Syrian Democratic Forces

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Syrian Democratic Forces
قوات سوريا الديمقراطية
Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk
ܚܝ̈ܠܘܬܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ
Participant in the Syrian Civil War
Flag of the Syrian Democratic Forces
Flag of the Syrian Democratic Forces
Active 10 October 2015 – present
Ideology Democracy, federalism, secularism
Allegiance Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
Groups

Notable groups based in all of Northern Syria

Notable groups based in Jazira Canton & Deir ez-Zor Governorate

Notable groups based in Kobanî Canton

Notable groups based in the Afrin Canton, western Shahba region, & Aleppo city (including Sheikh Maqsood), withdrew to Manbij in March 2018

Notable groups based in the eastern Shahba region

Notable groups based in the Raqqa District & Al-Thawrah District

Leaders SDF Spokesman: Kino Gabriel[43]
SDF Spokesman: Talal Silo (former)[20]
SDF Spokeswoman: Jihan Sheikh Ahmed[44]
Political: Syrian Democratic Council
Headquarters Qamishli (capital city)[45]
Area of operations

Northern Syria

Size

57,000–80,000 (as of late February 2018)[48][49][50]

  • 36,000 YPG[51]
  • 24,000 YPJ[51]
  • Several thousand from other exclusive & mixed groups
Allies Syrian Army (sometimes)
Opponents
Battles and wars

Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Democratic Forces (Arabic: قوات سوريا الديمقراطية‎, translit. Quwwāt Sūriyā al-Dīmuqrāṭīya, Kurdish: Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk‎, Classical Syriac: ܚܝ̈ܠܘܬܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ‎, translit. Ḥaylawotho d'Suriya Demoqraṭoyto), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation[95] in the Syrian Civil War.[96] The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia.[97] Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force.[98]

The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL,[99] successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.[100]

Establishment

Foundation

The establishment of the SDF was announced on 11 October 2015 during a press conference in al-Hasakah.[101] The alliance built on longstanding previous cooperation between the founding partners. While the People's Protection Units (Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, YPG) and the Women's Protection Units (Yekîneyên Parastina Jin, YPJ) had been operating throughout the cantons of the DFNS, the other founding partners were more geographically focused.

Geographically focused on Kobanî Canton were the YPG's partners in the Euphrates Volcano joint operations room, several mainstream Syrian rebel factions of the Free Syrian Army, who had helped defend the Kurdish town of Kobanî during the Siege of Kobanî. Liwa Thuwwar al-Raqqa was also in Euphrates Volcano, and it expelled by the al-Nusra Front and ISIL from the city of Raqqa for being allied with the YPG since April 2014. The group participated in the capture of Tell Abyad from the Islamic State.

Geographically focused on Jazira Canton were the Assyrian Syriac Military Council (Mawtbo Fulhoyo Suryoyo, MFS) and the al-Sanadid Forces of the Arab Shammar tribe, both of whom had cooperated with the YPG in fighting ISIL since 2013.[102] The MFS is further politically aligned with the YPG via their shared secular ideology of democratic confederalism, which in the Assyrian community is known as the Dawronoye movement.[103]

Geographically focused on the Shahba region was the Army of Revolutionaries (Jaysh al-Thuwar, JAT), itself an alliance of several groups of diverse ethnic and political backgrounds, who had in common that they had been rejected by the mainstream Syrian opposition for secular, anti-Islamist views and affiliations. However, most of the JAT component groups have always used the Free Syrian Army label and continue to use it.

Signatory groups

The following groups signed the founding document:[101]

  1. People's Protection Units (Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, YPG)
  2. Women's Protection Units (Yekîneyên Parastina Jin, YPJ)
  3. Al-Sanadid Forces
  4. Syriac Military Council (Mawtbo Fulhoyo Suryoyo, MFS)
  5. Liwa Thuwwar al-Raqqa
  6. Euphrates Volcano
  7. Army of Revolutionaries (Jaysh al-Thuwar, JAT)
    1. 99th Infantry Brigade
  8. Brigade Groups of al-Jazira

On 10 December 2015, after a two-day conference, The Syrian Democratic Council was established as a political platform of the SDF. Human rights activist Haytham Manna was co-chairman at its founding.[104] The Assembly that established the Syrian Democratic Council was made up of 13 members from specific ethnic, economic and political backgrounds.

Syrian Arab Coalition

The Syrian Arab Coalition is claimed by the U.S. government as an alliance of programmatically exclusively ethnic Arab militias established during the Syrian Civil War. In this narrative, it consists of exclusively ethnic Arab component groups of the SDF alliance,[105][106] such as the al-Sanadid Forces, the Deir ez-Zor Military Council, Arab units within the Army of Revolutionaries, along with smaller factions.

Size, growth and composition

2015

At the time of its founding in late 2015, The Economist described the SDF as "essentially a subsidiary of the Kurdish YPG".[107]

2016

Hussam Awak, a former brigadier general in the Syrian Armed Forces who resigned in 2005 and joined the SDF in October 2016, later leaving in December 2017

With continuous growth in particular due to Arab groups and volunteers joining, as of March 2016 only an estimated 60% of the men and women in the SDF fighting force were ethnic Kurdish.[111] Growth in particular of ethnic Arab, Turkmen and Assyrian participation in the SDF has since continued. In an interview on the first anniversary of the SDF's founding, spokesman Talal Silo, an ethnic Turkmen and former commander of the Seljuq Brigade, stated that "we started with 13 factions and now there are 32 factions", and that "90 percent" of the SDF growth since it began its operations were ethnic Arab.[112] In the context of the November 2016 Northern Raqqa offensive, The Economist claimed the SDF fighting force to be composed of "about 20,000 YPG fighters and about 10,000 Arabs".[113] The next month in December 2016, Colonel John Dorrian, the Operation Inherent Resolve spokesman, stated that the SDF contains around 45,000 fighters, of which more than 13,000 are Arabs.[114]

