Syria–Lebanon Campaign

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Syria–Lebanon campaign
Part of the Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II
AUS Sidon 1941.jpg
Australian troops among the ruins of the old Crusader castle at Sidon, Lebanon, July 1941
Date 8 June – 14 July 1941
Location Syria and Lebanon
Result British–Free French victory
Territorial
changes
Syria and Lebanon taken over by Free France
Belligerents

 Australia
 United Kingdom

 Free France

Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia

 Vichy France


 Germany
Commanders and leaders
United Kingdom Archibald Wavell
United Kingdom Henry Maitland Wilson
Australia John Lavarack
Free France Paul Legentilhomme
Czechoslovakia Karel Klapálek
Vichy France Henri Dentz
Strength
~34,000 troops[nb 1]
50+ aircraft[nb 2]
1 landing ship
5 cruisers[3]
8 destroyers[3]
45,000 troops[nb 3]
90 tanks[nb 4]
289 aircraft[nb 5]
2 destroyers[nb 6]
3 submarines[7]
Casualties and losses
~4,652 casualties[nb 7]
27 aircraft[8]
6,352 (Vichy French claim)[nb 8] – 8,912 (British claim)[1]
179 aircraft[nb 9]
1 submarine sunk[3]
5,668 defected

The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter,[10] was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during World War II. Time magazine referred to the fighting as a "mixed show"[11] while it was taking place and the campaign remains little known, even in the countries that took part. There is evidence that the British censored reportage of the fighting because politicians believed that hostilities against French forces could have a negative effect on public opinion in British countries.[12]

Background

The British invasion of Syria and Lebanon aimed at preventing Nazi Germany from using the Vichy French-controlled Syrian Republic and French Lebanon for attacks on Egypt as the British fought the Western Desert Campaign (1940-1943) against Axis forces in North Africa. Although the French had ceded autonomy to Syria in September 1936, they had retained treaty rights to maintain armed forces and two airfields in the territory. From 1 April 1941, after a coup d'état, Iraq, on the eastern border of Syria, came under the control of pro-German rebel forces led by Rashid Ali. The Anglo-Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) led to the installation of a pro-British government.[citation needed]

In May 1941, Admiral François Darlan on behalf of Vichy France signed an agreement with the Germans, known as the "Paris Protocols". These protocols granted Germany access to military facilities in Vichy-controlled Syria.[13] The protocols remained unratified but Charles Huntziger, the Vichy Minister of War, sent orders to Henri Dentz, the High Commissioner for the Levant, to allow the German Luftwaffe and the Italian Regia Aeronautica to refuel in Syria. Disguised as Iraqi aircraft, Axis aircraft under Fliegerführer Irak landed in Syria, en route to the Kingdom of Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi War. The Germans also requested permission from the Vichy authorities to use Syrian railways to send armaments to Iraqi nationalists in Mosul. There, General Archibald Percival Wavell, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Middle East Command, perceived a threat posed by Vichy collaboration with Germany and Italy.[citation needed]

On 14 May 1941, a British Bristol Blenheim bomber crew, flying a reconnaissance mission over Palmyra in central Syria, spotted a Junkers Ju 90 transport taking off, with more German and Italian aircraft seen later that day and an attack on the airfield was authorised later that evening.[14] Attacks against German and Italian aircraft staging through Syria continued and the British claimed six Axis aircraft destroyed by 8 June. Vichy French forces claimed to have shot down a Blenheim on 28 May and to have forced down another on 2 June. The RAF shot down a Vichy Martin 167F bomber over the British Mandate of Palestine on 6 June.[15]

Prelude

Vichy French forces

Dentz was also Commander in Chief of the Armée du Levant (Army of the Levant) which had regular metropolitan colonial troops and troupes speciales (special troops, indigenous Syrian and Lebanese soldiers).[16] There were seven infantry battalions of regular French troops at his disposal, which included the 6th Infantry Regiment of the French Foreign Legion, the 24th Colonial Infantry Regiment and eleven infantry battalions of "special troops", including at least 5,000 cavalry in horsed and motorized units, two artillery groups and supporting units.[16]

The Armée de l'Air de Vichy (Vichy French Air Force) in the Levant had over 90 aircraft when hostilities began and three more groups were sent from France and North Africa, increasing the strength of the air force in Lebanon and Syria to 289 aircraft. Two destroyers and three submarines of the Marine Nationale (French Navy) were available to support the Vichy forces in the Levant.[citation needed]

While German interest in the French mandates of Syria and Lebanon was limited, Adolf Hitler permitted reinforcement of the French troops, by allowing French aircraft en route from Algeria to Syria to fly over Axis-controlled territory and refuel at the German-controlled Eleusina air base in Greece.[17] The activity of German aircraft based in Greece and the Dodecanese Islands was interpreted by the British as being in support of Vichy troops. Although Dentz briefly considered accepting German support, he turned down the offer on 13 June.[18]

British forces

Map of Syria and Lebanon during the Second World War.

