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Sylvia Plath

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Sylvia Plath
A black-and-white photo of a woman with her hair up, looking aside from the camera
Plath photographed in 3 Chalcot Square, London, in July 1961
Born (1932-10-27)October 27, 1932
Boston, Massachusetts, US
Died February 11, 1963(1963-02-11) (aged 30)
London, England, UK
Resting place Heptonstall Church, West Yorkshire, England
Pen name Victoria Lucas
Occupation
  • Poet
  • novelist
  • short story writer
Language English
Nationality American
Alma mater
Period 1960–63
Genre
Literary movement Confessional poetry
Notable works The Bell Jar and Ariel
Notable awards
Spouse Ted Hughes (m. 1956; her death 1963)
Children

Signature Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath (/plæθ/; October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. Born in Boston, she studied at Smith College and Newnham College at the University of Cambridge before receiving acclaim as a poet and writer. She married fellow poet Ted Hughes in 1956, and they lived together in the United States and then in England. They had two children, Frieda and Nicholas, before separating in 1962.

Plath was clinically depressed for most of her adult life, and was treated multiple times with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). She took her own life in 1963.

Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for two of her published collections, The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel, and The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published shortly before her death. In 1982, she won a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for The Collected Poems.

Life and career

Early life

Plath was born on October 27, 1932, in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood.[1][2] Her mother, Aurelia Schober Plath (1906–1994), was a second-generation American of Austrian descent, and her father, Otto Plath (1885–1940), was from Grabow, Germany.[3] Plath's father was an entomologist and a professor of biology at Boston University who authored a book about bumblebees.[4]

On April 27, 1935, Plath's brother Warren was born,[2] and in 1936 the family moved from 24 Prince Street in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, to 92 Johnson Avenue, Winthrop, Massachusetts.[5] Plath's mother, Aurelia, had grown up in Winthrop, and her maternal grandparents, the Schobers, had lived in a section of the town called Point Shirley, a location mentioned in Plath's poetry. While living in Winthrop, eight-year-old Plath published her first poem in the Boston Herald's children's section.[6] Over the next few years, Plath published multiple poems in regional magazines and newspapers.[7] At age 11, Plath began keeping a journal.[7] In addition to writing, she showed early promise as an artist, winning an award for her paintings from the Scholastic Art & Writing Awards in 1947.[8] "Even in her youth, Plath was ambitiously driven to succeed".[7] Plath also had an IQ of around 160.[9][10]

Otto Plath died on November 5, 1940, a week and a half after Plath's eighth birthday,[4] of complications following the amputation of a foot due to untreated diabetes. He had become ill shortly after a close friend died of lung cancer. Comparing the similarities between his friend's symptoms and his own, Otto became convinced that he, too, had lung cancer and did not seek treatment until his diabetes had progressed too far. Raised as a Unitarian Christian, Plath experienced a loss of faith after her father's death and remained ambivalent about religion throughout her life.[11] Her father was buried in Winthrop Cemetery, Massachusetts. A visit to her father's grave later prompted Plath to write the poem Electra on Azalea Path. After Otto's death, Aurelia moved her children and her parents to 26 Elmwood Road, Wellesley, Massachusetts in 1942.[4] In one of her last prose pieces, Plath commented that her first nine years "sealed themselves off like a ship in a bottle—beautiful inaccessible, obsolete, a fine, white flying myth".[2][12] Plath attended Bradford Senior High School (now Wellesley High School) in Wellesley, graduating in 1950.[2] Just after graduating from high school, she had her first national publication in the Christian Science Monitor.[7]

College years and depression

In 1950, Plath attended Smith College and excelled academically. She wrote to her mother, "The world is splitting open at my feet like a ripe, juicy watermelon".[13] She edited The Smith Review and during the summer after her third year of college was awarded a coveted position as guest editor at Mademoiselle magazine, during which she spent a month in New York City.[2] The experience was not what she had hoped it would be, and it began a downward spiral. She was furious at not being at a meeting the editor had arranged with Welsh poet Dylan Thomas—a writer whom she loved, said one of her boyfriends, "more than life itself." She hung around the White Horse Tavern and the Chelsea Hotel for two days, hoping to meet Thomas, but he was already on his way home. A few weeks later, she slashed her legs to see if she had enough "courage" to commit suicide.[14] Many of the events that took place during that summer were later used as inspiration for her novel The Bell Jar.[15] During this time she was refused admission to the Harvard writing seminar.[13] Following electroconvulsive therapy for depression, Plath made her first medically documented suicide attempt in late August 1953 by crawling under her house and taking her mother's sleeping pills.[16]

She survived this first suicide attempt after lying unfound in a crawl space for three days, later writing that she "blissfully succumbed to the whirling blackness that I honestly believed was eternal oblivion."[2] She spent the next six months in psychiatric care, receiving more electric and insulin shock treatment under the care of Dr. Ruth Beuscher.[2] Her stay at McLean Hospital and her Smith Scholarship were paid for by Olive Higgins Prouty, who had successfully recovered from a mental breakdown herself. Plath seemed to make a good recovery and returned to college. In January 1955, she submitted her thesis, The Magic Mirror: A Study of the Double in Two of Dostoyevsky's Novels, and in June graduated from Smith with highest honors.[17]

She obtained a Fulbright Scholarship to study at Newnham College, one of the two women-only colleges of the University of Cambridge in England, where she continued actively writing poetry and publishing her work in the student newspaper Varsity. At Newnham, she studied with Dorothea Krook, whom she held in high regard.[18] She spent her first year winter and spring holidays traveling around Europe.[2]

