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Sylheti language

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Sylheti nagari.png
The word Silôṭi ('Sylheti') in Sylheti Nagri
Pronunciation [silɔʈi]
Native to India and Bangladesh
Region Greater Sylhet
Ethnicity Sylhetis
Native speakers
11 million (2007)[1]
Sylheti Nagri, Eastern Nagari[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 syl
Glottolog sylh1242[3]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-ui
Sylheti speaking zone.png
Sylheti speakers within South Asia
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Sylheti (Sylheti Nagri: ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi, Bengali: সিলেটি, romanizedSileti) is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam. There is also a substantial number of Sylheti speakers in the Indian states of Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, and Nagaland.[4] It also has a large diaspora in the United Kingdom, the United States and the Middle East.


Socially and politically the status of Sylheti is disputed with most considering it to be a Bengali dialect,[citation needed] while others viewing it as a related yet separate language. Considering the unique linguistic properties such as phoneme inventory, allophony, and inflectional morphology in particular and lexicon in general, Sylheti is sometimes regarded as a separate language (Chatterjee 1939, Gordon 2005). There are significant differences in grammar and pronunciation as well although there is a moderate mutual intelligibility between Sylheti and Standard Bengali. Most Sylhetis are at least bilingual to some degree, as Standard Bengali is taught at all levels of education in Bangladesh.[5] Sylhet was part of British Assam and Sylheti shares many common features with Assamese, including a larger set of classifiers and a larger set of fricatives than other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. In his Linguistic Survey of India, George Abraham Grierson, concludes that "[Sylheti's] inflections also differ from those of regular Bengali, and in one or two instances assimilate to those of Assamese," though he groups three dialects of Sylheti (from Western Sylhet, Eastern Sylhet, and Cachar) along with Dhakaiya Kutti in an Eastern Bengali group.[6] Sylheti shares 70% to 80% of its lexicon with Standard Bengali, despite pronunciation differences, which is a common situation between many related languages.[4][7]

Geographical distribution

The Sylheti language is native to the Greater Sylhet region, which comprises the present-day Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and the Barak Valley in India.

Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Sylhetis living in other parts of Assam, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, and the Meghalaya region. A significant amount of Sylheti migration to the United Kingdom and the United States from the 20th century has made Sylheti one of the most spoken languages of the Bangladeshi diaspora.


Front page of a Sylheti Nagri book titled Halat-un-Nabi, written in the mid-19th century by Sadeq Ali of Daulatpur, Longla, Moulvibazar.

The region of Sylhet became a part of the Muslim Bengal in 1303 during the Conquest of Sylhet led by Shamsuddin Firoz Shah. The high influx of Middle Eastern and Central Asian settlers led to an influence from Arabic, the religious language, and Persian, the official court language, on the Bengali language as a whole. When the British arrived in 1765, Sylhet became a part of Assam leading to Assamese influence on the local Sylheti dialect. In the 19th century, the British tea-planters in the area referred to the vernacular spoken in Surma and Barak Valleys as Sylheti. Local names included Ujaniyo (lit. northern , i.e. a northern form of Bengali) and Srihottiyo (Srihattan).[6]

T Walton B.C.S. wrote the Government Report on the History and Statistics of Sylhet District in 1857 which contained a list of peculiar Sylheti vocabulary.[6] This is most likely the earliest appearance of a Sylheti dictionary. Many terms listed here differ from modern Sylheti - highlighting the dialect's evolution. In 1868, another short glossary of local Sylheti terms were written up and compared to standard Bengali to allow ease in understanding the dialect.[8]

In the 20th century, Shibprosanna Lahiry wrote a book called Sylheti Bhasatattver Bhumika (A background of the Sylheti language).[9]

The British Bangladeshis living in England were mainly of Sylheti origin, and they started a campaign during the mid-1970s to mid-1980s to recognise Sylheti as a language in its own right. During the mid-1970s, when the first mother-tongue classes were established for Bangladeshis by community activists, the classes were given in standard Bengali rather than the Sylheti dialect which triggered the campaign. During the 1980s, a recognition campaign for Sylheti took place in the area of Spitalfields in the East End of London. One of the main organisations was the Bangladeshis' Educational Needs (BENTH) in Tower Hamlets. However this organisation collapsed in 1985 and with its demise, the pro-Sylheti campaign in the borough lost impetus. Nonetheless, Sylheti remains very widespread as a domestic language in working-class as well as upper-class Sylheti households in the United Kingdom.[10]

