Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures

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This synoptic table of the principal Old World prehistoric cultures gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. It also serves as an index of the broad features of that prehistory to be followed through links to articles. Literate cultures are shown in brackets ().

Table

The Principal prehistoric cultures of the Old World
Prehistoric Europe
Prehistoric Africa
Prehistoric Asia
Period & Climate Europe North Africa,
West Africa and Sahara
Central Africa,
South and East Africa
Middle East South Asia, and
Central Asia
East Asia and South-East Asia
1000 CE



(Middle Ages) (Caliphate) (Sahelian kingdoms) Mapungubwe (Caliphate) (Middle Kingdoms) (Song Dynasty)
0 BCE/CE



Iron Age (and Roman Empire) (Ancient North Africa),
Nok,
Ile-Ife
Bantu expansion (Parthian Empire) (Satavahana Empire) (Han Dynasty)
1000 BCE




Urnfield culture

Bronze Age

Copper Age in Niger

Nok
Bantu expansion
Late Bronze Age
Early Iron Age
The development of the
Indian Iron Age
Chinese Bronze Age, Late and Final Jōmon in Japan
2000 BCE




Bell beaker
Chalcolithic
corded ware
domestication of the horse
Neolithic of Tichit

Tenerean
Middle Bronze Age (Sumer) Indus Valley civilisation

Indus script
Chinese Neolithic
of Longshan
3000 BCE




Yamna culture,
enclosed villages
Chalcolithic
of Central Europe
Beginning of the Hunter-gatherer art
of South Africa
Early Bronze Age Regionalization Era
4000 BCE




Samara culture

Lower Neolithic
Danubian Neolithic

Mediterranean
and Egyptian Neolithic
Beginning of Neolithic in East Africa Uruk period
Chalcolithic
(copper metallurgy)
Mehrgarh Neolithic
of Yang-Shao
rice-growing (?)
5000 BCE




Cardial and Linear Pottery
(agriculture, stock-rearing, Pottery)

Earliest European megaliths[1]

Starčevo and Vinča culture
agriculture, stock-rearing (pigs, bovine, sheep)

Chalcolithic (copper metallurgy)

Neolithic of the Sahara/Sahel
Ubaid period
ceramic Cyprus

Megalith building more frequent. The practice, spreads south into the Levant and Cyprus[1][2]
Mehrgarh, Bhirrana in India Hongshan culture of Northeast Asia (c. 4700 BCE)

6000 BCE




Tardenoisian cultures
(gathering of legumes)
Neolithic (Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean )
Sesklo and Choirokoitia
Neolithic with ceramic
Ubaid period
Mehrgarh, Bhirrana (India) Neolithic of northern China

7000 BCE




Sauveterrian cultures

Komornica culture
Wiltonian Pre-ceramic B
Pre-ceramic A
Neolithic in Asia Minor
(wheat, barley)
Hunter gatherers
in Jōmon (ancient Japan)
8000 BCE




Ahrensburg culture,
Azilian and Asiloid cultures (northern Spain, southern France)

Capsian Goats are domesticated in Zagros, Iran
First towns Near East at Aşıklı Höyük and Jericho

Hoabinhian of Southeast Asia
9000 BCE




Backed point culture (Federmesser)

Mezine (Ukraine)

Magosian

Natufian

The oldest known megaliths are built by the Hattians or their predecessors[2]

Kandivili
Europe North Africa,
West Africa and Sahara
Central Africa,
South and East Africa
Middle East South Asia, and
Central Asia
East Asia and South-East Asia
10,000 BCE Holocene began
Wisconsin glaciation ends (10,000 BCE)
Wisconsin glaciation at its peak(18,000 BCE)

Magdalenian
Solutrean
Epigravettian
Hamburg culture

Iberomaurusian
Mushabian
Sebilian
Lupemban culture



Kebarian
Athlitian


Beginning of Neolithic religion at Göbekli Tepe (southern Anatolia)
Bhimbetka rock paintings south Asia Pre-Jōmon ceramic (Japan)
20,000 BCE





Gravettian

Pavlovian

Aurignacian (art)

Kostienki (western Russia)
Iberomaurusian

Antelian

Aurignacian (art)

Zarzian culture
Sơn Vi culture (northern Vietnam)
30,000 BCE
Homo sapiens
Aurignacian (art)
Szeletian culture (Hungary)



Aterian


Stillbay



Baradostian culture



Bhimbetka rock paintings, Balangoda Culture
Angara Culture


Sen-Doki
40,000 BCE




Châtelperronian
Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens
Aterian


Jabroudian
Europe North Africa,
West Africa and Sahara
Central Africa,
South and East Africa
Middle East South Asia, and
Central Asia
East Asia and South-East Asia
50,000 BCE



Mousterian
Homo neanderthalensis

Micoquien



Fauresmithian
Homo sapiens

Mousterian

Homo neanderthalensis




Soanian



Ngandong
culture
80,000 BCE



latest Wisconsin glaciation begins (93,000 BCE)

Homo neanderthalensis



Mousteroid
Homo sapiens


Homo neanderthalensis Aterian
100,000 BCE


g ends (128,000 BCE)



Upper Acheulean
Homo neanderthalensis


Aterian Sangoan
Homo sapiens



Homo neanderthalensis

Acheulean

Soanian
200,000 BCE
Wolstonian glaciation begins (350,000 BCE)

Homo neanderthalensis


Tayacian (southern France)



Homo sapiens

Acheulean



Homo neanderthalensis
artwork 248,000 BCE[3]

Acheulean

300,000 BCE





Middle Acheulean
Homo neanderthalensis


Clactonian (England)




Pre-Soanian
500,000 BCE




Lower Acheulean
Homo heidelbergensisWorked pebbles

Lower Acheulean
Homo neanderthalensis Bhimbetka cupules 290,000-700,000 BCE[4][5] Homo erectus pekinensis

1,000,000 BCE




Worked pebbles
Homo antecessor (northern Spain, England, France)

Homo erectus
worked pebbles


Lower Acheulean


Oldowan

worked pebbles
2,000,000 BCE


Homo habilis,[6]Homo ergaster


See also

References

  1. ^ a b Egyptian pyramids=2630BCE (Djoser); French Carnac stones=3000~4500BCE; Dolmens=5000BCE in Western Europe, progressing to Russia, as well as progressing through Italy & Cyprus then reaching Israel/Jordan/Syria 4000~3000BCE; Gilgal Refaim Stonehenge in Mideast associated w/the era & builders of Dolmens, aka "Rogem Hiri," also=3000-4000BCE but this is only the top-layer, an as-yet unexcavated layer is discovered underneath
  2. ^ a b A.: Gobekli Tepe PPNA level: ~9000 BCE. B.: Atlit Yam=semi-circle of megaliths in Mediterranean Sea south of Haifa (Natufians), "sudden" abandonment 6270 BCE~6700 BCE noted by archaeologist--see "Marchant, Jo (25 Nov 2009)" ref in Yam Atlit article--ergo, is necessarily older than 6270 BCE but no date of construction found.
  3. ^ Israel Museum exhibits figurine/sculptureNational Library of Australia
  4. ^ Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar; Bednarik, Robert S. (1997). Indian Rock Art: And Its Global Context. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 59. ISBN 9788120814646. 
  5. ^ "Bhimbetka Petroglyphs". 2016-05-09. 
  6. ^ Wilford, John Noble. "Fossils in Kenya Challenge Linear Evolution". New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
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