Talk:Parental leave

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Table: Sweden & Switzerland mixed up?

According https://sweden.se/quickfact/parental-leave/ Swedish parents are entitled for 480 days = 68.5 weeks of payed parental leave whereof 60 days are reserved for dad

Switzerland has only 14 weeks for the mother and zero for the father... (https://www.ch.ch/de/mutterschaftsurlaub/) — Preceding unsigned comment added by 46.140.153.50 (talk) 16:00, 11 August 2015 (UTC)


Everything is ruined forever

I was only looking at the Europe and Africa tables, but I think they all need to be reviewed. Look at Sweden, Sweden says 14 weeks and 65 weeks paid leave, in different columns (should be 14 months, I believe). The "maternity leave (weeks)" columns alternate randomly between months and weeks, I think. That or I'm just reading it wrong. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 5.145.131.134 (talk) 08:59, 2 June 2015 (UTC)

Hi! I don't think everything is ruined forever, don't worry! I just updated the tables in May using 2014 data; weeks are used throughout the tables (except for the "Asia" table, which still needs to be updated). So with Sweden, for instance, the first column is 14 weeks maternity leave. But families in Sweden aren't just eligible for maternity leave; as a family, they (either parent) are eligible for a total of 80 weeks of parental leave in addition to the 14 weeks of maternity leave, though only 65 of those weeks are paid. (The remaining 15 weeks would be unpaid parental leave.) See page 158 of the source for more info: http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/ilo-bookstore/order-online/books/WCMS_242615/lang--en/index.htm Thanks for looking at the page and please add sources / make changes if you notice countries that are out of date! Melody.waring (talk) 00:51, 9 June 2015 (UTC)

Why was the {{POV}} tag placed on this article?

I don't see any evidence of a neutrality dispute here. Which part of this article is controversial? Jarble (talk) 05:35, 20 December 2014 (UTC)

The {{POV}} tag was placed on 2 Nov 2014 with no comment. I have removed it per the template's documentation: "Drive-by tagging is strongly discouraged. ... In the absence of such a discussion [by the person adding the tag], or where it remains unclear what the NPOV violation is, the tag may be removed by any editor." --Hirsutism (talk) 13:23, 28 January 2015 (UTC)

Revisions / consolidations

Hello, I would like to help improve this article. I think there are at least two other shorter articles that could be consolidated with Parental Leave to broaden its coverage.

I would like to add Parental leave economics and Effects of parental leave as new sections in this article. I am planning several improvements to the Parental leave economics page, as posted on its talk page.

With the consolidated articles, I suggest rearranging and retitling the subheadings to better reflect existing material. A propose outline is:
1. Variation in international law (no change)
2. Economic models (consolidating from Parental leave economics and making changes to that article)
2.1 Capabilities approach
2.2 Benefits of universal, paid parental leave (i.e., argument for)
2.3 Challenges to universal, paid parental leave (i.e., argument against)
3. Effects of parental leave
3.1 Empirical studies on effects of policy changes
3.1a Short leave, e.g., France
3.1b Longer leave
3.1c Paternity leave and incentivizes, e.g., Norway
3.1d “Family policy bundles”, i.e, parental leave and subsidized childcare in the EU
3.2 Effects on prenatal and postnatal care (from effects of parental leave, no proposed changes)
3.3 Effects on Mothers (from effects of parental leave, no proposed changes)
3.4 Effects on the Labor Market (from effects of parental leave, no proposed changes)
4. Parental leave policy by country (only proposed change is adding a more explanations and details about some regions; leaving everything else as-is)
4.1 Europe
4.2 Americas
4.2a Parental leave in the United States
4.2b State-level factors
4.2c Employer influences
4.2d Domestic economics
4.3 Africa
4.4 Asia / Pacific
5. Parental leave policies in the United Nations (leaving material as is, but clarifying subheading title)

Please let me know any suggestions for me on how to improve the article as it is, or how to make this outline and suggested changes even better! I am new to Wikipedia and am very excited to be involved with this page. Please also feel free to see my comments on the Talk page of parental leave economics and paid family leave

working bibliography

A working bibliography I am drawing from as I work on this improvement:

  • Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2010). Identity Economics: How Our Identities Shape Our Work, Wages, and Well-Being. Princeton: Princeton University Press
  • Bittman, M. (1999). Parenthood Without Penalty: Time Use And Public Policy In Australia And Finland. Feminist Economics, 5(3), 27-42. doi:10.1080/135457099337798
  • Datta Gupta, N., Smith, N. & Verner, M. 2008. The Impact of Nordic Countries’ Family Friendly Policies on Employment, Wages, and Children. Review of Economics of the Household 6(1): 65–89.
  • De Henau, J., Meulders, D., & O'Dorchai, S. (2010). Maybe Baby: Comparing Partnered Women's Employment and Child Policies in the EU-15. Feminist Economics, 16(1), 43-77. doi:10.1080/13545700903382703
  • Erhel, C., & Guergoat-Larivière, M. (2013). Labor Market Regimes, Family Policies, and Women's Behavior in the EU. Feminist Economics, 19(4), 76-109. doi:10.1080/13545701.2013.842649
  • Esping-Andersen, G. (2003). Women in the New Welfare Equilibrium. European Legacy, 8(5), 599.
  • Esping-Andersen, G., & Kolberg, J. E. (1991). Decommodification and Work Absence in the Welfare State. International Journal Of Sociology, 21(3), 77.
  • Joesch, J. M. (1997). "Paid Leave and the Timing of Women’s Employment Before and After Childbirth." Journal of Marriage and the Family 59(4): 1008–21.
  • Joseph, O., Pailhé, A., Recotillet, I., & Solaz, A. (2013). The economic impact of taking short parental leave: Evaluation of a French reform. Labour Economics, 25(European Association of Labour Economists 24th Annual Conference, Bonn, Germany, 20-22 September 2012), 63-75. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2013.04.012
  • Kluve, J., & Tamm, M. (2013). Parental Leave Regulations, Mothers' Labor Force Attachment and Fathers' Childcare Involvement: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. Journal Of Population Economics, 26(3), 983-1005. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00148-012-0404-1
  • Lanfranconi, L. M., & Valarino, I. (2014). Gender equality and parental leave policies in Switzerland: A discursive and feminist perspective. Critical Social Policy, 34(4), 538. doi:10.1177/0261018314536132
  • Nussbaum, M. (2011) Creating capabilities: the human development approach. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Pronzato, C. D. (2009). "Return to Work After Childbirth: Does Parental Leave Matter in Europe?" Review of Economics of the Household 7(4): 341–60
  • Pylkkänen, E., & Smith, N. (2003). Career Interruptions Due to Parental Leave: A Comparative Study of Denmark and Sweden. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 1.
  • Rasmussen, A. W. (2010). Increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave: The effect on children's long-term educational outcomes. Labour Economics, 1791-100. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2009.07.007
  • Rønsen, M., & Kitterød. R. H. (2015). Gender-equalizing family policies and mothers’ entry into paid work: recent evidence from Norway. Feminist Economics, 10(1):59-89.
  • Rønsen, M., & Sundström, M. (1996). "Maternal Employment in Scandinavia: A Comparison of the After-Birth Employment Activity of Norwegian and Swedish Women." Journal of Population Economics 9(3): 267–85
  • Rønsen, M., & Sundström, M. (2002). Family Policy and After-Birth Employment among New Mothers: A Comparison of Finland, Norway and Sweden. European Journal of Population / Revue Européenne de Démographie, (2). 121.
  • Ruhm, C. J. (1998). "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe." Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(1): 285–317
  • Waldfogel, J., Higuchi, Y., & Abe, M. (1999). "Family Leave Policies and Women’s Retention After Childbirth: Evidence from the United States, Britain, and Japan." Journal of Population Economics 12(4): 523–46

Melody.waring (talk) 22:46, 1 May 2015 (UTC)

Merger proposal

I propose that Parental leave economics and Effects of parental leave be merged into Parental leave. (See my post above for full proposal) Melody.waring (talk) 00:52, 7 May 2015 (UTC)

Suggestions

Melody.waring - I like that you added content on the economic models and effects of parental leave to round out the descriptive content of country level policies. You generally do a good job of addressing the models in different countries, but the Private parental leave section focuses mostly on the US. It might benefit from a view of businesses abroad. For the content added explicitly on the US, it has a slight negative bias. It might be useful to address the reasons why paid family leave has not developed here. Finally, I suggest a few minor formatting changes to the Benefits in a selection of countries section: condense the overview, delete Cabo Verde under Africa, and remove the description of Australia under Asia/Pacific because it is contained in the table. Dthim (talk) 15:56, 13 May 2015 (UTC)

I was very impressed with how comprehensive this article is! I especially appreciated how you applied the capabilities approach and ideas based on a neoclassical model of labor markets to understandings of the role of leave in society and your use of scholarly research on the various forms and impacts of leave. I think the entire article could benefit from better contextualizing the U.S.'s lack of paid leave - what have been the recent debates surrounding this issue? What do opponents of expanding it draw upon to justify this position? It was great to see the information about so many different countries, but I found the tables difficult to read. I am wondering if some of that information might be better represented in graphs or illustrations in some way. I was also a bit confused about private parental leave and its prevalence as a model of leave. Great start - looking forward to seeing the final version! Keareid (talk) 23:52, 13 May 2015 (UTC)

Globalize

Per the suggestions above, I suggest the Private parental leave section needs more of a global focus. Melody.waring (talk) 22:50, 17 May 2015 (UTC)

Where it says the the private parental leave examples and perspectives are not necessarily representative of the world as a whole, I would ask how can this be improved when the rest of the world has no need for private parental leave because paid leave is guaranteed by the government? Private parental leave inherently must focus on the country that does not have a good public alternative. Halle.davis (talk) 05:13, 4 November 2016 (UTC)

Child Welfare

There are no citations for child welfare. I looked around for a source and couldn’t find one. It makes me question if this is an actual argument used against parental leave. The argument is especially questionable since later in the article an actual paper that is cited states that evidence is conflicting on whether or not parental leave leads to higher fertility. Halle.davis (talk) 05:17, 4 November 2016 (UTC)

Effects on the Labor Market

I wish there was a discussing putting the two studies (the one in Germany and the one in California) in Effects on the Labor Market in tandem with one another. For instance, one could look at the articles and see if they noted any outside influences on the relationship found. Thus, the two situations with opposite conclusions would make more sense in context, become more comparable, or allow readers to give more weight to one study because of the possibility of a spurious relationship. Halle.davis (talk) 05:20, 4 November 2016 (UTC)

Effects on Children

In the Length of Leave, the line "There was no difference on children's long-term educational outcomes before and after the policy change” seemed out of place/off topic for me and should remain in the Effects on Children section.