Initially, British forces to the south of Syria in the British Mandate of Palestine consisted of two main formations under the command of General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson, the 7th Australian Division (minus the 18th Brigade, which was in North Africa at the Siege of Tobruk), Gentforce with two Free French brigades of the 1st Free French Division (including two battalions of the 13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade attached to the 1st Free French Brigade) and the 5th Indian Infantry Brigade (4th Indian Infantry Division) with artillery, engineers and other support services attached to form the 5th Indian Brigade Group.[citation needed]

In northern and central Syria, Iraq Command (Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Quinan) was used in this campaign to attack from the east, consisting of[citation needed] the 10th Indian Infantry Division and elements of the 17th Indian Infantry Brigade (8th Indian Infantry Division) and Habforce, the 4th Cavalry Brigade and the Arab Legion, under John Glubb (Glubb Pasha). Commando and raiding operations were undertaken by No. 11 (Scottish) Commando and Palmach, a unit recruited from Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine. Palmach also provided interpreters and guides to other British units.[citation needed]

Close air support was provided by squadrons from the Royal Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force and ground forces on the coast were supported by bombardments from Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy units of the Mediterranean Fleet; Wavell provided Wilson with 70 fighter aircraft. The Vichy French had at least 100 fighters but British Hawker Hurricanes and brand-new, U.S.-built Curtiss Tomahawks, were a match for French Dewoitine D.520s and Potez 63s.[citation needed]

British forces in reserve included the 6th Infantry Division (including the Czechoslovak 11th Infantry Battalion—East attached to the 23rd Infantry Brigade) and the 17th Australian Brigade.[19] In mid-June, the division with its two infantry brigades, came into the line as reinforcements, mainly on the Damascus front and the southern force was placed under the command of the 1st Australian Corps HQ on 19 June.[20][21][22]

British plans

The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying the Free French commanders, General Georges Catroux and Major-General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme, enters the city. They are escorted by Vichy French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess).

The British plan of attack devised by Wilson called for four lines of advance: on Damascus from Palestine, on Beirut from Palestine, on northern Syria from Iraq and on Palmyra (in central Syria) and Tripoli (in northern Lebanon) from Iraq.[citation needed]

Damascus

The 5th Indian Brigade Group—commanded by Brigadier Wilfrid Lewis Lloyd—were ordered to cross the Syrian border from Palestine and take Quneitra and Deraa. It was anticipated that this would open the way for the 1st Free French Division to advance to Damascus. Four days after the commencement of the operation, this force was brought under unified command and was named Gentforce after its French commander, Major-General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme.[citation needed]

Beirut

The Australian 7th Division—commanded by Major-General John Lavarack[23] (succeeded by Major-General Arthur "Tubby" Allen on 18 June when Lavarack took over Australian I Corps)—[24] had the responsibility of advancing from Palestine along the coastal road from Haifa towards Beirut. The Australian 21st Brigade was to take Beirut. The Australian 25th Brigade was to attack the large Vichy French airbase at Rayak, advancing along a route further inland from the 21st Brigade.[25] The operation was also to include a supporting commando landing from Cyprus at the south of the Litani River.[26]

Northern Syria

Once the two southern prongs were well engaged, it was planned that a third force, comprising formations drawn from Iraq Command, would attack Syria from Iraq. The bulk of 10th Indian Infantry Division—commanded by Major-General William "Bill" Slim—was to advance north-west up the Euphrates River from Haditha in Iraq (upstream from Baghdad) toward Deir ez Zor and thence to Raqqa and Aleppo to threaten the communication and supply lines of the Vichy forces defending Beirut against the Australians advancing from the south, in particular the railway line running northwards through Aleppo to Turkey (at the time, Turkey was thought by some British strategists to be sympathetic to the Vichy government and to Germany).[citation needed]

Meanwhile, a group comprising two infantry battalions from the 20th Indian Infantry Brigade (10th Indian Division) and two from the 17th Indian Infantry Brigade (8th Indian Infantry Division), would operate independently to capture all the territory in north-east Syria. 20th Indian Infantry Brigade were to make a feint from Mosul and the 17th Indian Infantry Brigade would advance into the Bec du Canard (Duck's Bill) region through which a railway from Aleppo ran eastward to Mosul and then to Baghdad.[27][28]