  • On 6 January 2016 an additional 400 members of the Arab Deir ez-Zor Governorate-based tribe al-Shaitat joined the SDF, sending fighters to Al-Shaddadah.[115]
  • On 5 February 2016, a group called Martyrs of Dam Brigade from an Arab village called al-Makhmar (liberated by the Syrian Democratic Forces in the Tishrin Dam offensive) joined the Northern Sun Battalion and the SDF.[116]
  • On 28 February 2016, a group called Martyr Qasim Areef Battalion from Sarrin was formed and joined the Army of Revolutionaries and the SDF.[110]
  • On 10 March 2016, a group called the Soldiers of the Two Holy Mosques Brigade joined the Syrian Democratic Forces as part of the Northern Sun Battalion.[110] It was formerly part of the Army of Mujahideen's 19th Division. The group operated in the northern Aleppo Governorate countryside, and also have a presence in Aleppo city and Kobani.
  • On 12 March 2016, it was reported that more than 200 locals from the earlier liberated areas around the town of Shaddadi joined the SDF, most of them Arabs.[117]
  • On 19 March 2016, it was reported that a group under the name of Liwa Ahrar al-Raqqa ("Free Raqqa Brigade") joined the SDF.[118] The group had earlier been known under the name of Liwa al-Jihad fi Sabeel Allah ("Jihad in the Path of God Brigade") and had in September 2014 been part of the Euphrates Volcano operations room.[119]
  • On 2 April 2016 the SDF established the Manbij Military Council with the goal of securing the city of Manbij and its surrounding countryside (Manbij offensive). The council also included previously unknown groups such as the Manbij Revolutionaries Battalion, or the Manbij Turkmen Brigade which joined the Northern Sun Battalion of the Army of Revolutionaries.[120]
  • On 20 June 2016, a group called the Tel Rifaat Revolutionaries Battalion, with 250 members, joined the Kurdish Front of the Army of Revolutionaries.[121]
  • On 23 June 2016 in the al-Shaddadah area, 158 al-Shaitat tribesmen from the FSA group Elite Forces, which was not yet an SDF component group at the time, defected to join the SDF component group, the Desert Hawks Brigade, consisting of members of that tribe.[122][123]
  • On 14 August 2016, after securing Manbij, the SDF established the al-Bab Military Council with the goal of securing the city of al-Bab and its surrounding countryside.[124]
  • On 21 August, in a similar fashion to the establishment of the Manbij and al-Bab Military Councils, the SDF established the Jarablus Military Council with the goal of securing the city of Jarablus and its surrounding countryside. The council also includes the newly established group, the Manbij Revolutionary Brigades.[125][126][127][128] The commander of the council, General Sattar Jader from Jarabulus Hawks Brigades, was assassinated the next day, a suspect was later arrested.[129][130]
  • On 13 September 2016 the al-Nukhbat Brigade, consisting of members from the al-Shaitat and Shammar tribes and led by Ahmad Jarba, joined the SDF. While some of its members already had earlier defected and joined the SDF, the event was considered a major political coup for the SDF, as Jarba was the former President of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces and now agreed to work with the Syrian Democratic Council framework instead.
  • On 14 October 2016, the Free Officers Union, led by Hussam Awak, claimed to number in the hundreds joined the SDF.[12][13]
  • On 31 October 2016, an all-female battalion was established within' the al-Bab Military Council.[131]
  • On 8 December 2016, the Deir ez-Zor Military Council was established.[16] The founding members consist of remnants of the former Free Syrian Army council of the same name, expelled from the city by the Islamic State in 2014, having joined the SDF in November 2016.[132]

2017

According to a March 2017 statement of the Spokesman for the International Coalition forces, U.S. Colonel John Dorrian, 75 percent of the SDF forces fighting in Operation Wrath of Euphrates to isolate ISIL's de facto capital of Raqqa were Syrian Arabs, a reflection of the demographic composition of that area. "The Syrian Democratic Forces are a multi-ethnic and multi-sectarian organization, and that is one of the reasons why we're working with them and they have continued to build the Arab element of their force."[133] Concerning the SDF in general, Lieutenant General Stephen Townsend in the same month said that "I’m seeing what is probably a pretty broad coalition of people and the Kurds may be providing the leadership, because they have a capable leader who’s stepped up to this challenge. And they are providing some of the organisational skill, but I see a large contingent about 23 to 25, 000 so far and growing, Arabs, who are marching to liberate their part of northern Syria. So, I don’t see a Kurdish state. I see a multi-cultural, multi-party, multi-ethnic, multi-sectarian Syrian region being liberated from ISIS. Over."[134]

Late June, an analysis by the Counter Terrorism Center at West Point noted "growing acceptance of the SDF by Sunni Arab rebel groups" and more generally "growing legitimacy of the SDF".[132] Another analysis as of late June described the YPG as "only one faction of many within the SDF", however that "it's the YPG that makes the SDF reliable and effective. The SDF’s other components function as auxiliaries to the SDF's 'backbone', the YPG, which ensures effective, unitary command and control."[135]

  • On 13 February, the first YPG/YPJ regiment in Kobanî Canton was declared. The second regiment, named Şehîd Şevger Kobanî Regiment was established on 18 February.[136] A total of 4 regiments were declared.[137]
  • On 25 February 2017, the YPG agreed to hand over security in the Assyrian towns along the Khabur River to the Khabour Guards and Nattoreh which joined the SDF.[5]
  • On 27 February 2017, the first YPG/YPJ regiment in Afrin Canton, named Martyr Xebat Dêrik Regiment was declared.[137]
  • On 8 April 2017, the Jazeera Knights Brigade was established.[23]
  • On 10 April 2017, two new YPG/YPJ regiments, named Martyr Gabar Regiment and Dêrik and Martyr Zana Regiment were established in Jazira Canton.[137]
  • On 4 May 2017, the International Anti-Fascist Battalion was renamed to the YPG International Battalion and became a part of the YPG.[138][2]
  • On 17 May 2017, the Raqqa Internal Security Forces were established.[81]
  • On 8 June, between 60 and 70 Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army fighters, including several Sultan Murad Division commanders, defected to the Syrian Army and the SDF during infighting between TFSA factions.[139]
  • On 10 July, an all-female Arab SDF group was established in Deir ez-Zor, the Martyr Amara Arab Women's Battalion, named after a female Arab SDF fighter that died in combat. Their area of focus will be the Deir ez-Zor Governorate. The group currently consists of 35 fighters from the cities of Hama, al-Raqqa, Deir ez-Zor and Hasakah, along with the town of al-Shaddadah.[17][18]
  • On 15 August, the Revolutionary Forces was formed as part of the SDF in northern Aleppo, with the intent to fight the Turkish occupation of northern Syria.[31]
  • On 25 August, 800 fighters left the Elite Forces and was fully integrated into the ranks of the SDF and its Deir ez-Zor Military Council. The fighters accused the Elite Forces of corruption. These forces consist of 7 units of al-Baggara and al-Shaitat tribal fighters stationed in the eastern Raqqa and southern Hasaka countrysides.[140]
  • On 4 September, a faction of the Northern Brigade, which is a TFSA unit, defected to the SDF.[141]
  • Around 10 September, dozens of militiamen of the pro-government Forces of the Fighters of the Tribes joined the SDF. These militiamen had previously been overrun by ISIL during the Central Syria campaign and retreated into SDF-held areas in order to avoid being captured by the Islamist militants. Feeling abandoned by their old commander, they eventually decided to stay with the SDF.[142]
  • On 15 November 2017, Talal Silo, defected or surrendered to the Turkish Army, the nature of his leaving the SDF being up for dispute.[143][144][145]
  • On 27 November 2017, the Martyr Adnan Abu Amjad Regiment, consisting of 250 fighters was established, and joined the Manbij Military Council,[146]
  • On 20 December 2017, Hussam Awak announced his resignation from the SDF on his Facebook page without providing any reasons.[11]