Career and marriage

Plath's stay at McLean Hospital inspired her novel The Bell Jar

Plath first met poet Ted Hughes on February 25, 1956, at a party in Cambridge.[19] In a 1961 BBC interview (now held by the British Library Sound Archive),[20] Plath describes how she met Ted Hughes:

I happened to be at Cambridge. I was sent there by the [US] government on a government grant. And I'd read some of Ted's poems in this magazine and I was very impressed and I wanted to meet him. I went to this little celebration and that's actually where we met... Then we saw a great deal of each other. Ted came back to Cambridge and suddenly we found ourselves getting married a few months later... We kept writing poems to each other. Then it just grew out of that, I guess, a feeling that we both were writing so much and having such a fine time doing it, we decided that this should keep on.[20]

Plath described Hughes as "a singer, story-teller, lion and world-wanderer" with "a voice like the thunder of God".[2]

Nights, I squat in the cornucopia
Of your left ear, out of the wind,

Counting the red stars and those of plum-color.
The sun rises under the pillar of your tongue.
My hours are married to shadow.
No longer do I listen for the scrape of a keel
On the blank stones of the landing.

from "The Colossus",
The Colossus and Other Poems, 1960

The couple married on June 16, 1956, at St George the Martyr, Holborn (now in the London Borough of Camden) with Plath's mother in attendance, and spent their honeymoon in Benidorm, Spain. Plath returned to Newnham in October to begin her second year.[2] During this time, they both became deeply interested in astrology and the supernatural, using Ouija boards.

In June 1957, Plath and Hughes moved to the United States, and from September, Plath taught at Smith College, her alma mater. She found it difficult to both teach and have enough time and energy to write[17] and in the middle of 1958, the couple moved to Boston. Plath took a job as a receptionist in the psychiatric unit of Massachusetts General Hospital and in the evening sat in on creative writing seminars given by poet Robert Lowell (also attended by the writers Anne Sexton and George Starbuck).[17]

Both Lowell and Sexton encouraged Plath to write from her experience and she did so. She openly discussed her depression with Lowell and her suicide attempts with Sexton, who led her to write from a more female perspective. Plath began to conceive of herself as a more serious, focused poet and short-story writer.[2] At this time Plath and Hughes first met the poet W. S. Merwin, who admired their work and was to remain a lifelong friend.[21] Plath resumed psychoanalytic treatment in December, working with Ruth Beuscher.[2]

Chalcot Square, near Primrose Hill in London, Plath and Hughes' home from 1959

Plath and Hughes traveled across Canada and the United States, staying at the Yaddo artist colony in Saratoga Springs, New York State in late 1959. Plath says that it was here that she learned "to be true to my own weirdnesses", but she remained anxious about writing confessionally, from deeply personal and private material.[2][22] The couple moved back to England in December 1959 and[23] lived in London at 3 Chalcot Square, near the Primrose Hill area of Regent's Park, where an English Heritage plaque records Plath's residence.[24] Their daughter Frieda was born on April 1, 1960, and in October, Plath published her first collection of poetry, The Colossus.[23]

In February 1961, Plath's second pregnancy ended in miscarriage; several of her poems, including "Parliament Hill Fields", address this event.[25] In a letter to her therapist, Plath wrote that Hughes beat her two days before the miscarriage.[26] In August she finished her semi-autobiographical novel The Bell Jar and immediately after this, the family moved to Court Green in the small market town of North Tawton in Devon. Nicholas was born in January 1962.[23] In mid-1962, Hughes began to keep bees, which would be the subject of many Plath poems.[2]

In 1961, the couple rented their flat at Chalcot Square to Assia and David Wevill. Hughes was immediately struck with the beautiful Assia, as she was with him.[27] In June 1962, Plath had had a car accident which she described as one of many suicide attempts. In July 1962, Plath discovered Hughes had been having an affair with Assia Wevill and in September the couple separated.[23]

Beginning in October 1962, Plath experienced a great burst of creativity and wrote most of the poems on which her reputation now rests, writing at least 26 of the poems of her posthumous collection Ariel during the final months of her life.[23][28][29] In December 1962, she returned alone to London with their children, and rented, on a five-year lease, a flat at 23 Fitzroy Road—only a few streets from the Chalcot Square flat. William Butler Yeats once lived in the house, which bears an English Heritage blue plaque for the Irish poet. Plath was pleased by this fact and considered it a good omen.

The northern winter of 1962–1963 was one of the coldest in 100 years; the pipes froze, the children—now two years old and nine months—were often sick, and the house had no telephone.[30] Her depression returned but she completed the rest of her poetry collection which would be published after her death (1965 in the UK, 1966 in the US). Her only novel, The Bell Jar, was released in January 1963, published under the pen name Victoria Lucas, and was met with critical indifference.[31]

Final depressive episode and death

23 Fitzroy Road, near Primrose Hill, London, where Plath committed suicide

Before her death, Plath tried several times to take her own life.[32] On August 24, 1953, Plath overdosed on pills in the cellar of her mother's home. In June 1962, Plath drove her car off the side of the road, into a river. When questioned about the incident by police, she admitted to trying to take her own life.