On 18 October 2015, the SOAS Sylheti Project's Chocolate and Bicycles team launched a bilingual dictionary titled Sylheti Dictionary, translating from English to Sylheti and vice versa.[11] In the same decade, Md. Salik Ahmed, Md. Nizam Uddin and Md. Mamunur Rasid translated the last juz' of the Qur'an into the Sylheti language using both the Eastern Nagari and Sylheti Nagri scripts.[12]

Writing system

The language is primarily written in the Eastern Nagari script however an alternative script was also founded in the Sylhet region known as Sylheti Nagri. During the British colonial period, Moulvi Abdul Karim spent several years in London learning the printing trade. After returning home in the 1870s, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagri and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet town.

The written form of Sylheti which was used to write puthis was identical to those written in the Dobhashi dialect due to both lacking the use of tatsama and using Perso-Arabic vocabulary as a replacement. Similar to Dobhashi, many Sylheti Nagri texts were paginated from right to left.[13][14]

Comparison with standard Bengali

A phrase in:

  • Standard Bengali: এক দেশের গালি আরেক দেশের বুলি æk desher gali arek desher buli.
  • Sylheti: ꠄꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠉꠣꠁꠟ ꠀꠣꠞꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠝꠣꠔ/এখ দেশর গাইল, আরখ দেশর মাত ex deshôr gail arôx deshôr mat.

which literally means "one land's obscenity is another land's language", and can be roughly translated to convey that a similar word in one language can mean something very different in another.

Another example: মেঘ megh in Standard Bengali means cloud .

ꠝꠦꠊ/মেঘ megh in Sylheti means rain.
In Pali मेघ megha means both rain and cloud.

Grammar comparisons

The following is a sample text in Sylheti, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations:
Sylheti in Sylheti Nagri

ꠗꠣꠞꠣ ১: ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘꠜꠣꠛꠦ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ‘ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠞꠣꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠄꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ।

Sylheti in Bengali script

ধারা ১: হখল মানুষ আজাদী ভাবে হমান ইজ্জত আর হক লইয়া পয়দা ‘অয়। তারার হুঁশ আর আখল আছে; এর-লাগি হকলর জরুরি একজনে আরকজনর লগে বিরাদরির মন লইয়া ব্যবহার করা।

Sylheti in Phonetic Romanization

Dara ex: Hôxôl manuš azadi babe hôman izzôt ar hôx lôia fôeda ôe. Tarar hush ar axôl ase. Er lagi hôxlôr zoruri exzône arôxzônôr lôge biradôrir môn lôia bebohar xôra.

Sylheti in IPA

/d̪aɾa ex | ɦɔxɔl manuʃ azad̪í bábe ɦɔman id͡ʒːɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔx lɔia fɔe̯d̪a ɔ́e̯ ‖ t̪aɾaɾ ɦuʃ aɾ axɔl asé; eɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ zɔruri exzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔge birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔn lɔia beboɦar xɔɾa ‖/

Bengali in Bengali script

ধারা ১: সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত।

Bengali in Phonetic Romanization

Dhara æk: Šômôsto manuš šadhinbhabe šôman môrjada æbông odhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. Tãder bibek æbông buddhi achhe; šutôrang šôkôleri æke ôpôrer prôti bhratrittôšulôbh mônobhab niye achôrôn kôra uchit.

Bengali in IPA

/d̪ʱara ɛk | ʃɔmɔst̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe ʃɔman mɔɾd͡ʒad̪a ɛbɔŋ od̪ʱikaɾ nije d͡ʒɔnmɔgɾɔɦɔn kɔɾe ‖ t̪ãd̪eɾ bibek ɛbɔŋ bud̪d̪ʱi at͡ʃʰe ‖ ʃut̪ɔɾaŋ ʃɔkɔleɾi ɛke ɔpɔɾeɾ prɔt̪i bʱɾat̪ɾit̪ːɔʃulɔbʱ mɔnobʱab nije at͡ʃɔɾɔn kɔɾa ut͡ʃit̪ ‖/

Below are the grammar similarities and differences appearing in a word to word comparison:
Sylheti word-to-word gloss

All humans' free way same dignity and rights with born are. Their conscious and intelligence exist; therefore everyone's important a-person another-person's with brotherhood's mind with act doing.