2018

Press conference of the SDF on 22 January 2018, involving Kino Gabriel (center), spokesman of the SDF.
  • On 10 January 2018, SDF has been accused by the SOHR (Syrian Observatory of human Rights) of having former ISIS members in their ranks.[147]
  • On 13 January 2018, it was announced that the US-led Coalition would train a group called the Syrian Border Security Force (BSF), and would aim to reach 30,000 fighters, half of those being composed by current SDF members.[148]
  • On 20 January 2018, Kino Gabriel, the spokesman for the Syriac Military Council, was also made the spokesman for the SDF.[149]

Support by the United States, France and other Western nations

  • On 12 October 2015, the Pentagon confirmed U.S. C-17 transport aircraft having dropped 100 pallets with 45 tons of arms and ammunition over SDF-controlled territory in the DFNS. Polat Can, spokesman of the SDF component militia People's Protection Units (YPG), identified the freight as being "assault rifles, mortars and ammunition, but no TOW anti-tank missiles nor anti-aircraft weapons".[150][151] The airdrop came only days after the Pentagon had officially abandoned its failed $500 million train-and-equip program of "moderate rebels" fighting ISIL.[152]
  • During the SDF's February 2016 al-Shaddadi offensive, there were US special forces embedded with the SDF forces who coordinated airstrikes against ISIL with the SDF.[153]
  • On 17 March 2016, the day after the declaration of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (Rojava), U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter praised the SDF component militia People's Protection Units (YPG) as having "proven to be excellent partners of ours on the ground in fighting ISIL. We are grateful for that, and we intend to continue to do that, recognizing the complexities of their regional role."[154]
  • During the SDF's May 2016 offensive against ISIL in Northern Raqqa, the presence of U.S. Special Forces was widely reported, and several photographs of them wearing badges of the YPG and YPJ on their uniforms circulated.[155]
An SDF IAG Guardian armoured personnel carrier in February 2017, one of several APCs that were supplied by the United States to the SDF.
US Army Stryker armoured vehicles drive through Qamishli and head to the Syria-Turkey border after Turkish-YPG April 2017 border clashes.
  • Late October 2016, U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Stephen J. Townsend, the commander of the international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, said that the SDF would lead the impending assault on Raqqa, ISIL's stronghold and capital, and that SDF commanders would plan the operation with advice from American and coalition troops.[168] From November, more than 300 U.S. Special Operations Forces were embedded to train and advise SDF fighters in the Raqqa offensive.[169]
  • In January 2017, the European Syriac Union in Brussels requested the US to provide more support for the Assyrian and Kurdish components of the Syrian Democratic Forces. The US reportedly favoured the Arab components in the SDF,[170] in April the MFS and the HSNB reaffirming the request for more support from the US.[171][171]
  • In late January 2017, the SDF received a number of armoured personnel carriers produced by ArmorGroup and supplied by the US.[172]
  • In February 2017, Stephen Townsend visited Kobanî. On 25 February, the US Central Command stated that it would continue to train and equip forces of the Manbij Military Council.[173] During the East Aleppo offensive (February–March 2017), the US deployed troops and armored vehicles to villages near Manbij in an attempt to "deter" the skirmishes between the SDF and Turkey-backed forces west and north of Manbij.[174]
  • In late March 2017, the US delivered 30 more Guardian armoured vehicles to the SDF for use in the Raqqa offensive.[175]
  • In late April 2017, the U.S. just as in the summer 2016 once again deployed U.S. troops embedded with the SDF to the border between the DFNS/Syria and Turkey, in order to deter Turkish aggressions against the SDF, which this time coincided with the SDF's breakthrough advances against ISIL in the Raqqa campaign.[176][177]
SDF fighters during the Battle of Raqqa against the Islamic State, 2017
  • On 9 May 2017, it was announced by the Pentagon that American President Donald Trump approved of a plan that would have the United States directly provide heavy armaments to the major SDF component group, the YPG; the plan comes before a planned final offensive to capture Raqqa from ISIL.[178][179][180]
  • By July 2017, more than 8,500 members of the SDF have been trained by the US-led coalition and in the first half of 2017, more than 400 vehicles and other equipment have been delivered to over 40,000 SDF troops.[181]
  • According to a report from the Kurdish news network Kurdistan 24, the major SDF component group, YPG forces, have received about 800 truckloads of military supplies from the Pentagon from early June to the end of July 2017.[182][183][184]
  • In a joint report published on 12 September 2017, the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) and the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) alleged that the Pentagon has given so far up to $2.2 billion worth of weapons to the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces[185][186]
  • In late November 2017, Turkish officials stated that Trump told Erdogan during their November 24 phone conversation that the U.S. would end arms supplies to the SDF. Erdogan said: "For the first time in a long while, a common wavelength was reached." [187] But Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) denied on November 28 that there is a halt in the Washington armament, saying they were provided with weapons by the U.S. the day before.[188] Kurdish officials also said on November 27 that the United States would only "adjust" its delivery of weapons to the SDF. American officials also stated that they will continue to work with its Kurdish and Arab partners of SDF but will only review and adjust its delivery of weapons which is being done regularly.[189] The International Coalition also confirmed its support for SDF is ongoing.[190]
  • On 12 February 2018, the United States Department of Defense released a budget blueprint for 2019 which with respect to the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS) included $300 million for the (SDF) and $250 million for border security.[191]
  • On 29 March 2018, French President Emmanuel Macron has vowed to send troops to Syria's Manbij in a bid to assist local SDF militias in preventing Turkish forces from advancing on the town.[192] French troops moved into SDF-controlled towns of Manbij and Rmelan in the first days of April.[193]
  • In early June 2018, the Brigade For The Liberation of Idlib and Afrin, and the Idlib Revolutionaries Brigade where established.