In January 1963, Plath spoke with Dr. John Horder, her GP[32] and a close friend who lived near her. She described the current depressive episode she was experiencing; it had been ongoing for six or seven months.[32] While for most of the time she had been able to continue working, her depression had worsened and become severe, "marked by constant agitation, suicidal thoughts and inability to cope with daily life."[32] Plath struggled with insomnia, taking medication at night to induce sleep, and frequently woke up early.[32] She lost 20 pounds.[32] However, she continued to take care of her physical appearance and did not outwardly speak of feeling guilty or unworthy.[32]

Horder prescribed her an antidepressant, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor,[32] a few days before her suicide. Knowing she was at risk alone with two young children, he says he visited her daily and made strenuous efforts to have her admitted to a hospital; when that failed, he arranged for a live-in nurse. Commentators have argued that because antidepressants may take up to three weeks to take effect, her prescription from Horder would not have taken full effect.[33]

The nurse was due to arrive at 9:00 the morning of February 11, 1963, to help Plath with the care of her children. Upon arrival, she could not get into the flat, but eventually gained access with the help of a workman, Charles Langridge. They found Plath dead of carbon monoxide poisoning with her head in the oven, having sealed the rooms between her and her sleeping children with tape, towels and cloths.[34] At approximately 4:30 am, Plath had placed her head in the oven, with the gas turned on.[35] She was 30 years old.

Some have suggested that Plath had not intended to kill herself. That morning, she asked her downstairs neighbor, a Mr. Thomas, what time he would be leaving. She also left a note reading "Call Dr. Horder," including the doctor's phone number. Therefore, it is argued Plath turned on the gas at a time when Mr. Thomas would have been able to see the note.[36] However, in her biography Giving Up: The Last Days of Sylvia Plath, Plath's best friend, Jillian Becker wrote, "According to Mr. Goodchild, a police officer attached to the coroner's office ... [Plath] had thrust her head far into the gas oven... [and] had really meant to die."[37] Dr. Horder also believed her intention was clear. He stated that "No one who saw the care with which the kitchen was prepared could have interpreted her action as anything but an irrational compulsion."[35] Plath had described the quality of her despair as "owl's talons clenching my heart."[38] In his 1971 book on suicide, friend and critic Al Alvarez claimed that Plath's suicide was an unanswered cry for help,[35] and spoke, in a BBC interview in March 2000, about his failure to recognize Plath's depression, saying he regretted his inability to offer her emotional support: "I failed her on that level. I was thirty years old and stupid. What did I know about chronic clinical depression? [...] She kind of needed someone to take care of her. And that was not something I could do."[39]

Following Plath's death

Plath's grave at Heptonstall church, West Yorkshire

An inquiry on the day following Plath's death gave a ruling of suicide. Hughes was devastated; they had been separated six months. In a letter to an old friend of Plath's from Smith College, he wrote, "That's the end of my life. The rest is posthumous."[30][40] Plath's gravestone, in Heptonstall's parish churchyard of St Thomas the Apostle, bears the inscription that Hughes chose for her:[41] "Even amidst fierce flames the golden lotus can be planted." Biographers variously attribute the source of the quote to the Hindu text, the Bhagavad Gita[41] or to the 16th-century Buddhist novel Journey to the West written by Wu Cheng'en.[42][43]

The gravestone has been repeatedly vandalized by those aggrieved that "Hughes" is written on the stone; they have attempted to chisel it off, leaving only the name "Sylvia Plath."[44] When Hughes' mistress Assia Wevill killed herself and their four-year-old daughter Shura in 1969, this practice intensified. After each defacement, Hughes had the damaged stone removed, sometimes leaving the site unmarked during repair. Outraged mourners accused Hughes in the media of dishonoring her name by removing the stone.[45] Wevill's death led to claims that Hughes had been abusive to both Plath and Wevill.[39] Radical feminist poet Robin Morgan published the poem "Arraignment", in which she openly accused Hughes of the battery and murder of Plath.[45][46] There were lawsuits, Morgan's 1972 book Monster which contained that poem was banned, and underground, pirated feminist editions of it were published.[47] Other feminists threatened to kill Hughes in Plath's name.[35] Plath's poem "The Jailor", in which the speaker condemns her husband's brutality, was included in the 1970 anthology Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From The Women's Liberation Movement.[48]

In 1989, with Hughes under public attack, a battle raged in the letters pages of The Guardian and The Independent. In The Guardian on April 20, 1989, Hughes wrote the article "The Place Where Sylvia Plath Should Rest in Peace": "In the years soon after [Plath's] death, when scholars approached me, I tried to take their apparently serious concern for the truth about Sylvia Plath seriously. But I learned my lesson early. [...] If I tried too hard to tell them exactly how something happened, in the hope of correcting some fantasy, I was quite likely to be accused of trying to suppress Free Speech. In general, my refusal to have anything to do with the Plath Fantasia has been regarded as an attempt to suppress Free Speech [...] The Fantasia about Sylvia Plath is more needed than the facts. Where that leaves respect for the truth of her life (and of mine), or for her memory, or for the literary tradition, I do not know."[45][49] Hughes died in 1998.

On March 16, 2009, Nicholas Hughes, the son of Plath and Hughes, hanged himself at his home in Fairbanks, Alaska, following a history of depression.[50][51] Their daughter, Frieda Hughes, is now a writer and artist in her own right.

Smith College, Plath's alma mater, holds her literary papers in the Smith College Library.[52]

Works

Plath wrote poetry from the age of eight, her first poem appearing in the Boston Traveller.[2] By the time she arrived at Smith College she had written over 50 short stories and published in a raft of magazines.[53] At Smith she majored in English and won all the major prizes in writing and scholarship. Additionally, she won a summer guest editor position at the young women's magazine Mademoiselle, and, on her graduation in 1955, she won the Glascock Prize for Two Lovers and a Beachcomber by the Real Sea. Later at Cambridge, she wrote for the University publication, Varsity.

