Talk:Genetically modified soybean

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What Genes?

What are all the genes that have been added to these soybeans from what foreine species? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2602:306:C518:62C0:4808:D1F7:42E5:4542 (talk) 04:06, 26 August 2012 (UTC)


This is a fairly one-sided presentation - almost an advertisement; for example "genetic modification is deemed by some groups as unethical or immoral." The article does not recognize any professional or scientific position having less glowing assessments than those expressed in this article.

Notice of Discussion: proposal to change "scientific agreement" to "scientific consensus" on GMO food safety in all GMO articles

A fresh discussion has started with a proposal for revision to this sentence:

There is general scientific agreement that food from genetically modified crops is not inherently riskier to human health than conventional food, but should be tested on a case-by-case basis. [citations omitted]

to:

There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but should be tested on a case-by-case basis. [citations omitted]

The discussion is taking place here at at the talk page of Genetically modified crops. Please comment there. --David Tornheim (talk) 07:54, 9 February 2016 (UTC)

Overly general section: Genetic modification in plants

The 'Genetic modification in plants' section may be too detailed for this article, with the content it covers better fitting into other more general articles such as Genetic engineering and/or Genetically modified organism.Dialectric (talk) 04:58, 23 February 2016 (UTC)

I agree. In fact, most of the article does really seem to be about GM soybeans in particular, but about GM in general. I'm not sure if the Regulation section or controversies section are even necessary unless the controversy is specifically about soybeans. We could say there is controversy over GM foods and that they are sometimes regulated differently than conventional food, but just refer readers to the articles rather than make any attempt at summarizing these complex issues.
But, if for example, particular soybeans have been approved, others banned, etc., then we should put that in this article. I believe 95% of soybeans in the U.S. are GM, and I am shocked this is not even mentioned early on or in the lead. One the whole, this article needs work. --David Tornheim (talk) 05:26, 23 February 2016 (UTC)


Genetic modification in plants (moved from article)

To modify a soybean’s genetic makeup, the gene to be introduced into the soybean must first be isolated. If the gene does not display an obvious phenotype, or visible characteristic, a marker gene must be linked to it so the modified cells and unmodified cells can be distinguished. According to Dr. Peter Celec, a professor in the Slovakian Comenius University’s Department of Molecular Biology, the “marker genes typically confer resistance to a selective agent, often an antibiotic,” so the unmodified cells can easily be killed off to leave only modified cells behind, and the “other [gene] is meant to confer a desirable phenotype, which is often agronomic (herbicide, pest, stress resistance) or related to food quality (shelf-life, taste, nutritional value).”[1]:533 Once the gene to be put into the soybean’s DNA is isolated, there are several ways to insert the gene, though the most popular are by “biolistics,” by using Agrobacterium, and by electroporation.

Biolistics

Biolistics, more formally known as ballistic bombardment, is a process in which particles of a heavy metal element, such as tungsten or gold, are coated with the gene to be adopted by the plant and then fired, with a gene gun, into a sample of plant cells, as described by Professor Sibel Roller of South Bank University, London, and Susan Harlander, a vice president of Pillsbury’s research and development department. These particles penetrate the cell walls, leaving the genes free to code into the plant’s DNA. As the description implies, with its very uncomplicated and explosive process, this is one of the oldest methods of genetic engineering, as it was developed in 1990.[2]:6

Agrobacterium

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a type of bacteria that transfers its DNA via horizontal gene transfer to create tumors in plants. This makes it very useful to genetic engineering. Gene transfer using it happens when “a restriction enzyme is used to cut non-virulent plasmid DNA derived from A. tumefaciens and thus create an insertion point, into which the gene can be ligated. The engineered plasmid is then put into a strain of A. tumefaciens, which contains a ‘helper’ plasmid and plant cells are treated with the recombinant bacterium” in culture.[1] While this looks like a complicated concept, it is really only a genetic engineering version of cut and paste.

Electroporation

Electroporation is exactly what its name implies—it is the creation of pores by using electricity. Specifically, it is when a pulsed magnetic field is used to create pores in plant cells, “through which genes can be taken up, and in the form of naked DNA incorporated into the plant genome.”[1]

Gene knockout

Gene knockout, also known as antisense technology or gene neutralization, is used when a gene in a plant is undesirable or inhibits the function of the new gene that will be introduced. To “knock out” this gene, a noncoding strand of DNA (DNA that does not translate into any genes) is used to silence the undesirable trait.[1]:533

References

  1. ^ a b c d Celec, Peter, et al. "Biological and Biomedical Aspects of Genetically Modified Food."Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 59.10 (Dec 2005): 531-40.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Roller was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

Notice of Discussion of Rules for RfC on GMO food safety

A discussion is taking place here about a proposed RfC on GMO food safety language based on the five proposals at GM crops here. This RfC will affect language in the Controversy section of this article. The WordsmithTalk to me and Laser brain (talk) have graciously volunteered to oversee the RfC. In addition to discussing the rules, The Wordsmith has created a proposed RfC here. This is not notice that the RfC has begun. --David Tornheim (talk) 08:47, 2 May 2016 (UTC)

Wikipedia:Requests for comment/Genetically modified organisms

This is a notice that Wikipedia:Requests for comment/Genetically modified organisms is open for public comment. AIRcorn (talk) 04:34, 17 June 2016 (UTC)

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