Alleged internal conflict between SDF factions

  • In November 2015, Liwa Thuwar al-Raqqa merged with the Tribal Army to form Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa to become part of the SDF. After some tensions between the group and the People's Protection Units (YPG), on 6 January 2016 the group allegedly issued a statement claiming it was disbanding.[194] Later the same month, some sources claimed that the Liwa Thuwar al-Raqqa reappeared, announcing it had decided to rejoin the SDF.[195]
  • Turkey has at various times tried and failed to incite tensions along ethnic lines within the SDF.[20] At the height of one such attempts after the start of the summer 2016 Manbij offensive, Sheikh Farouk al-Mashi, an ethnic Arab former member of the Syrian parliament and designated co-chairman of the Manbij City Council, stated: "I have a Syrian ID, and Kurds have a Syrian ID. Let those people who talk against us in Turkey and Europe come here and fight ISIS. Why this distortion in media about problems between Kurds and Arabs?" Ethnic Kurdish fellow co-chairman Salih Haji Mohammed stated: "In our social contract, we say we want to have good relations with neighboring countries like Turkey. Any country that does not interfere in Manbij and our areas, we will have good relations with."[196] A fighter gave his perspective as "we have Arabs, Kurds, nobody knows how many exactly, we all work under the SDF-forces".[197]
  • In September 2016 during the Turkish military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, the leader of small SDF component group Liwa al-Tahrir, Abdul Karim Obeid, defected to the camp of Turkish-backed rebels with 20 to 100 of his men, citing opposition to alleged YPG domination of the SDF, while SDF sources suggested he was displeased with the civil administration of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria replacing warlordist political rule in the Free Syrian Army style. The remaining fighters stayed with the SDF.[20]
  • Also In September 2016 during the Turkish military intervention, some Arab sources reported that Liwa Ahrar al-Raqqa clashed with the YPG,[21] however two days later the Liwa Ahrar al-Raqqa's commander said that news about the clashes and defections were false, he denied that such clashes had ever happened.[198]
  • In mid-November 2016, Liwa Thuwar al-Raqqa's political bureau, which has strong connections with Turkey, condemned the SDF's Raqqa offensive led by the YPG. This caused tensions between the group's political bureau, who opposes the YPG, and the overall leader and military commander of Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa, Abu Issa, who is allied with the YPG.[199][200] Some members of Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa left the group and joined the SDF's Liwa Ahrar al-Raqqa in response to the tensions.[201]
  • On 10 December 2016, the second phase of the Northern al-Raqqa campaign was announced, with Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa participating under the SDF.[202] 2 weeks later, the Raqqa Hawks Brigade reportedly captured several Thuwar al-Raqqa military commanders and forced them to announce their defection. On 27 December, the commanders declared on video that they are still with Thuwar al-Raqqa.[203] On 20 February 2017, one sub-commander of the Raqqa Hawks Brigade, Abu Yamen al-Meko, who reportedly had strong links to the Military Intelligence Directorate, declared his loyalty to Bashar al-Assad and formed the pro-government unit "Tajamou al-Shamal". His followers consequently raised the Ba'athist flag at their headquarters in the village of al-Fares. These actions, however, provoked the ire of Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa, which launched a surprise attack on al-Fares two days later and destroyed al-Meko's faction, killing or capturing its members. Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa went on to declare that it "would never allow the regime and its supporting militia to re-enter the city [of Raqqa] by any means".[204][205]
  • On 10 April 2017, a purported spokesman for the Elite Forces claimed that the group is not part of the SDF, will cooperate with both the SDF and Rojava Peshmerga to capture Deir ez-Zor, and rejected federalism.[206] On 15 April, this statement was denied by Muhammad Khalid Shakir, the official spokesman of the Elite Forces. He denied any disagreements between the Elite Forces and the SDF and said that "We are in the framework of the international coalition. The leadership of the coalition manages the operations on the ground. Our troops did not withdraw. We have completed the third phase of the Wrath of Euphrates Operation, and we will participate in all stages until Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor are freed."[207]
  • On 28 September 2017, Yasser al-Dahla, commander of the Gathering of al-Baggara Youth, part of the SDF's Deir ez-Zor Military Council, was arrested by SDF military police, which accused Dahla of not effectively participating in the SDF's Deir ez-Zor offensive and the "lack of military discipline". The Gathering of al-Baggara Youth denied these charges, and accused the Deir ez-Zor Military Council of denying Euphrates Shield fighters who defected to the SDF to join the Gathering. Dahla reportedly threatened to cease his group's participation in the Deir ez-Zor offensive.[208]
  • On 15 November 2017, Talal Silo, surrendered or defected to the Turkish Army. The nature of his leaving the SDF being up for dispute.[143][144][145]
  • On 20 December 2017, Hussam Awak announced his resignation from the SDF on his Facebook page without providing any reasons.[11]

Alleged war crimes

On 15 March 2017, a video surfaced that showed members of the Northern Sun Battalion allegedly torturing an ISIL fighter, who had been captured while planting mines. One of these mines had reportedly killed nine fighters of the battalion, leading five others to take revenge on the ISIL militant. The Manbij Military Council condemned the act, and announced that the involved Northern Sun Battalion fighters would be held for trial for violating the Geneva Conventions.[209][210] The five accused were arrested on 17 March.[211]

United Nations investigators in a report released in March 2018, accused it of forcible conscription including girls and children as young as 13 years old.[212]