By the time Heinemann published her first collection, The Colossus and Other Poems in the UK in late 1960, Plath had been short-listed several times in the Yale Younger Poets book competition and had had work printed in Harper's, The Spectator and the Times Literary Supplement. All the poems in The Colossus had already been printed in major US and British journals and she had a contract with The New Yorker.[54] It was, however, her 1965 collection Ariel, published posthumously, on which Plath's reputation essentially rests. "Often, her work is singled out for the intense coupling of its violent or disturbed imagery and its playful use of alliteration and rhyme."[7]

In 1971, the volumes Winter Trees and Crossing the Water were published in the UK, including nine previously unseen poems from the original manuscript of Ariel.[31] Writing in New Statesman, fellow poet Peter Porter wrote:

Crossing the Water is full of perfectly realised works. Its most striking impression is of a front-rank artist in the process of discovering her true power. Such is Plath's control that the book possesses a singularity and certainty which should make it as celebrated as The Colossus or Ariel.[55]

The Collected Poems, published in 1981, edited and introduced by Ted Hughes, contained poetry written from 1956 until her death. Plath was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry, posthumously.[31] In 2006 Anna Journey, then a graduate student at Virginia Commonwealth University, discovered a previously unpublished sonnet written by Plath titled "Ennui". The poem, composed during Plath's early years at Smith College, is published in Blackbird, the online journal.[a]

And I
Am the arrow,

The dew that flies
Suicidal, at one with the drive
Into the red

Eye, the cauldron of morning.

from the poem Ariel, October 12, 1962[56]

According to Hughes, Plath left behind "some one hundred thirty [typed] pages of another novel, provisionally titled Double Exposure. That manuscript disappeared somewhere around 1970."[57]

Double Exposure

In 1963, after The Bell Jar was published, Plath began working on another literary work titled Double Exposure. It was never published and disappeared around 1970.[58] Theories about what happened to the unfinished manuscript are repeatedly brought up in the book Sylvia Plath's Fiction: A Critical Study by Luke Ferretter. Ferretter also claims that the rare books department at Smith College in Massachusetts has a secret copy of the work under seal.[58] Ferretter believes that the draft of Double Exposure may have been destroyed, stolen, or even lost. He presumes in his book that the draft may lie unfound in a university archive.[58]

The Colossus received largely positive UK reviews, highlighting Plath's voice as new and strong, individual and American in tone. Peter Dickinson at Punch called the collection "a real find" and "exhilarating to read", full of "clean, easy verse".[54] Bernard Bergonzi at the Manchester Guardian said the book was an "outstanding technical accomplishment" with a "virtuoso quality".[54] From the point of publication she became a presence on the poetry scene. The book went on to be published in America in 1962 to less glowing reviews. Whilst her craft was generally praised, her writing was viewed as more derivative of other poets.[54]

It was Plath's publication of Ariel in 1965 that precipitated her rise to fame. As soon as it was published, critics began to see the collection as the charting of Plath's increasing desperation or death wish. Her dramatic death became her most famous aspect, and remains so.[2] Time and Life both reviewed the slim volume of Ariel in the wake of her death.[35] The critic at Time said: "Within a week of her death, intellectual London was hunched over copies of a strange and terrible poem she had written during her last sick slide toward suicide. 'Daddy' was its title; its subject was her morbid love-hatred of her father; its style was as brutal as a truncheon. What is more, 'Daddy' was merely the first jet of flame from a literary dragon who in the last months of her life breathed a burning river of bile across the literary landscape. [...] In her most ferocious poems, 'Daddy' and 'Lady Lazarus,' fear, hate, love, death and the poet's own identity become fused at black heat with the figure of her father, and through him, with the guilt of the German exterminators and the suffering of their Jewish victims. They are poems, as Robert Lowell says in his preface to Ariel, that 'play Russian roulette with six cartridges in the cylinder.'"[59][b]

Some in the feminist movement saw Plath as speaking for their experience, as a "symbol of blighted female genius."[35] Writer Honor Moore describes Ariel as marking the beginning of a movement, Plath suddenly visible as "a woman on paper", certain and audacious. Moore says: "When Sylvia Plath’s Ariel was published in the United States in 1966, American women noticed. Not only women who ordinarily read poems, but housewives and mothers whose ambitions had awakened [...] Here was a woman, superbly trained in her craft, whose final poems uncompromisingly charted female rage, ambivalence, and grief, in a voice with which many women identified."[61]

The United States Postal Service introduced a postage stamp featuring Plath in 2012.[62]

Themes

Love set you going like a fat gold watch.
The midwife slapped your footsoles, and your bald cry
Took its place among the elements.

from "Morning Song", Ariel, 1965[63]

Sylvia Plath's early poems exhibit what became her typical imagery, using personal and nature-based depictions featuring, for example, the moon, blood, hospitals, fetuses, and skulls. They were mostly imitation exercises of poets she admired such as Dylan Thomas, W. B. Yeats and Marianne Moore.[53] Late in 1959, when she and Hughes were at the Yaddo writers' colony in New York State, she wrote the seven-part "Poem for a Birthday", echoing Theodore Roethke's Lost Son sequence, though its theme is her own traumatic breakdown and suicide attempt at 20. After 1960 her work moved into a more surreal landscape darkened by a sense of imprisonment and looming death, overshadowed by her father. The Colossus is shot through with themes of death, redemption and resurrection. After Hughes left, Plath produced, in less than two months, the forty poems of rage, despair, love, and vengeance on which her reputation mostly rests.[53]