Palmyra and Tripoli

Finally, Wilson's plan called for Habforce—consisting of the 4th Cavalry Brigade, the 1st Battalion of the Essex Regiment, the Arab Legion Mechanized Regiment each supported by field, anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery batteries—to gather in western Iraq between Rutbah and the Transjordan border.[citation needed]

At the same time as the thrust up the Euphrates, this force would advance in a north-westerly direction to take Palmyra in Syria. Habforce was to secure the oil pipeline from Haditha to Tripoli. Habforce was in Iraq, attached to Iraq Command, because it had previously struck across the desert from the Transjordan border as part of the relief of RAF Habbaniya during the Anglo-Iraqi War.[citation needed]

Campaign

War on land

Main axes of invasion from Iraq

Hostilities commenced on 8 June 1941. The major battles of the campaign were:

War in the air

11 Squadron RAF Blenheims bombing Beirut, 1941

The initial advantage that the Vichy French Air Force (Armée de l'Air de Vichy) enjoyed did not last long. The Vichy French lost most of their aircraft destroyed on the ground[9] where the flat terrain, absence of infrastructure and absence of modern anti-aircraft (AA) artillery made them vulnerable to air attacks. On 26 June, a strafing run by Tomahawks of No. 3 Squadron Royal Australian Air Force (3 Sqn), on Homs airfield, destroyed five Dewoitine D.520s of Fighter Squadron II/3 (Groupe de Chasse II/3) and damaged six more.[29]

On 10 July, five D.520s attacked Bristol Blenheim bombers from No. 45 Squadron RAF, which were being escorted by seven Tomahawks from 3 Sqn.[30] The French pilots claimed three Blenheims but at least four D.520s were destroyed by the Australians.[30][31] The following day, a Dewoitine pilot shot down a Tomahawk from 3 Sqn, the only one lost during the campaign.[30]

By the end of the campaign, the Vichy forces had lost 179 aircraft from about 289 committed to the Levant, with remaining aircraft with the range to do so evacuating to Rhodes.[32]

War at sea

The war at sea was not a major part of Operation Exporter, although some significant actions were fought. During the Battle of the Litani River, rough seas kept commandos from landing along the coast on the first day of battle. On 9 June 1941, two French destroyers fired on the advancing Australians at the Litani River before being driven off by shore-based artillery fire. The French destroyers—Valmy and Guepard—then exchanged fire with the British destroyer HMS Janus. The New Zealand light cruiser HMNZS Leander came to the aid of Janus along with six additional British destroyers and the French retired.[33]

With or without French approval, the Luftwaffe attempted to come to the aid of the hard-pressed French naval forces on 15 June. Junkers Ju 88s of II./LG 1 (2nd Group, Lehrgeschwader 1), attacked British warships forces off the Syrian coast. Hits were scored on the destroyers HMS Ilex and Isis. That evening, French aircraft of the 4th Naval Air Group bombed British naval units off the Syrian coast.[33] Ilex and Iris were later towed to Haifa for repairs. Iris returned to service soon thereafter while Ilex underwent a series of temporary repairs at Haifa and then at Suez, Aden, Mombasa and Durban before sailing to the United States for a refit and full repair.[citation needed]

On 16 June, British torpedo aircraft sank the French destroyer Chevalier Paul, which had been en route from Toulon to Syria carrying ammunition from Metropolitan France. The following day, British bombers attacked another French destroyer in the port of Beirut which was also carrying ammunition.[33] On the night of 22/23 June, Guepard fought a brief engagement with two British cruisers and six destroyers off of the coast of Syria, before the French destroyer retired under the cover of darkness.[34]

The French suffered further losses on 25 June when the British submarine HMS Parthian torpedoed and sank the French submarine Souffleur off the Syrian coast; shortly afterward, the French tanker Adour was attacked by British torpedo aircraft. Adour was carrying the entire fuel supply for the French forces in the Middle East and was badly damaged.[35] During the ceasefire which started on 12 July, Dentz ordered all ships and aircraft under his command to go to neutral Turkey where they were interned.[citation needed]

Aftermath

Armistice

Hammana, September 1941. With terrain typical of the region in the background, Maj. Gen. A. S. Allen (centre), commander of the Australian 7th Division, inspects some of his men. British Commonwealth units garrisoned Lebanon and Syria for several months, following the end of the campaign. (Photographer: Frank Hurley.)