See also

References

  1. ^ Harp (2017), p. 49.
  2. ^ a b "Tabûra Enternasyonal (@AntifaTabur) – Twitter". twitter.com. 
    Tonacci, Fabio (29 December 2016). "La brigata degli italiani con i curdi verso Raqqa: "Ma a casa non sanno che qui combattiamo"". la Repubblica (in Italian). Rome. p. 8. 
  3. ^ "Assyrian Female Fighters Joined Battlefronts Against ISIS in Northeastern Syria". Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  4. ^ "The revolutionaries of Bethnahrin: cooperation between Christians and Kurds – Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal". Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c "Assyrians seek self-management in Hasaka over deal with PYD". Zaman al-Wasl. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  6. ^ a b United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – Kurdish Strategy Towards Ethnically-Mixed Areas in the Syrian Conflict". Refworld. 
  7. ^ a b "Kurdish-led SDF attracts more Arab fighters in Syria's Deir ez-Zor amid growing anti-ISIS campaign". ARA News. 24 June 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "400 Sheitat tribesmen joined U.S.-backed alliance to fight ISIS: sources". Syria News. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  9. ^ "South Hasakah/North Deir Ezzor situation on April 28, 2016". agathocledesyracuse.com. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. 
    Szakola, Albin. "New rebel force battling ISIS in northeast Syria". Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "قوات النخبة السورية تدخل مدينة الكرامة معقل داعش". 
  11. ^ a b c https://www.baladi-news.com/ar/news/details/25944/
  12. ^ a b "Hundreds of Syrian rebels join the pro-Kurdish SDF alliance". ARA News. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  13. ^ a b "Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". ANF. 13 October 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  14. ^ "The Battle for Syria's Al-Hasakah Province". Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. 
  15. ^ Heras, Nicholas. "The battle for Syria's al-Hasakah province". Combating Terrorism Center. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  16. ^ a b ""قسد" تعقد اجتماعًا في مدينة الحسكة لكافة فصائلها - عنب بلدي". 8 December 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "SDF about forming first Arab all-female brigade – ANHA". en.hawarnews.com. 
  18. ^ a b "SDF creates female Arab battalion in eastern Syria to fight patriarchy and ISIS – ARA News". 11 July 2017. 
  19. ^ "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter". 
  20. ^ a b c d e "US backing ensures Arab-Kurd alliance in Syria will survive". Al-Monitor. 9 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  21. ^ a b "Liberation Brigade defected in Jarabulus". Baladi News. 
  22. ^ "SDF announces the launch of 'Great Battle' for Raqqa". ANF News. 
  23. ^ a b "Fursan al-Jazîra Brigades join SDF ranks – ANHA". en.hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. 
  24. ^ "تشكيل أول كتيبة عسكرية لنساء مناطق الشهباء" (in Arabic). Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  25. ^ "Kurds Front: we will resist to the last gasp". Hawar News Agency. 24 October 2016. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. 
  26. ^ "إعلان قوات سوريا الديمقراطية في حلب وإدلب". 
  27. ^ "KurdisCat: 3 membres de Jabhat al Akrad i Quwat al-Ashair moren en combat contra l'IS al front d'al Bab". 4 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  28. ^ "Democratic Brigade North: Turkey impede our progress in coordination with Daesh". Hawar News Agency. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. 
  29. ^ "Shahba forces". RUMAF. 1 December 2016. 
  30. ^ News, ANF. "First YCR battalion formed in Efrîn". ANF News. 
  31. ^ a b "Objectives of New SDF-Led militias in the city of Afrin". Al-Dorar al-Shamia. 15 August 2017. 
  32. ^ http://www.shaam.org/news/syria-news/بعد-لواء-ثوار-إدلب-قسد-تشكل-لواء-تحرير-إدلب-وعفرين.html
  33. ^ "A leader in the "Idlib revolutionaries" to Kurd Street network: the problems of tenderness behind Turkey .. The arrival of the Arab delegation to Kobani is to support border guards". Kurd Street. 2 June 2018. 
  34. ^ "Inspired by Kurdish units, al-Bab Military Council creates all-female battalion – ARA News". 1 November 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  35. ^ "Pro-SDF Groups Set Up Jarablus Military Council, Warn Turkish-Backed Groups from Taking City". 22 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
    "ANF – Ajansa Nûçeyan ar Firatê". Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  36. ^ Antonopoulos, Paul (20 October 2016). "Video: Thuwar Raqqa announce a women's battalion to fight ISIS". Al-Masdar News. 
  37. ^ a b "Who is taking part in Ghadab al-Firat campaign?". Hawar News Agency. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  38. ^ en.hawarnews.com/wrath-of-euphrates-fighters-head-for-al-sokeri/
    "Fighters from all al-Raqqa clans participate in the liberation camiagn – ANHA". Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. 
  39. ^ "#Syria-Raqqa suspicious factions with the PYD". 7 September 2016. 
  40. ^ @Syria_Rebel_Obs (6 November 2016). "EXCLUSIVE SRO – Former leader of the main #Tabqa #FSA factions, Liwa Owais al-Qarni, entered Northern Federation days ago" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  41. ^ "The Ajeel tribe in Raqqa announces its support for the SDF, sends hundreds of fighters to join SDF ranks, and denies allegations that it is opposed to the SDF". Hawar News Agency. 31 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. 
  42. ^ "What platoons are participating in freeing Raqqa campaign? - ANHA". en.hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. 
  43. ^ http://sdf-press.com/2018/01/تكليف-كينو-غابرييل-ناطقاً-رسميا-باسم/
  44. ^ "Jihan Sheikh Ahmed, the official spokesperson of the Raqqa campaign, talks during a conference, east of Raqqa city, Syria". Thomson Reuters Foundation. 26 March 2017. 
  45. ^ "YPG declared the Qamishli as the capital of the Rojava-Northern Syria, part of Federation". 2 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  46. ^ Lister, Tim (1 November 2015). "New assaults on ISIS in Iraq and in Syria". CNN. 
  47. ^ "Syrian Democratic Forces inch closer to Deir Ezzor: Al-Mukmin captured". Almasdar News. 
  48. ^ https://translations.state.gov/2018/02/26/operation-inherent-resolve-telephonic-briefing/
  49. ^ "3 maps that show why it won't be easy defeating ISIS". 
  50. ^ Patterson, Adam. "ISIS is Going to Lose Its Capital". 
    Townsend, Mark (6 May 2017). "Syria's Kurds march on to Raqqa and the sea" – via The Guardian. 
    "US Gen. Townsend rebuffs Turkish reporter with 'political agenda' against SDF". Kom News. 29 March 2017. 
    "Exclusive: Syrian Kurdish YPG aims to expand force to over 100,000". Reuters. 20 March 2017. 
  51. ^ a b "Exclusive: Syrian Kurdish YPG aims to expand force to over 100,000". Reuters. 20 March 2017. 
  52. ^ a b "Top U.S. commander completes day-long secret visit to Syria (CNN)". 22 May 2016. 
  53. ^ a b "The new coalition to destroy the Islamic State". The Washington Post). 22 May 2016. 
  54. ^ a b "Syrian fighter jets hit Kurd-held areas for first time (Aljazeera)". 19 August 2016. 
  55. ^ a b c "Syria war: US fighter jets scrambled to stop Syrian planes bombing special forces and allies in Hasakah". Independent. 20 August 2016. 
  56. ^ a b "France Admits Special Forces Operating on Ground With Rebels in Syria". Newsweek. 9 June 2016. 
  57. ^ a b "Battle for Manbij: French Special Forces Building Military Base in Kobani". Sputnik News. 14 June 2016. 