Plath's landscape poetry, which she wrote throughout her life, has been described as "a rich and important area of her work that is often overlooked ... some of the best of which was written about the Yorkshire moors." Her September 1961 poem "Wuthering Heights"[64] takes its title from the Emily Brontë novel, but its content and style is Plath's own particular vision of the Pennine landscape.[65]

The poems in Ariel mark a departure from her earlier work into a more personal arena of poetry. Robert Lowell's poetry may have played a part in this shift as she cited Lowell's 1959 book Life Studies as a significant influence, in an interview just before her death.[66] Posthumously published in 1966, the impact of Ariel was dramatic, with its dark and potentially autobiographical descriptions of mental illness in poems such as '"Tulips", "Daddy" and "Lady Lazarus".[66] Plath's work is often held within the genre of confessional poetry and the style of her work compared to other contemporaries, such as Robert Lowell and W.D. Snodgrass. Plath's close friend Al Alvarez, who has written about her extensively, said of her later work: "Plath's case is complicated by the fact that, in her mature work, she deliberately used the details of her everyday life as raw material for her art. A casual visitor or unexpected telephone call, a cut, a bruise, a kitchen bowl, a candlestick—everything became usable, charged with meaning, transformed. Her poems are full of references and images that seem impenetrable at this distance, but which could mostly be explained in footnotes by a scholar with full access to the details of her life."[67] Many of Plath's later poems deal with what one critic calls the "domestic surreal" in which Plath takes everyday elements of life and twists the images, giving them an almost nightmarish quality. Plath's poem "Morning Song" from Ariel is regarded as one of the twentieth century's finest poems concerning an artist's freedom of expression.[68][not in citation given]

Plath's fellow confessional poet and friend Anne Sexton commented: "Sylvia and I would talk at length about our first suicide, in detail and in depth—between the free potato chips. Suicide is, after all, the opposite of the poem. Sylvia and I often talked opposites. We talked death with burned-up intensity, both of us drawn to it like moths to an electric lightbulb, sucking on it. She told the story of her first suicide in sweet and loving detail, and her description in The Bell Jar is just that same story."[69] The confessional interpretation of Plath's work has led to some dismissing certain aspects of her work as an exposition of sentimentalist melodrama; in 2010, for example, Theodore Dalrymple asserted that Plath had been the "patron saint of self-dramatization" and of self-pity.[70] Revisionist critics such as Tracy Brain have, however, argued against a tightly autobiographical interpretation of Plath's material.[71]

Journals and letters

Plath's letters were published in 1975, edited and selected by her mother Aurelia Plath. The collection, Letters Home: Correspondence 1950–1963, came out partly in response to the strong public reaction to the publication of The Bell Jar in America.[31] Plath began keeping a diary from the age of 11 and continued doing so until her suicide. Her adult diaries, starting from her first year at Smith College in 1950, were first published in 1982 as The Journals of Sylvia Plath, edited by Frances McCullough, with Ted Hughes as consulting editor. In 1982, when Smith College acquired Plath's remaining journals, Hughes sealed two of them until February 11, 2013, the 50th anniversary of Plath's death.[72]

During the last years of his life, Hughes began working on a fuller publication of Plath's journals. In 1998, shortly before his death, he unsealed the two journals, and passed the project onto his children by Plath, Frieda and Nicholas, who passed it on to Karen V. Kukil. Kukil finished her editing in December 1999, and in 2000 Anchor Books published The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath (Plath 2000). More than half of the new volume contained newly released material;[72] The American author Joyce Carol Oates hailed the publication as a "genuine literary event". Hughes faced criticism for his role in handling the journals: he claims to have destroyed Plath's last journal, which contained entries from the winter of 1962 up to her death. In the foreword of the 1982 version, he writes, "I destroyed [the last of her journals] because I did not want her children to have to read it (in those days I regarded forgetfulness as an essential part of survival)."[2][73]

The Bell Jar

Plath's semi-autobiographical novel, which her mother wished to block, was published in 1963 and in the US in 1971.[31][74] Describing the compilation of the book to her mother, she wrote, "What I've done is to throw together events from my own life, fictionalising to add colour – it's a pot boiler really, but I think it will show how isolated a person feels when he is suffering a breakdown.... I've tried to picture my world and the people in it as seen through the distorting lens of a bell jar".[75] She described her novel as "an autobiographical apprentice work which I had to write in order to free myself from the past".[76] She dated a Yale senior named Dick Norton during her junior year. Norton, upon whom the character of Buddy in The Bell Jar is based, contracted tuberculosis and was treated at the Ray Brook Sanatorium near Saranac Lake. While visiting Norton, Plath broke her leg skiing, an incident that was fictionalized in the novel.[77] Plath also used the novel to highlight the issue of women in the workforce during the 1950s. She strongly believed in their abilities to be writers and editors, while society forced them to fulfill secretarial roles.[78]

Hughes controversy

And here you come, with a cup of tea
Wreathed in steam.
The blood jet is poetry,
There is no stopping it.
You hand me two children, two roses.

from Kindness, written February 1, 1963. Ariel

As Hughes and Plath were legally married at the time of her death, Hughes inherited the Plath estate, including all her written work. Hughes has been condemned repeatedly for burning Plath's last journal, saying he "did not want her children to have to read it."[79] He lost another journal and an unfinished novel and instructed that a collection of Plath's papers and journals should not be released until 2013.[79][80] Hughes has been accused of attempting to control the estate for his own ends, although royalties from Plath's poetry were placed into a trust account for their two children, Frieda and Nicholas.[81][82]