On 10 July, as the Australian 21st Brigade was on the verge of entering Beirut, Dentz sought an armistice. At one minute past midnight on 12 July, a ceasefire came into effect. To all intents and purposes, this ended the campaign and an armistice known as Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre (also known as the "Convention of Acre") was signed on 14 July at the "Sidney Smith Barracks" on the outskirts of the city of Acre.[36]

Casualties

The Vichy French forces lost approximately 6,000 men; of these roughly 1,000 had been killed. In addition, there were 37,736 Vichy French prisoners of war. When given the choice of repatriation to Metropolitan France or joining the Free French, a total of 5,668 men chose to join General Charles De Gaulle's forces.[16] The total number of civilians and military personnel repatriated was 37,563. Eight convoys, consisting of three hospital ships and one "gleaner" ship, sailed for France between 7 August and 27 September 1941 and arrived without incident.[37] Prisoners taken by the Vichy French forces were returned as well. It was determined that several British prisoners of war had been sent out of Syria even after the armistice was signed. The delay in obtaining the return of these prisoners led to the detention of Dentz and 29 of his most senior officers in Palestine. They were released in due course as the British prisoners were returned to Syria.[38]

Subsequent events

Allied leaders meet in Syria. Left to right: Air Chief Marshal Longmore, General Wavell, General de Gaulle, General Catroux

In late July 1941, De Gaulle flew from Brazzaville to congratulate the victors.[39] Free French General Georges Catroux was placed in control of Syria and Lebanon and on 26 November, shortly after taking up this post, Catroux recognised the independence of Syria and Lebanon in the name of the Free French movement.[40] On 8 November 1943, after elections, Lebanon became an independent state on 1 January 1944 and on 27 February 1945, declared war on Germany and the Empire of Japan.[41]

Victoria Cross

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. ^ 18,000 Australians, 9,000 British, 2,000 Indian and 5,000 Free French.[1]
  2. ^ Air support was provided by 815 Naval Air Squadron (Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers) based in Cyprus and No. 84 Squadron RAF, based in Iraq with Bristol Blenheim bombers [2] Fighter support was provided by No. 3 Squadron RAAF, operating Curtiss Tomahawks.
  3. ^ 35,000 regular soldiers (including 8,000 French infantry) and 10,000 Levantine infantry.[4]
  4. ^ The British believed that there was at least 90 tanks supporting the Vichy forces in Syria.[5]
  5. ^ The Vichy air force in Syria consisted of around 30 bombers and 60 fighters. The air force was nearly doubled in size as the campaign progressed due to reinforcements being flown in from French North Africa (see text).[2]
  6. ^ The Guépard and the Valmy[6]
  7. ^ 1,552 Australian casualties (416 killed and 1,136 wounded).[1] ~1,300 Free French casualties (1,100 captured).[1] 1,800 British and Indian casualties (1,200 captured).[1] A further 3,150 British troops fell sick during the campaign, including 350 who contracted malaria. This figure has been excluded from the battle casualties.[1]
  8. ^ 521 killed, 1,037 missing, 1,790 wounded and 3,004 captured. However, General Dentz later claimed that 1,092 Vichy French troops had died in the Syria-Lebanon campaign, with the extra dead presumably being classed as "missing" before this. If true, this would make the total casualties 1,092 killed, 1,790 wounded, 466 missing, and 3,004 captured.[1]
  9. ^ Most destroyed on the ground.[9]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Long, p. 526
  2. ^ a b Playfair, p. 206
  3. ^ a b c Playfair, p. 214
  4. ^ Long, p. 334
  5. ^ Playfair, p. 200
  6. ^ Long, p. 363
  7. ^ Long, pp. 333–334
  8. ^ Playfair, p. 222
  9. ^ a b Mollo, p.146
  10. ^ Playfair, p. 203
  11. ^ Time magazine, Mixed Show
  12. ^ Brune, p. 48
  13. ^ Keegan p. 676
  14. ^ Shores and Ehrengardt Air Pictorial July 1970, p. 242.
  15. ^ Shores and Ehrengardt Air Pictorial July 1970, pp. 242–244.
  16. ^ a b c Mollo, p.144
  17. ^ Shores & Ehrengardt p. 30
  18. ^ de Wailly, Henri, Syrie 1941, la guerre occultée, p. 246
  19. ^ Playfair 2004, p. 209.
  20. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 50.
  21. ^ Playfair 2004, p. 211.
  22. ^ Chappell 1987, p. 19.
  23. ^ Long (1953), p. 338
  24. ^ Long (1953), p. 413
  25. ^ "Syrian Campaign". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  26. ^ Long (1953), pp. 360–361
  27. ^ Playfair, p. 217
  28. ^ Mackenzie, p. 121
  29. ^ Shores & Ehrengardt p. 94
  30. ^ a b c Herington 1954, p. 94
  31. ^ Brown 1983, p. 17.
  32. ^ Shores and Ehrengardt Air Pictorial August 1970, pp. 283–284.
  33. ^ a b c Piekałkiewicz, p. 144
  34. ^ Piekałkiewicz, p. 146
  35. ^ Piekałkiewicz, p. 147
  36. ^ Time magazine, Acre Pact
  37. ^ Auchinleck, p. 4216
  38. ^ Auchinleck, p. 4217
  39. ^ Time magazine, Reconquering an Empire
  40. ^ Time magazine, Free Again
  41. ^ Martin, Chris. World War II The Book of Lists. The History Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0752461632. 
  42. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35360. p. 6825. 25 November 1941. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  43. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35325. p. 6237. 24 October 1941. Retrieved 17 June 2015.