Bengali word-to-word gloss

All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Sylheti is distinguished by its tonal characteristics and a wide range of fricative consonants corresponding to aspirated consonants in closely related languages and dialects such as Bengali; a lack of the breathy voiced stops; word-final stress; and a relatively large set of loanwords from other Bengali dialects and Assamese.

  Front Central Back
Close i   u
Close-mid e    
Open-mid     ɔ
Open   a  
  Labial Dental/
Retroflex Palato-
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n     ŋ  
voiceless unaspirated p , , ʈ , t͡ʃ , k ,  
voiced unaspirated b , , ɖ , d͡ʒ , ɡ ,  
Fricative voiceless fricative ɸ~f , s ,   ʃ x , ɦ
voiced fricative   z ,        
Flap   ɾ ɽ      
Approximant w l   j    


Sylheti is a tonal language. The Indo-Aryan languages are not generally recognised for tone, although at least one other Indo-Aryan language (Punjabi) is tonal. There are two types of tonal contrasts in Sylheti: the emergence of high tone in the vowels following the loss of aspiration, and a low tone elsewhere.[15]

  • at (ꠀꠔ) 'intestine'
  • át (‘ꠀꠔ) 'hand'
  • xali (ꠇꠣꠟꠤ) 'ink'
  • xáli (ꠈꠣꠟꠤ) 'empty'
  • guṛa (ꠉꠥꠠꠣ) 'powder'
  • gúṛa (ꠊꠥꠠꠣ) 'horse'
  • suri (ꠌꠥꠞꠤ) 'theft'
  • súri (ꠍꠥꠞꠤ) 'knife'
  • zal (ꠎꠣꠟ) 'net, web'
  • zál (ꠏꠣꠟ) 'pungent'
  • ṭik (ꠐꠤꠇ) 'tick'
  • ṭík (ꠑꠤꠇ) 'correct'
  • ḍal (ꠒꠣꠟ) 'branch'
  • ḍál (ꠓꠣꠟ) 'shield'
  • tal (ꠔꠣꠟ) 'palmyra, rhythm'
  • tál (ꠕꠣꠟ) 'plate'
  • dan (ꠖꠣꠘ) 'donation'
  • dán (ꠗꠣꠘ) 'paddy'
  • ful (ꠙꠥꠟ) 'bridge'
  • fúl (ꠚꠥꠟ) 'flower'
  • bala (ꠛꠣꠟꠣ) 'bangle'
  • bála (ꠜꠣꠟꠣ) 'good, welfare'
  • bat (ꠛꠣꠔ) 'arthritis'
  • bát (ꠜꠣꠔ) 'rice'

Sylheti continues to have a long history of coexisting with other Tibeto-Burman languages such as various dialects of Kokborok, Reang which are tonal in nature. Even though there is no clear evidence of direct borrowing of lexical items from those tonal languages into Sylheti, there is still a possibility that the emergence of Sylheti tones is due to an areal feature as the indigenous speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages by and large use Sylheti as a common medium for interaction.


A notable characteristic of spoken Sylheti is the correspondence of the /x/ and /ɦ/, pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative to the /k/ or /kʰ/ of Bengali and voiceless glottal fricative to the /x/ of Assamese respectively.