Still the subject of speculation and opprobrium in 1998, Hughes published Birthday Letters that year, his own collection of 88 poems about his relationship with Plath. Hughes had published very little about his experience of the marriage and Plath's subsequent suicide, and the book caused a sensation, being taken as his first explicit disclosure, and it topped best seller charts. It was not known at the volume's release that Hughes was suffering from terminal cancer and would die later that year. The book went on to win the Forward Poetry Prize, the T. S. Eliot Prize for Poetry, and the Whitbread Poetry Prize. The poems, written after Plath's death, in some cases long after, try to find a reason why Plath took her own life.[83]

In October 2015 the BBC Two documentary Ted Hughes: Stronger Than Death examined Hughes' life and work and included audio recordings of Plath reciting her own poetry. Their daughter Frieda spoke for the first time about her mother and father.[84]

In 2017 it was revealed that letters written by Plath between February 18, 1960 and February 4, 1963 claim that Hughes beat Plath two days before she had a miscarriage in 1961, and that Hughes told Plath he wished that she was dead. The letters were sent to Dr. Ruth Barnhouse (then Dr. Ruth Beuscher).[26]

Portrayals in media

Plath's voice is heard in the BBC documentary about her life.[citation needed]

Gwyneth Paltrow portrayed Plath in the biopic Sylvia (2003). Frieda Hughes, now a poet and painter, who was two years old when her mother died, was angered by the making of entertainment featuring her parents' lives. She accused the "peanut crunching" public of wanting to be titillated by the family's tragedies.[85]

In 2003, Frieda reacted to the situation in the poem "My Mother" in Tatler:

Now they want to make a film
For anyone lacking the ability
To imagine the body, head in oven,
Orphaning children

 [...] they think
I should give them my mother's words
To fill the mouth of their monster,
Their Sylvia Suicide Doll [86]

Works

Poetry collections

Collected prose and novels

Children's books

  • The Bed Book (1976), illustrated by Quentin Blake, Faber and Faber
  • The It-Doesn't-Matter Suit (1996) Faber and Faber
  • Mrs. Cherry's Kitchen (2001) Faber and Faber
  • Collected Children's Stories (UK, 2001) Faber and Faber

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Two poems titled Ennui (I) and Ennui (II) are listed in a partial catalogue of Plath's juvenilia in the Collected Poems. A note explains that the texts of all but half a dozen of the many pieces listed are in the Sylvia Plath Archive of juvenilia in the Lilly Library at Indiana University. The rest are with the Sylvia Plath Estate.
  2. ^ Plath has been criticized for her numerous and controversial allusions to the Holocaust.[60]