  58. ^ "Activists and a rebel commander say Kurdish fighters have launched an attack in northern Syria under the cover of Russian airstrikes to try and capture a military air base held by insurgents". U.S. News & World Report. 10 February 2016. 
  59. ^ "Russia cooperates with PYD against ISIL". Today's Zaman. 9 October 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. 
  60. ^ "Russian support for PKK's Syrian arm PYD". Anadolu Agency. 
  61. ^ "Kurds attack Turkish-backed Syrian opposition forces with Russian help". i24 News. 28 November 2015. 
  62. ^ "YPG advances near Turkey's border". Rudaw Media Network. 28 November 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. 
  63. ^ Wood, L. Todd (8 February 2016). "Russia supporting Kurdish groups in Syria to Turkey's detriment". Washington Times. 
  64. ^ "Elite Forces led by former Syrian opposition chief join fight against ISIS". ARA News. December 11, 2016. 
  65. ^ "The UAE has it in for the Muslim Brotherhood". Al-Araby Al-Jadeed. 22 February 2017. Along with their American counterparts, Emirati special forces are said to be training elements of the opposition. They constitute a kind of Arab guarantee among the Syrian Democratic Forces – an umbrella group dominated by the Kurds of the PYD, on whom the US are relying to fight IS on the ground. 
  66. ^ "UAE, Kurds Standing against US, Turkey in Syria". Farsnews. 22 February 2017. 
  67. ^ "The U.S. bombing of Syria implicates many of Trump's business interests". Vox. 16 April 2018. 
  68. ^ a b "U.S. Seeks Arab Force and Funding for Syria". Wall Street Journal. 16 April 2018. Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. helped pay the stipends for the Syrian fighters the U.S. is supporting 
  69. ^ "Saudi Arabia in talks with YPG to form new force". Daily Sabah. 30 May 2018. 
  70. ^ "Trump's New Army? Saudi Arabia in Talks to Build Syria Arab Force, Report Says". Newsweek. 30 May 2018. 
  71. ^ "News of arrests of YPG-linked Czechs shocks Turkey". Al-Monitor. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. 
  72. ^ "Soldati italiani in Siria? Arriva la smentita, ma..." (in Italian). Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  73. ^ "Syrian Opposition Calls for Suspension of U.S.-led Air Strikes". SOHR. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  74. ^ "Origins of the Syrian Democratic Forces: A Primer". 15 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  75. ^ "Syrian Kurdish leader claims military gains against Islamists". Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. 
  76. ^ País, Ediciones El (7 July 2015). "Two Spaniards arrested on return from fighting ISIS in Syria". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  77. ^ "New Leftist 'Freedom Brigade' to Join Kurdish Forces in Rojava". www.telesurtv.net. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  78. ^ Glioti, Andrea (7 May 2013). "Kurdish group gaining autonomy in northern Syria". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  79. ^ "Second HAT course members graduate – ANHA". Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. 
  80. ^ "Die Welt: Die Christen in Syrien ziehen in die Schlacht". Die Welt (in German). 23 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  81. ^ a b "Anti-IS coalition trains policemen for Syria's Raqqa". 
    "Raqqa Internal Security Force (RISF) – Militia Trained by U.S. - SOF News". 29 June 2017. 
  82. ^ https://twitter.com/OIRSpox/status/943461079623008256
  83. ^ Rudaw (6 April 2015). "Rojava defense force draws thousands of recruits". Rudaw. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  84. ^ "Dr Partizan on Twitter". 
  85. ^ "Rojava Dispatch Six: Innovations, the Formation of the Hêza Parastina Cewherî (HPC) – Modern Slavery". 
  86. ^ https://thedefensepost.com/2018/01/13/syria-border-security-force-sdf-coalition/
  87. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018. 
  88. ^ Lambert, Fred (1 November 2015). "Syria: Joint Kurd-Arab-Assyrian force announces U.S.-backed offensive in al-Hasakah". UPI. Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
  89. ^ "Jader assassination by Turkish MIT". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  90. ^ "Syrian Army, Kurdish forces clash fight for control of abandoned ISIS villags". Al Masdar News. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  91. ^ "Syrian army says forces have captured several villages from US-backed rebels". Independent. 29 April 2018. 
  92. ^ Abu Zeid, Osama; Nelson, Maria (3 December 2015). "Accusations, recriminations and bloodshed in north Aleppo arena as Kurds fear for Afrin". Syria Direct. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  93. ^ "YPG, allies clash with Syrian opposition groups in Aleppo". Middle East Eye. 29 November 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  94. ^ "New U.S.-backed Syrian rebel alliance launches offensive against Islamic State". Reuters. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  95. ^ https://rojavareport.wordpress.com/2014/11/26/all-peoples-stand-shoulder-to-shoulder-against-isis-in-rojava/
  96. ^ "Chechens, Arabs and Kurds in Serêkaniyê fighting shoulder to shoulder against ISIS". Diclehaber.com. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
    mahmou415 (24 August 2015). "Faction Guide of the Syrian war – Part 4 – Rojava Kurds – Middle East Observer". Meobserver.wordpress.com. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  97. ^ "Syrian Kurdish groups expect U.S. support, will fight any Turkish advance". 15 February 2017 – via Reuters. 
    "America's Favorite Syrian Militia Rules With an Iron Fist" – via The Nation. 
  98. ^ "Syrian Kurdish groups, allies say approve blueprint for federal system". Reuters. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
    "'Rojava' no longer exists, 'Northern Syria' adopted instead". Kurdistan24. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
    "Syria Kurds adopt constitution for federal region". Channel NewsAsia. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  99. ^ "Syrian Democratic Forces set sights on IS stronghold". 15 December 2015. 
  100. ^ Shiwesh, Ahmed (10 March 2016). "Kurds, allies seize ISIS supply route on Syria-Iraq border". ARA News. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016. 
    "Syrian milita nears full capture of Tabqa city, dam". UPI. 
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-tabqa-idUSKBN1862E4.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
    http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2017/05/10/US-backed-forces-seize-Syria-s-Tabqa-nearby-dam-monitor.html
    "Kurds celebrate capture of key IS stronghold in Syria". Middle East Eye. 
    "U.S.-backed Syrian forces seize dam west of Raqqa from Islamic State: SDF". Reuters. 4 June 2017. 
  101. ^ a b "Declaration of establishment by Syrian Democratic Forces". Kurdish Question. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015. 
  102. ^ "YPG, backed by al- Khabour Guards Forces, al- Sanadid army and the Syriac Military Council, expels IS out of more than 230 towns, villages and farmlands". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  103. ^ Carl Drott (25 May 2015). "The Revolutionaries of Bethnahrin". Warscapes. Retrieved 12 October 2016. 