Bengali Assamese Sylheti IPA Transcription Meaning in English
/ɖáxa/ Dhaka
একজন লোক
Ēkjôn lōk
এজন লোক
Ezon lük
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ
Ēxzôn manush
/exzɔn manuʃ/ A person
একজন পুরুষ
Ekjôn purush
এজন মানুহ
Ezon manuh
‌ꠄꠇꠐꠣ ꠛꠦꠐꠣ
Exta beta
/exʈa beʈa/ A man
/kiɔ́ɾ/ Informal of Whereof
কন্যা, মেয়ে
Kônna, Meye
জী, ছোৱালী
Zi, Süali
ꠇꠂꠘ꠆ꠘꠣ, ꠏꠤ, ꠙꠥꠠꠤ
Xôinna, Zi, Furi
/xoinna/, /zí/, /ɸuɽi/ Daughter
মানৱজাতি, মানুহৰ জাতি
Manowzati, Manuhor zati
ꠝꠣꠁꠘꠡꠞ ꠎꠣꠔ
Mainshor zat
/mainʃɔɾ zat̪/ Mankind
অসমিয়া, অহমিয়া
Ôshômiya, Ôhômiya
/ɔɦɔmia/ Assamese people
/aŋguil/ Finger, toe
/aŋʈi/ Ring
জুইত পোৰা, জুইত সেকা
Zuit püra, Zuit xeka
/aguinfuɽa/ Baked, grilled
পাখি, চিড়িয়া
Pakhi, Chiriya
চৰাই, পখী
Sorai, Pokhi
ꠙꠣꠈꠤꠀ, ꠙꠞꠤꠘ꠆ꠖꠣ
Fakya, Forinda
/ɸakia/, /ɸorinda/ Bird
পরে, বাদে
Pôre, Bade
পিছত, পৰত
Pisot, Porot
ꠛꠣꠖꠦ, ꠙꠞꠦ
Bade, Fôre
/ɸɔɾe/, /bad̪e/ Later
সকল, সমস্ত, সব, তামাম
Shôkôl, Shômôsto, Shôb, Tamam
সকলো, সব, চব
Xokolü; Xob; Sob
ꠢꠇꠟ, ꠢꠇ꠆ꠇꠟ, ꠡꠛ, ꠔꠣꠝꠣꠝ
Hôxôl, Hôkkôl, Shôb, Tamam
/ɦɔxɔl/, /ɦɔkkɔl/, /ʃɔb/ All
সারা, পুরা
Shara, Pura
ꠀꠍ꠆ꠔꠣ, ꠢꠣꠞꠣ
Asta, Hara
/ɦaɾa/ Whole
সাত বিল
Shat bil
সাত বিল
Xat bil
ꠢꠣꠔ ꠛꠤꠟ
Hat bil
/ɦat̪ bil/ Seven wetlands
/ɦat̪xɔɽa/ Citrus macroptera fruit
/silɔʈi/ Sylheti
ভালো করে খান।
Bhalo kôre khan.
ভালকৈ খাওক।
Bhalkoi khaük.
ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠇꠞꠤ/ꠑꠤꠇꠦ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ।
Bala xôri/tike xaukka.
/bála xɔɾi xaukka/, /bála ʈike xaukka/ Bon appetit
স্ত্রী, পত্নী, বউ
Stri, Pôtni, Bou
স্ত্রী, ঘৈণী, পত্নী
Stri, Ghôini, Pôtni
/bɔu/ Wife
স্বামী, বর, পতি
Shami, Bôr, Pôti
গিৰিয়েক, পতি, স্বামী
Giriyêk, Pôti, Swami
/zamai/ Husband
/damand/ Son-in-law
/ɦɔúɾ/ Father-in-law
/ɦɔɽi/ Mother-in-law
/ɦala/ Brother-in-law
/ɦali/ Sister-in-law
/ɦika/ Learn
/lai/ Mustard
/ɦial/ Fox, Jackal
বিড়াল, মার্জার
Biral, marjar
মেকুৰী, বিৰালী
Mekuri, birali
ꠝꠦꠇꠥꠞ, ꠛꠤꠟꠣꠁ
Mékur, Bilai
/mexuɾ/, /bilai/ Cat
শুকটি, শুকান মাছ
Xukoti, Xukan mas
ꠢꠥꠐꠇꠤ, ꠢꠥꠇꠂꠘ
Huṭki, Hukôin
/ɦuʈki/, /ɦukoin/ Sundried Fish
আপনার নাম কী?
Apnar nam ki?
আপোনাৰ নাম কি?
Apünar nam ki?
ꠀꠙꠘꠣꠞ ꠘꠣꠝ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?
Afnar nam kita?
/aɸnaɾ nam kit̪a/ What's your name?
ডাক্তার আসার পূর্বে রোগী মারা গেল।
Daktar ashar purbe rogi mara gelo
ডাক্তৰ অহাৰ আগতেই ৰোগী মৰি গ’ল।