Citations

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Brown & Taylor (2004), ODNB
  3. ^ Kirk (2004) p9
  4. ^ a b c Axelrod, Steven (April 24, 2007) [First published 2003]. "Sylvia Plath". The Literary Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 1, 2007. 
  5. ^ Steinberg, Peter K. (2007) [First published 1999]. "A celebration, this is". sylviaplath.info. Archived from the original on March 19, 2015. 
  6. ^ Kirk (2004) p23
  7. ^ a b c d e "Sylvia Plath". Academy of American Poets. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. 
  8. ^ Kirk (2004) p32
  9. ^ Butscher, Edward (2003). Sylvia Plath: Method and Madness. IPG. p. 27. ISBN 0971059829. 
  10. ^ Runco, Mark A.; Pritzker, Steven R., eds. (1999). Encyclopedia of Creativity, Two-Volume Set. Academic Press. p. 388. ISBN 0122270754. 
  11. ^ Peel (2007) pp41–44
  12. ^ Plath, Sylvia Johnny Panic, p124.
  13. ^ a b Brown & Taylor (2004), ODNB online
  14. ^ Thomas (2008) p35
  15. ^ Wagner-Martin (1988) p108
  16. ^ Kibler (1980) pp259–264
  17. ^ a b c Kirk (2004) pxix
  18. ^ Peel (2007) p44
  19. ^ "Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes meet". This Day in History. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes talk about their relationship". The Guardian. London. April 15, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.  Extract from the 1961 BBC interview with Plath and Hughes. Now held in the British Library Sound Archive.
  21. ^ Helle (2007)[page needed]
  22. ^ Journals pp520–521
  23. ^ a b c d e Kirk (2004) pxx
  24. ^ "Plaque: Sylvia Plath". London Remembers. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. 
  25. ^ Kirk (2004) p85
  26. ^ a b Kean, Danuta (April 11, 2017). "Unseen Sylvia Plath letters claim domestic abuse by Ted Hughes". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 14, 2017. 
  27. ^ Feinstein, Elaine (2001) Ted Hughes – The Life of a Poet pp120–124 Weidenfeld & Nicholson[permanent dead link]
  28. ^ "Sylvia Plath". The Poetry Archive. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. 
  29. ^ Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath—a marriage examined. From The Contemporary Review. Essay by Richard Whittington-Egan 2005 accessed July 9, 2010
  30. ^ a b Gifford (2008) p15
  31. ^ a b c d e Kirk (2004) pxxi
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Cooper, Brian (June 2003). "Sylvia Plath and the depression continuum". J R Soc Med. 96 (6). PMC 539515Freely accessible. 
  33. ^ Alexander (2003) p325
  34. ^ Stevenson (1990) p296
  35. ^ a b c d e f Feinmann, Jane (February 16, 1993). "Rhyme, reason and depression". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. 
  36. ^ Kirk (2004) p103
  37. ^ Becker (2003)
  38. ^ Guthmann, Edward (October 30, 2005). "The Allure: Beauty and an easy route to death have long made the Golden Gate Bridge a magnet for suicides". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. 
  39. ^ a b Thorpe, Vanessa (March 19, 2000). "'I failed her. I was 30 and stupid'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. 
  40. ^ Smith College. Plath papers. Series 6, Hughes. Plath archive.
  41. ^ a b Kirk (2004) p104
  42. ^ Carmody & Carmody (1996)
  43. ^ Cheng'en Wu, translated and abridged by Arthur Waley (1942) Monkey: Folk Novel of China. UNESCO collection, Chinese series. Grove Press
  44. ^ Short news report on Plath's grave, featuring some of her poetry on YouTube
  45. ^ a b c Badia & Phegley (2005) p252
  46. ^ "Monster". Robin Morgan. Robin Morgan. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. 
  47. ^ "Monster: Poems by Robin Morgan". Goodreads. Archived from the original on November 4, 2016.  Review.
  48. ^ Morgan (1970)
  49. ^ Hughes, Ted (April 20, 1989). "The Place Where Sylvia Plath Should Rest in Peace". The Guardian. London. 
  50. ^ Bates, Stephen (March 23, 2009). "Son of poets Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes kills himself". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Poet Plath's son takes own life". BBC. London. March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Rare Books & Literary Archives | Smith College Libraries". www.smith.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-23. 
  53. ^ a b c Stevenson (1994)
  54. ^ a b c d Wagner-Martin (1988) pp2–5
  55. ^ Plath, Sylvia. The Colossus and Other Poems, Faber and Faber, 1977.
  56. ^ Plath, Sylvia (13 March 2008). "Ariel". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. 
  57. ^ "The Ghost of Plath's Double Exposure". Lost Manuscripts. August 29, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  58. ^ a b c Ferretter (2009)
  59. ^ "The Blood Jet Is Poetry". Time. June 10, 1966. Retrieved July 9, 2010.  Book review, Ariel.
  60. ^ Strangeways, Al; Plath, Sylvia (Autumn 1996). "'The Boot in the Face': The Problem of the Holocaust in the Poetry of Sylvia Plath". Contemporary Literature. 37 (3): 370–390. JSTOR 1208714Freely accessible. 
  61. ^ Moore, Honor (March 2009). "After Ariel: Celebrating the poetry of the women's movement". Boston Review. Archived from the original on July 11, 2017. 
  62. ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (September 17, 2011). "Sylvia Plath given stamp of approval". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. 
  63. ^ "Morning Song, Plath, Sylvia". Jeanette Winterson. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. 
  64. ^ Sylvia PLath. "Wuthering Heights". .poemhunter.com/. Retrieved July 31, 2013. 
  65. ^ "A Poet's Guide to Britain: Sylvia Plath". BBC. May 11, 2009. Archived from the original on September 1, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2013. 
  66. ^ a b Wagner-Martin (1988) p184
  67. ^ Alvarez (2007) p214
  68. ^ ""Morning Song" – World Poems on Freedom of Expression".  in Uncontrolled Pen – Features
  69. ^ "The Paris Review Interviews:The Art of Poetry No. 15. Anne Sexton" Interview by Barbara Kevles. Issue 52, Summer 1971. Accessed July 15, 2010
  70. ^ Dalrymple (2010) p157
  71. ^ Brain (2001); Brain (2006); Brain (2007)
  72. ^ a b Kirk (2004) pxxii
  73. ^ Wagner-Martin (1988) p313
  74. ^ McCullough (2005) p xii
  75. ^ Plath Biographical Note 294–5. From Wagner-Martin (1988) p107
  76. ^ Plath Biographical Note 293. From Wagner-Martin (1988) p112
  77. ^ Taylor (1986)
  78. ^ Jernigan, Adam T. (January 1, 2014). "Paraliterary Labors in Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: Typists, Teachers, and the Pink-Collar Subtext". Modern Fiction Studies. 60 (1): 1–27. OCLC 5561439112. (Subscription required (help)). 
  79. ^ a b Christodoulides (2005) p ix
  80. ^ Viner, Katharine (October 20, 2003). "Desperately seeking Sylvia". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. 
  81. ^ Gill (2006) p9–10
  82. ^ Hughes, Frieda (2004) pxvii
  83. ^ Rose, Jacqueline (February 1, 1998). "The happy couple". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. 
  84. ^ "BBC Two – Ted Hughes: Stronger Than Death". BBC. October 10, 2015. Archived from the original on December 17, 2016. 
  85. ^ "Plath film angers daughter". BBC. February 3, 2003. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. 
  86. ^ Hughes, Frieda (2003). "My Mother". The Book of Mirrors. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. 

