
From top left: Azadi Tower, Rudbar-e Qasran Road, Former building of Parliament of Iran, Tangeh Vashi, Tehran skyline view from top of Milad Tower, Jameh Mosque in Varamin, and Tughrul Tower in Rey
Counties of Tehran Province
Counties of Tehran Province
Location of Tehran Province in Iran
Location of Tehran Province in Iran
Coordinates: 35°42′42″N 51°24′25″E / 35.7117°N 51.4070°E / 35.7117; 51.4070Coordinates: 35°42′42″N 51°24′25″E / 35.7117°N 51.4070°E / 35.7117; 51.4070
Country  Iran
Region Region 1 [1]
Capital Tehran
Counties 16
Area
 • Total 18,814 km2 (7,264 sq mi)
Population (2017)[2]
 • Total 15,267,637
 • Density 810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+04:30 (IRDT)
Main language(s) Persian
Tehran Province Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
2011 13,983,391 —    
2017 15,267,637 +9.2%
amar.org.ir

Tehran Province (Persian: استان تهرانOstān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers an area of 18,909 square kilometres (7,301 sq mi) and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran.

The province was put as part of First Region with its secretariat located in its capital city, Tehran, upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014.[1]

Tehran Province borders Mazandaran Province in the north, Qom Province in the south, Semnan Province in the east, and Alborz Province in the west. The metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran. As of June 2005, this province includes 13 townships, 43 municipalities, and 1358 villages.

Tehran Province is the richest province of Iran as it contributes approximately 29% of the country's GDP. Furthermore, it houses approximately 18% of the country's population. Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; 86.5% of its population resides in urban areas and 13.5% of its population resides in rural areas.

The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778. Today, Tehran, with a population of 8 million, is ranked amongst the 40 most populous metropolitan cities of the world.

Tehran Province map

Geography

The province of Tehran has over 12 million inhabitants and is Iran's most densely populated region. Approximately 86.5 percent reside in urban areas and 13.5 percent in rural areas of the province.[3]

Tehran has been Iran's capital since 1778.
Milad tower

The largest rivers of this province are Karaj River and Jajrud River.

Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north; Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern areas; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province.

Environmentally, the climate of Tehran province in the southern areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and semi-humid, and in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28 °C (82 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) and the coldest months experience 1 °C (34 °F) around December–January, but at certain times in winter it can reach −15 °C (5 °F). Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. Average annual rainfall is approximately 200 millimetres (7.9 in), the maximum being during the winter season. On the whole, the province has a semi arid, steppe climate in the south and an alpine climate in the north.

History

The Achaemenid collection of The National Museum of Iran in Tehran.

Tehran Province has several archeological sites indicating settlements dating back several thousand years. Until 300 years ago, Rey was the most prominent of the cities of the province. However, the city of Tehran rose to become the larger city and capital of Iran by 1778, and since then has been the political, cultural, economic, and commercial nucleus of Iran.

Tehran has over 1,500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. The oldest of these in Tehran province are the remains of two sites in Firuzkuh County that date back to the 4th millennium BCE.

Divisions

Tehran Province is sub-divided into fourteen Counties (shahrestan), listed below with their populations at the 2011 Census:[4]

The largest cities of Tehran Province are: Andisheh, Baghershahr, Baghestan, Bumehen, Chahardangeh, Damavand, Eslamshahr, Qarchak, Qods, Iran, Golestan, Iran, Shahriar, Malard, Nasimshahr, Pakdasht, Pardis, Pishva, Robat Karim, Shahriar, Tehran, Varamin & Salehieh.

Tehran province today

Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran. Tehran province has over 17,000 industrial units employing 390,000 people, 26% of all units in Iran. The province contains 30% of Iran's economy, and comprises 40% of Iran's consumer market. The province has three hydro dams namely Latiyan, Lar, and Amir Kabir as well as two natural lakes, providing the water supply of Tehran and the province.[citation needed]

The province contains 170 mines, over 330 square kilometres of forests, and over 12800 square kilometres of pasture.[citation needed]

Generally speaking, year round, regions such as the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains, especially in the mountains, valleys, and rivers and artificial lakes formed behind the great dams of Amir Kabir, Latiyan and Lar along with natural lakes of Jaban and Tarr provide considerable recreation for the province.

Moreover, due to excessive snowfall in the northern areas of the province during the winter season, the Alborz mountains form an excellent environment for winter sports such as skiing. Dizin, Shemshak, and Tochal are the most popular skiing resorts.

Transportation

Road transport

Freeways (In blue) and main Roads (In green) in Tehran Province

Tehran Province is covered with and connected to other provinces with a big Freeway and Expressway network:

Rail network

National Rail Network

The city of Tehran is connected to the North, South, West and East with railway. It has weekly trains for Istanbul. Tehran is the headquarters of RAJA (Iran national railway). There maybe plans to build high speed railway lines from Tehran to Mashhad and Esfahan.

Tehran Metro

Hassan Abad Sq. Metro station

Tehran is served by a system of metro of 3 urban lines (1, 2, 4) and one suburban line (5) serving Karaj and Tehran western suburbs. There are plans to extend the system to 8 urban lines and 4 express suburban lines.

Airports

Tehran Province has two main passenger airports:

It also has numbers of air force bases.

Parks, recreation and other attractions

A view of Tehran and Alborz Mountains
The Niavaran Public Library is nestled snugly within the Niavaran city park.

Religious centers

View of Mount Damavand (itself located in Mazandaran province) as seen from the Dizin ski resort.

Mosques, shrines, mausoleums, and tombs

Churches

  • Surep Georg Church, 1790
  • Thaddeus Bartoqimus Church, 1808
  • Tatavus Church, from the Qajar era
  • Enjili Church, 1867
  • Assyrian Church

Colleges and universities

Tehran province's major universities are:

  • Hadith College of Tehran
  • Imam Ali University for Army Officers
  • Comprehensive University of Technology
  • Tehran University of Applied Science and Technology
  • Bagher Aloloum University
  • Iran College of Tele-communications
  • Medical University for the Islamic Republic of Iran's Army
  • NAJA University of Police
  • School of Economic Affairs (SEA)
  • School of International Relations
  • Shahed University of Medical Sciences
  • Shahid Sattari University of Aeronautical Engineering
  • University of Islamic Sects
  • The Research Institute of The Petroleum Industry
  • Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute
  • Power and Water Institute of Technology(PWIT)
  • Payame Noor University

See also

External links

  • Official website of Tehran Governorship
  • Tehran Province's Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Wikisource "Teheran, a province of Persia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.

References

  1. ^ a b همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
  2. ^ "National census 2016". amar.org.ir. Retrieved 2017-03-14.[]
  3. ^ www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci_en/sci_en/sel/j-shvro-84.html. Retrieved November 2011[dead link]
  4. ^ Statistical Centre of Iran.

[1]: According to the information released by the Office of the provincial governor, linked above.

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