  104. ^ website), Al-Souria Net (opposition. "Haytham Manna Elected Joint Chairman of Syrian Democratic Council". The Syrian Observer. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  105. ^ Chappell, Bill (12 October 2015). "New Rebel Coalition Forms In Syria; Insurgents Lost Ground Over Weekend". NPR. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  106. ^ Suleiman al-Khalidi; Tom Perry (12 October 2015). "New Syrian rebel alliance formed, says weapons on the way". Reuters. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  107. ^ "Global powers seek to revive diplomatic process". The Economist. 12 February 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  108. ^ "أبناء العشائر العربية يشكلون لواءً وينضمون إلى QSD". Hawar News Agency. 7 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  109. ^ "من هم تجمع كتائب فرات جرابلس؟". Hawar News Agency. 22 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  110. ^ a b c "List of groups joining Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)". Ethnic Maps of Kurd. 8 July 2016. 
  111. ^ "Syrian-Kurdish SDF successfully absorbing non-Kurdish groups, says US". Rudaw. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  112. ^ "Talal Silo: our major aim founding SDF was uniting military factions". Hawar News Agency. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016. 
  113. ^ "Anyone for Raqqa? There is less to the offensive on Islamic State's capital than meets the eye". The Economist. 11 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 
  114. ^ "Department of Defense Press Briefing by Col. Dorrian via teleconference from Baghdad, Iraq". US Department of Defense. 8 December 2016. 
  115. ^ "400 Sheitat tribesmen joined U.S.-backed alliance to fight ISIS: sources SYRIA NEWS | ZAMAN ALWSL". En.zamanalwsl.net. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
  116. ^ "Martyrs of Dam Brigade join Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) | Washington Kurdish Institute". Dckurd.org. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
  117. ^ "Dozens of young men join western-backed SDF to fight ISIS northeast Syria". ARA News. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
  118. ^ "Who are the banner of free tenderness?". Hawar News Agency. 19 March 2016. 
  119. ^ "YPG and FSA set up 'Joint Action Centre'". Firat News. 11 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 September 2014. 
  120. ^ "Minbic military assembly established". Hawar News Agency. 3 April 2016. 
  121. ^ "The Brigades of the Irvad rebels declare their joining the Syrian Democratic Forces in Tel Rifat Brive Aleppo". ARA News. 20 June 2016. 
  122. ^ "Kurdish-led SDF attracts more Arab fighters in Syria's Deir ez-Zor amid growing anti-ISIS campaign – ARA News". 24 June 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  123. ^ "158 مقاتلاً جديداً يلتحقون بـ ق.س.د". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  124. ^ "Syrian Democratic Forces aim to capture al-Bab, call for coalition support". ARA News. 15 August 2016. 
  125. ^ "Kurdish-backed Jarabulus council warns Turkey of supporting ISIS north Syria – ARA News". 22 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  126. ^ "Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". ANF. 22 August 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  127. ^ "Pro-SDF Groups Set Up Jarablus Military Council, Warn Turkish-Backed Groups from Taking City". Southfront.org. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  128. ^ "Jarablus Military Council announced by groups within the Syrian Democratic Forces". Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  129. ^ "Assassinator of Jader arrested". Hawar News Agency. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  130. ^ "Sattar Jader, commanding general of the Jarabulus Military Council, assassinated". Qasioun. 22 August 2016. 
  131. ^ "Inspired by Kurdish units, al-Bab Military Council creates all-female battalion". ARA News. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  132. ^ a b Hassan Hassan (27 June 2017). "The Battle for Raqqa and the Challenges after Liberation". Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 
  133. ^ "Coalition works with SDF as they are a multi-ethnic force, spokesman says". NRT. 19 March 2017. 
  134. ^ "US Gen. Townsend rebuffs Turkish reporter with 'political agenda' against SDF". KomNews. 29 March 2017. 
  135. ^ Sam Heller (30 June 2017). "The Signal in Syria's Noise". warontherocks.com. 
  136. ^ "The second regiment contains all Kobanî components – ANHA". 
  137. ^ a b c "YPG declares two regiments in Cizîre Canton". ANF News. 
  138. ^ "YPG". www.facebook.com. 
  139. ^ Uğur Ergan (15 June 2017). "Turkey confirms internal fight in Free Syrian Army". Hürriyet Daily News. 
  140. ^ Rodi Said (25 August 2017). "U.S.-backed forces to attack Syria's Deir al-Zor soon: SDF official". Reuters. 
  141. ^ "Former Euphrates Shield group joined SDF". YPG. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017. 
  142. ^ "Syrian Regime-Led militias defect and join the Kurdish units". Al-Dorar Al-Shamia. 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  143. ^ a b "U.S.-backed Syria forces say Turkey pressured commander into defecting". Reuters. 16 November 2017. 
  144. ^ a b Statement to Public opinion http://sdf-press.com/en/2017/11/public-opinion-statement-2/
  145. ^ a b Reports: SDF spox Silo defects to FSA, Turkey http://www.rudaw.net/english/middleeast/151120171, Rudaw English
  146. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lE7kGnlkSxM
  147. ^ "The SDF release more than 400 Syrian members of ISIS including commanders and more than 120 members of them join the SDF in Deir Ezzor". 10 January 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018. 
  148. ^ https://thedefensepost.com/2018/01/13/syria-border-security-force-sdf-coalition/
  149. ^ http://sdf-press.com/2018/01/تكليف-كينو-غابرييل-ناطقاً-رسميا-باسم/
  150. ^ Roy Gutman (12 October 2015). "U.S. begins airdrops of weapons to Kurdish forces in northern Syria". McClatchy. Archived from the original on 13 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  151. ^ "Syrian Arab militias dispute they received U.S. airdrop of ammunition". McClatchy DC. 20 October 2015. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015. 
  152. ^ "Syria conflict: US air drop for anti-IS forces in Hassakeh". BBC. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  153. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Interethnic coalition takes on the IS group in Syria". France 24 (Youtube). 22 April 2016. 
  154. ^ "Pentagon chief praises Kurdish fighters in Syria". Hurriyet Daily News. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  155. ^ "U.S. Troops 18 Miles from ISIS Capital". The Daily Beast. 27 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  156. ^ "New details in the German, American and French forces support for The Syria Democratic Forces in the northeastern countryside of Aleppo (SOHR)". 15 June 2016. 
  157. ^ "German, French special forces in Syria 'an aggression' (PressTV)". 15 June 2016. 
  158. ^ "Mysterious American Flags In Northern Syria Were Planted By U.S. Troops, Pentagon Says". Huffington Post. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  159. ^ "YPG-led SDF capture 3 villages from ISIS in north Aleppo countryside". Al-Masdar News. 30 August 2016. 
  160. ^ "US sending arms to Kurdish-led SDF in Syria, Turkey's Erdogan outraged". ARA News. 25 September 2016. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. 
  161. ^ "US Military Builds a New Air Base in Northern Syria". Aviation Voice. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  162. ^ "US Military Builds a New Air Base in Northern Syria". Sputnik International. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016. 
  163. ^ "US Military Builds a New Air Base in Oil-Rich Region North of Syria". Farsnews. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016. 