The Effects on Children section should include more information about the improved psychological health mentioned in Effects on Prenatal-Postnatal Care.

The source for improved psychological health (as mentioned in Effects on Prenatal-Postnatal Care) is definitely biased toward parental leave. Alternatives for improvement include: the bias could be noted, mention of bias could be left out because the book was citing a third party verifiable study, or a more direct citation of that third party study should be found as to make sure that it wasn't twisted in translation. Halle.davis (talk) 05:28, 4 November 2016 (UTC)

Private parental leave

This section seems to focus on the United States. I would suggest that broader information be used, and or that it be clearly stated that this section is discussing private parental leave in a certain country. Sisterb2552 (talk) 15:32, 11 November 2016 (UTC)

Expanding Economic Effects

While this article does a fairly good job of hitting basic points, there's significant research that could be included under the effects on the labor market, child development, and the economy. As part of a class I'm taking at the University of Chicago law school, I'm considering working on the article to add some of this important research. I've already begun compiling potential sources and I've listed them below:

1. Tanaka, Sakiko. "Parental leave and child health across OECD countries." The Economic Journal 115, no. 501 (January 27, 2005). doi:10.1111/j.0013-0133.2005.00970.x.

2. Han, Wen-Jui, and Jane Waldfogel. "Parental leave: The impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking." Demography 40, no. 1 (February 2003): 191-200. doi:10.1353/dem.2003.0003.

3. Ruhm, Christopher. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe." July 1996. doi:10.3386/w5688.\

4. Waldfogel, Jane. "Understanding the ‘‘Family Gap’’ in Pay for Women with Children." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1998. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.467.6387&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

5. Baum, Charles L., II. "The Effects of Maternity Leave Legislation on Mothers' Labor Supply after Childbirth." Southern Economic Journal 69, no. 4 (April 2003): 772-99. doi:10.2307/1061651.

6. Waldfogel, Jane. "The Family Gap for Young Women in the United States and Britain: Can Maternity Leave Make a Difference?" Journal of Labor Economics 16, no. 3 (July 1998): 505-45. doi:10.1086/209897.

7. Harkness, Susan, and Jane Waldfogel. "The Family Gap In Pay: Evidence From Seven Industrialized Countries." Worker Well-Being and Public Policy Research in Labor Economics, 2003, 369-413. doi:10.1016/s0147-9121(03)22012-4.

8. Davies, Rhys, and Gaëlle Pierre. "The family gap in pay in Europe: a cross-country study." Labour Economics 12, no. 4 (August 2005): 469-86. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2005.05.003.

9. Nielsen, Helena Skyt, Marianne Simonsen, and Mette Verner. "Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?" Scandinavian Journal of Economics 106, no. 4 (December 13, 2004): 721-44. doi:10.1111/j.0347-0520.2004.00385.x.

10. Schönberg, Uta, and Johannes Ludsteck. "Expansions in Maternity Leave Coverage and Mothers’ Labor Market Outcomes after Childbirth." Journal of Labor Economics 32, no. 3 (July 2014): 469-505. doi:10.1086/675078. Jmekoenig (talk) 11:35, 13 April 2017 (UTC)

I thought that the additions to this section were very thorough and provided a great statistical background. I also liked how the section focused on maternal and paternal leave and their benefits independently and acknowledged the differences between them. I especially thought that the language used was very neutral and did not give any viewpoints of the author away. My only suggestion would be that due to the topic matter, the article is a little hard to read due to technical terms. I think this could be improved by putting more links in to technical terms or writing in shorter sentences with more definitions. Overall though I thought this was great work. Jonathanpoilpre (talk) 21:28, 28 May 2017 (UTC)jonathanpoilpre

I think that the additions to the "effects of parental leave" section are substantial and valuable! i think that they provide an very neutral perspective. I suggest adding to the section "effects on the economy" as I think that for many economists, this section may be important for substantiating any arguments for or against parental leave. I also think that these sections could benefit from a little more synthesis - at time they read like lists of research articles. Overall, I think these contributions greatly expand and nuance the conversation on parental leave! Hparten (talk) 17:23, 29 May 2017 (UTC)

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Effect on abortion rates

I would think that having paid maternity leave would mean the women is less likely to abort the child. This should be discussed in the article. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2601:241:4200:1D10:18ED:9EB0:5B97:DF3D (talk) 01:28, 1 September 2017 (UTC)

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