Sources

  • Alexander, Paul. (1991). Rough Magic: A Biography of Sylvia Plath. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81299-1.
    • ——— (2003). Rough Magic: A Biography of Sylvia Plath. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81299-1.
  • Alvarez, Al. (2007). Risky Business: People, Pastimes, Poker and Books. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-8744-6.
  • Axelrod, Steven Gould. (1992). Sylvia Plath: The Wound and the Cure of Words. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. ISBN 0-8018-4374-X.
  • Badia, Janet and Phegley, Jennifer. (2005). Reading Women: Literary Figures and Cultural Icons from the Victorian Age to the Present. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8928-3.
  • Becker, Jillian. (2003). Giving Up: The Last Days of Sylvia Plath. New York: St Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-31598-8.
  • Brain, Tracy. (2001). The Other Sylvia Plath. Harlow, Essex: Longman. ISBN 0-582-32729-6.
  • Brain, Tracy. (2006). "Dangerous Confessions: The Problem of Reading Sylvia Plath Biographically". Modern Confessional Writing: New Critical Essays. Ed. Jo Gill. London: Routledge. pp11–32. ISBN 0-415-33969-3.
  • Brain, Tracy. (2007). "The Indeterminacy of the Plath Canon". In Helle (2007) pp17–38.
  • Brown, Sally and Taylor, Clare L. (2004), ODNB. "Plath, Sylvia (1932–1963)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861411-X.
  • Butscher, Edward. (2003). Sylvia Plath: Method and Madness. Tucson, AZ: Schaffner Press. ISBN 0-9710598-2-9.
  • Carmody, Denise Lardner and Carmody, John Tully. (1996). Mysticism: Holiness East and West. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508819-0.
  • Christodoulides, Nephie. (2005). Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking: Motherhood in Sylvia Plath's Work. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-1772-4.
  • Dalrymple, Theodore. (2010). Spoilt Rotten: The Toxic Cult of Sentimentality. London: Gibson Square Books. ISBN 1-906142-61-0.
  • Ferretter. (2009). Sylvia Plath's Fiction: A Critical Study. Edinburgh University Press. 1st ed. ISBN 0-7486-2510-0.
  • Gifford, Terry. (2008). Ted Hughes. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31189-6.
  • Gill, Jo. (2006). The Cambridge companion to Sylvia Plath. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84496-7.
  • Hayman, Ronald. (1991). The Death and Life of Sylvia Plath. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing. ISBN 1-55972-068-9.
  • Helle, Anita (Ed). (2007). The Unraveling Archive: Essays on Sylvia Plath. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-06927-6.
  • Hemphill, Stephanie. (2007). Your Own, Sylvia: A Verse Portrait of Sylvia Plath. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-83799-X.
  • Hughes, Frieda (2004). "Foreword". In Plath, Sylvia. Ariel: The Restored Edition. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-06-073259-8. Via British Library.
  • Kibler, James E. Jr (Ed.). (1980). American Novelists Since World War II. 2nd ed. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Volume 6. Detroit: A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book, The Gale Group. ISBN 0-8103-0908-4.
  • Kirk, Connie Ann. (2004). Sylvia Plath: A Biography. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33214-2.
  • Kyle, Barry. (1976). Sylvia Plath: A Dramatic Portrait; Conceived and Adapted from Her Writings. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-10698-6.
  • Malcolm, Janet. (1995). The Silent Woman: Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-75140-8.
  • McCullough, Frances. (2005). "Introduction". In Plath, Sylvia. (2005) [Originally published 1963]. The Bell Jar. New York: Perennial Classics. 1st Harper Perennial Classics ed. ISBN 0-06-093018-7.
  • Middlebrook, Diane. (2003). Her Husband: Hughes and Plath—a Marriage. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03187-9.
  • Morgan, Robin. (1970). Sisterhood Is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings from the Women's Liberation Movement. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-45240-2.
  • Peel, Robin. (2007). "The Political Education of Sylvia Plath". In Helle (2007) pp39–64.
  • Plath, Sylvia. (2000). The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath. Edited by Karen V. Kukil. New York: Anchor. ISBN 0-385-72025-4
  • Steinberg, Peter K. (2004). Sylvia Plath. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-7910-7843-4.
  • Stevenson, Anne. (1990) [originally published 1989]. Bitter Fame: A Life of Sylvia Plath. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-010373-2.
  • Stevenson, Anne. "Plath, Sylvia". (1994). The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry in English. Hamilton, Ian (Ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866147-9.
  • Tabor, Stephen. (1988). Sylvia Plath: An Analytical Bibliography. London: Mansell. ISBN 0-7201-1830-1.
  • Taylor, Robert. (1986). Saranac: America's Magic Mountain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-37905-9.
  • Thomas, David N. (2008). Fatal Neglect: Who Killed Dylan Thomas?. Bridgend: Seren. ISBN 978-1-85411-480-8.
  • Wagner, Erica. (2002). Ariel's Gift: Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath, and the Story of Birthday Letters. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32301-3.
  • Wagner-Martin, Linda (Ed). (1988). Sylvia Plath (Critical Heritage). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00910-3.
  • Wagner-Martin, Linda. (2003). Sylvia Plath: A Literary Life. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-63114-5.

Further reading

  • Parker, James (June 2013). "Why Sylvia Plath haunts us". The Culture File. The Omnivore. The Atlantic. 311 (5): 34, 36. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
  • Meyers, Jeffrey (June–July 2014). "Plath's rapist". The London Magazine: 137–144. 
  • Taylor, Tess (February 12, 2013). "Reading Sylvia Plath 50 Years After Her Death Is A Different Experience". NPR. Retrieved July 11, 2017. 

External links

  • Bibliowiki has original media or text related to this article: Sylvia Plath (in the public domain in Canada)
  • Sylvia Plath at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
  • Works by or about Sylvia Plath in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Works by Sylvia Plath at Faded Page (Canada)
  • Peter K. Steinberg's A celebration, this is
  • Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath collection at University of Victoria, Special Collections
  • Plath profile from American Academy of Poets
  • BBC profile and video. BBC archive. Plath reading "Lady Lazarus" from Ariel (sound file)
  • Sylvia Plath drawings at The Mayor Gallery The Daily Telegraph
  • Essays on Plath by Joyce Carol Oates
  • books.google.com On Sylvia Plath and Confessional Poetry by Harold Bloom
  • Sylvia Plath at the British Library
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