References

Books

  • Auchinleck, Claud (1946). Despatch on Operations in the Middle East From 5th July, 1941 to 31st October 1941. London: War Office.  in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37695. pp. 4215–4230. 20 August 1946. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  • Brune, Peter (2003). A Bastard of a Place: The Australians in Papua. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-011-0. 
  • Chappell, Mike (1987). British Battle Insignia: 1939–1940. Men-At-Arms. II. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 0-85045-739-4. 
  • Joslen, Lt-Col H.F. (2003) [1960]. Orders of Battle: Second World War, 1939–1945. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84342-474-1. 
  • Keegan, John (2005). Dear, I. C. B.; Foot, M. R. D., eds. Oxford Companion to World War II. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280670-3. 
  • Long, Gavin (1953). "Chapters 16 to 26". Greece, Crete and Syria. Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 1, Army. II (1st online ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3134080. 
  • Mackenzie, Compton (1951). Eastern Epic: September 1939 – March 1943, Defence. I. London: Chatto & Windus. OCLC 1412578. 
  • Mollo, Andrew (1981). The Armed Forces of World War II. London: Crown. ISBN 0-517-54478-4. 
  • Playfair, Major-General I. S. O.; et al. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1956]. Butler, J. R. M., ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Germans Come to the Help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. II. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-066-1. 
  • Owen, James (2012). Commando. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-349-12362-2. 
  • Piekałkiewicz, Janusz (1987). Sea War: 1939–1945. London/New York: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-1665-7. 
  • Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (1987). L' aviation de Vichy au combat 2 La campagne de Syrie, 8 juin – 14 juillet 1941 [Vichy Air Combat 2 Syria Campaign, 8 June – 14 July 1941] (in French). Paris: Lavauzelle. ISBN 978-2-7025-0171-9. 
  • Wavell, Archibald (1946). Despatch on Operations in Iraq, East Syria and Iran from 10th April, 1941 to 12th January, 1942. London: War Office.  in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37685. pp. 4093–4102. 13 August 1946. Retrieved 2009-10-14.

Journals

  • Bou-Nacklie, N. E. (1994). "The 1941 Invasion of Syria and Lebanon: The Role of the Local Paramilitary". Middle Eastern Studies. 30 (3): 512–529. doi:10.1080/00263209408701009. ISSN 1743-7881. 
  • Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (July 1970). Part I. "Syrian Campaign, 1941: Forestalling the Germans: Air Battles Over S. Lebanon". Air Pictorial. 32 (7): 242–247. OCLC 29897622. 
  • Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (August 1970). Part II. "Syrian Campaign, 1941: Breaking the Back of Vichy Air Strength Conclusion". Air Pictorial. 32 (8): 280–284. OCLC 29897622. 

Further reading

  • Gaunson, A. B. (1981). To End a Mandate: Sir E. L. Spears and the Anglo-French Collision in the Levant, 1941–1945 (PhD). Hull University. OCLC 53527058. Docket uk.bl.ethos.348610. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 

External links

  • "Despatch on Operations in Iraq, East Syria, and Iran From 10th April, 1941 to 12th January 1942." (PDF). Supplement to the London Gazette, Number 37685. August 13, 1946. Retrieved September 26, 2009. 
  • "Claude Auchinleck's Despatch on Operations in the Middle East From 5th July, 1941 to 31st October 1941.". Supplement to the London Gazette, Number 37695. August 20, 1946. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  • Australian War Memorial, 2005, "Syrian Campaign"
  • "The Syrian Show Begins"Time magazine article, June 18, 1941
  • "Exit With A Flourish"Time magazine article, July 28, 1941
  • The Palmach
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