Daktor ohar agotei rügi mori gól

ꠒꠣꠇ꠆ꠔꠞ ꠀꠅꠣ ꠀꠉꠦꠃ ꠛꠦꠝꠣꠞꠤ ꠝꠞꠤ ꠉꠦꠟ।
Daxtôr awar ageu bemari môri gelo.
/ɖaxt̪ɔɾ awaɾ age bemaɾi mɔɾi gelo/ Before the doctor came, the patient had died.
বহুদিন দেখিনি।
Bôhudin dekhini.
বহুদিন দেখা নাই।
Bohudin dekha nai.
ꠛꠣꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ ꠖꠤꠘ ꠖꠦꠈꠍꠤ ꠘꠣ।
Bakka din dexsi na.
/bakka d̪in d̪exsi na/ Long time, no see.
আপনি কি ভালো আছেন?
Apni ki bhalo achhen?
আপুনি ভালে আছে নে?
Apuni bhale asê nê?
ꠀꠙꠘꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠀꠍꠂꠘ ꠘꠤ?
Afne bala asôin ni?
/aɸne bála asoin ni/ How are you?
আমি তোমাকে ভালোবাসি।
Ami tomake bhalobashi.
মই তোমাক ভাল পাওঁ।
Moi tümak bhal paü.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠔꠥꠝꠣꠞꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠙꠣꠁ।
Ami tumare bala fai.
/ami t̪umare bála ɸai/ I love you.
আমি ভুলে গিয়েছি।
Ami bhule giyechhi.
মই পাহৰি গৈছোঁ।
Môi pahôri goisü.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠙꠣꠅꠞꠤ ꠟꠤꠍꠤ।
Ami faûri lisi.
/ami ɸaʊɾi lisi/ I have forgotten.
মাংসের ঝোলটা আমার খুব ভালো লেগেছে।
Mangsher jholṭa amar khub bhalo legeche.
‍মাংসৰ তৰকাৰীখন মোৰ খুব ভাল লাগিছে।
Mangxor torkarikhon mür khub bhal lagise.
ꠉꠥꠍꠔꠞ ꠍꠣꠟꠘꠐꠣ ꠀꠝꠣꠞ ꠛꠣꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠟꠣꠉꠍꠦ।
Gustôr salônṭa amar bakka bala lagse.
/gust̪ɔɾ salɔnʈa amaɾ bakka bála lagse/ I liked the meat curry.
শিলচর কোনদিকে?
Shilcôr kondike?
শিলচৰ কোন ফালে/পিনে?
Xilsor kün fale/pine?
ꠢꠤꠟꠌꠞ ꠇꠥꠘ ꠛꠣꠄ/ꠛꠣꠁꠖꠤ/ꠝꠥꠈꠣ?
Hilcôr kun bae/baidi/muka?
/ɦil͡tʃɔɾ kun bae, baed̪i, muká/ Which way to Silchar?
এটা কী?

Eṭa ki?

এইটো কি?

Eitü ki?

ꠁꠉꠥ/ꠁꠇꠐꠣ/ꠁꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Igu/Ikṭa/Iṭa kita?

/igu, ikʈa, iʈa kit̪a/ What is this?
সেটা কী?

Sheṭa ki?

সেইটো কি?

Xeitü ki?

ꠢꠤꠉꠥ/ꠢꠤꠇꠐꠣ/ꠢꠤꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Higu/Hikṭa/Hiṭa kita?

/ɦigu, ɦikʈa, ɦiʈa kit̪a/ What is that?
/ɦeʃ/ End, finish

See also


  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sylheti". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b "Sylheti". Ethnologue.
  5. ^ Sebastian M. Rasinger (2007). Bengali-English in East London: A Study in Urban Multilingualism. pp.F 26–27. Retrieved on 2 May 2017.
  6. ^ a b c George Grierson. Language Survey of India - Vol. V Pt 1.
  7. ^ Chalmers (1996)
  8. ^ E M Lewis (1868). "Sylhet District". Principal Heads of the History and Statistics of the Dacca Division. Calcutta: Calcutta Central Press Company. pp. 323–325.
  9. ^ Mohammad Daniul Huq; Aminur Rahman. "Bangla Literature". Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  10. ^ Anne J. Kershen (2005). Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields, 1660–2000. Routledge. pp. 148–150. ISBN 978-0-7146-5525-3.
  11. ^ "Sylheti Dictionary - Apps on Google Play". Google Play. Chocolate and Bicycles.
  12. ^ "SYLOTI BOOKS DESCRIPTION". Syloti Language Center.
  13. ^ "Sylheti Nagri – Banglapedia".
  14. ^ d'Hubert, Thibaut (May 2014). In the Shade of the Golden Palace: Alaol and Middle Bengali Poetics in Arakan. ISBN 9780190860356.
  15. ^ Gope, Amalesh; Mahanta, Shakun (May 2014). "Lexical Tones in Sylheti". ResearchGate.

External links

Sylheti phrasebook travel guide from Wikivoyage

  • UK-Based Group that collects and republishes Sylheti literature
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