  164. ^ "U.S. builds two air bases in Kurdish-controlled north Syria: Kurdish report". Reuters. 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  165. ^ "US Confirms Involvement in Syria Airfield Expansion". Voice of America. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  166. ^ "Inside Syria: The farm airstrip that's part of the U.S. fight against ISIS". CNN. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  167. ^ "U.S. troops take over air base in Syria, local reports say". Military Times. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  168. ^ "US general: Syrian Democratic Forces will lead the assault on Raqqa". Stars and Stripes. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016. 
  169. ^ "American Is Killed in First Casualty for U.S. Forces in Syria Combat". New York Times. 24 November 2016. 
  170. ^ "ESU: URGENT APPEAL AFTER MANY CHRISTIANS FELL IN THE STRUGGLE TO LIBERATE RAQQA". European Syriac Union. 22 January 2017. 
  171. ^ a b "MFS: WE ASK THE US FOR EQUAL SUPPORT AS IS GIVEN TO THE ARABS". Syriac Military Council. 3 April 2017. 
  172. ^ "Kurd-led Syrian militia says Trump sent it armoured vehicles". Middle East Eye. 31 January 2017. 
  173. ^ "US military displays SDF support, while Turkey calls for YPG to leave Manbij". Rudaw. 25 February 2017. 
  174. ^ Carla Babb (6 March 2017). "US Troops in Manbij to 'Deter' Skirmishes Between Turks, Kurds". VOA News. 
  175. ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (1 April 2017). "US provides 30 vehicles to SDF-linked Arab forces as fight for Raqqa escalates". ARA News. 
  176. ^ "Ever-closer ties between US and Kurds stoke Turkish border tensions". The Guardian. 1 May 2017. 
  177. ^ "Kurdish citizens 'rest easy' after American military patrols parade through cities in northern Syria". syriadirect.org. 2 May 2017. 
  178. ^ "Trump to Arm Syrian Kurds, Even as Turkey Strongly Objects". New York Times. 9 May 2017. 
  179. ^ "In blow to U.S.-Turkey ties, Trump administration approves plan to arm Syrian Kurds against Islamic State". Washington Post. 9 May 2017. 
  180. ^ "Trump OKs arms for Syrian Kurds, despite Turkish objections". ABC News. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. 
  181. ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (9 July 2017). "8,500 SDF fighters trained by US-led coalition to combat ISIS, equipment delivered for 40,000 troops in Syria: official". ARA News. 
  182. ^ "U.S. delivered 809 trucks of weapons to YPG in two months – Map of Syrian Civil war/ Global conflict in Syria – Syria news – syria.liveuamap.com". Map of Syrian Civil war/ Global conflict in Syria – Syria news – syria.liveuamap.com. Retrieved 2017-09-30. 
  183. ^ "You are being redirected..." www.nrttv.com. Retrieved 2017-09-30. 
  184. ^ "http://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/9c38e794-b4ef-4727-8c82-f01e20334815". kurdistan24.net. Retrieved 2017-09-30.  External link in |title= (help)
  185. ^ "The Pentagon Is Spending $2 Billion Running Soviet-Era Guns to Syrian Rebels". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-09-30. 
  186. ^ Marzouk, Ivan Angelovski and Lawrence. "Revealed: The Pentagon Is Spending Up To $2.2 Billion on Soviet-Style Arms for Syrian Rebels – OCCRP". OCCRP. Retrieved 2017-09-30. 
  187. ^ News, ABC. "Erdogan says he reached same 'wavelength' with Trump in call". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  188. ^ Corporation, Nalia. "US armament of anti-ISIS Syrian Kurdish continue, says SDF official". nrttv.com. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  189. ^ "'Many more' US troops in Syria and Iraq". BBC News. 2017-11-28. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  190. ^ "US to keep supporting SDF, including Kurds, in Syria". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  191. ^ "Pentagon budget retains same troop levels in Iraq, Syria". Al-Monitor. 12 February 2018. 
  192. ^ "Syrie : Emmanuel Macron annonce l'envoi de soldats au secours des Kurdes". Le Parisien (in French). 29 March 2018. 
  193. ^ "First French Ground Troops Arrive in Northern Syria". Mintpress. 5 April 2018. 
  194. ^ "Tribes' Army disbands in north amidst accusations of YPG blockade". Syria Direct. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  195. ^ "Ultimele stiri si informatii despre Liwa Thuwwar Al Raqqa". www.disperat.ro. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  196. ^ "On the Front Line in the Bloody Fight to Take Manbij From ISIS". The Daily Beast. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  197. ^ "SDF-led Manbij Military Council cuts off ISIS supply route between Raqqa and Manbij". Ara News. 5 June 2016. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. 
  198. ^ "Free Raqqa Brigade denies split with the Syrian Democratic Forces". DW. 3 September 2016. 
  199. ^ @Syria_Rebel_Obs (10 November 2016). "IMPORTANT – Liwa Thuwar #Raqqa political bureau was many times in conflict with its military leader, Abu Issa, that's the problem" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  200. ^ @Syria_Rebel_Obs (10 November 2016). "Stop saying "Liwa Thuwar #Raqqa left #SDF" : brigade is few, and MORE IMPORTANT, besieged de facto by #SDF bases around its HQ" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  201. ^ @Syria_Rebel_Obs (11 November 2016). "LOCAL SOURCE – Fighters from Liwa Thuwar #Raqqa left #HQ during night and joined #SDF Liwa Ahrar #Raqqa (former Liwa al-Jihad)" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  202. ^ @arabthomness (11 December 2016). "#Syria: the #SDF coalition (#YPG, local #FSA, allied arab tribes) have launched the second stage of the offensive to liberate #Raqqa" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  203. ^ ""Intentionally" fights Arab allies .. and "revolutionaries tenderness" reveal planned". Baladi News. 27 December 2016. 
  204. ^ ""Thwar al-Raqqa" Brigade Attacks the pro-Assad regime "Tajamou' al-Shamal" north of #Raqqa". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  205. ^ "#Syria – Raqqa – Thuwar Raqqa faction assaults a pro–Assad faction". Yallasouriya. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  206. ^ "A spokesman for the Syrian Elite Forces: We are not part of "intentionally" and are open to the Peshmerga, "Rogge"". Rudaw. 10 April 2017. 
  207. ^ "A SPOKESMAN FOR THE ELITE FORCES: CONTINUE OUR EFFORTS UNTIL THE LIBERATION OF RAQQA AND DEIR AL-ZOUR". Syria's Tomorrow Movement. 15 April 2017. 
  208. ^ "Military police of SDF arrest leader of al-Bakkara Youth Gathering Yasser al-Dahla, the defected of Syrian Elite Forces". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 2 October 2017. 
  209. ^ "Statement by Manbij Military Council (March 16, 2017)". YPG Rojava. 16 March 2017. 
  210. ^ "Manbij Military Council on torture allegations: We are committed to laws of war". Hawar News Agency. 16 March 2017. 
  211. ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (18 March 2017). "Five SDF members arrested for torturing ISIS militant". ARA News. 
  212. ^ "UN: US-backed SDF recruits children". Al Jazeera. 7 March 2018. 

209. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/syria-syrian-war-update-latest-army-villages-captured-sdf-ypg-deir-elzour-euphrates-a8328246.html

External links

  • Official website (in Arabic)
  • Fehim Taştekin: "US backing ensures Arab-Kurd alliance in Syria will survive", Al-Monitor, 8 September 2016
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Syrian_Democratic_Forces&oldid=846009686"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Democratic_Forces
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Syrian Democratic Forces"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA