Sylheti language

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Sylheti
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
সিলেটি
Sylheti nagari.png
The word Silôṭi ('Sylheti') in Sylheti Nagari script
Pronunciation [silɔʈi]
Native to Bangladesh and India
Region Sylhet Division (Bangladesh)
Barak Valley and Hojai (Assam, India)
Unakoti and North Tripura (Tripura, India)
Shillong (Meghalaya, India)
Jiribam (Manipur, India)
Ethnicity Sylhetis
Native speakers
11 million (2007)[1]
Sylheti Nagari, Bengali script[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 syl
Glottolog sylh1242[3]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-ui
Sylheti speaking zone.png
Sylheti speakers within South Asia
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Sylheti (Sylheti: ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ) is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam. There is also a substantial number of Sylheti speakers in the Indian states of Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, and Nagaland.[4] It also has a large diaspora in the United Kingdom, the United States and the Middle East.

Status

Socially and politically the status of Sylheti is disputed with some incorrectly considering it to be a 'dialect' of Bengali, while linguistically Sylheti is a related yet separate language.[5] There are significant differences in grammar and pronunciation as well as a somewhat one-directional intelligibility between Sylheti and Bengali, with Bengali speakers being less likely to understand the Sylheti language. Most Sylhetis are at least bilingual to some degree, as Standard Bengali is taught at all levels of education in Bangladesh.[6] Sylhet was part of the ancient kingdom of Kamarupa,[7] and Sylheti shares many common features with Assamese, including a larger set of classifiers and a larger set of fricatives than other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. In a now out-dated survey of languages based on written samples of collected texts that was edited outside of India, George Abraham Grierson,[8] concludes that "[Sylheti's] inflections also differ from those of regular Bengali, and in one or two instances assimilate to those of Assamese," and he groups three dialects of Sylheti (from Western Sylhet, Eastern Sylhet, and Cachar) along with the Bengali dialect of Dacca in an Eastern Bengali group.[9] Considering the unique linguistic properties such as phoneme inventory, allophony, and inflectional morphology in particular and lexicon in general, Sylheti is regarded as a separate language (Grierson 1928, Chatterjee 1939, Gordon 2005). The Sylheti language was formerly written using its own script, Sylheti Nagari, which, although largely replaced with the Eastern Nagari script in recent times, is beginning to experience a revival in use.

It has been claimed (without providing statistical data and degrees of variation tolerance) that Sylheti shares 70% to 80% of its lexicon with Standard Bengali, despite pronunciation differences, which is a common situation between many related languages, given pronunciaiton differences.[4][10]

Name of the language

Sylheti is the common English spelling of the language named after the accepted British spelling of the Sylhet District. The Standard Bengali spelling is সিলেটি (Sileṭi), while the Sylheti spelling is ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ or ছিলটি (Silôṭi). In Assamese, it is spelled as ছিলঠীয়া (Silôṭhia).

Geographical distribution

The Sylheti language is native to the Greater Sylhet region, which comprises the present-day Sylhet Division of Bangladesh as well as the 3 districts of the Barak Valley and in Hojai district of Assam in India.

Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Sylhetis living in North Tripura and the Meghalaya region. A significant amount of Sylheti migration to the United Kingdom and the United States from the 20th century has made Sylheti one of the most spoken languages of the Bangladeshi diaspora.

History

SAMPLE TEXT:
Front page of a Nagari book titled Halat-un-Nabi, written in the mid-19th century by Sadeq Ali of Daulatpur, Longla, Moulvibazar.

The region of Sylhet became a part of the Muslim Bengal in 1303 during the Conquest of Sylhet led by Shamsuddin Firoz Shah. The high influx of Middle Eastern and Central Asian settlers led to an influence from Arabic and Persian on Sylheti. When the British arrived in 1765, Sylhet became a part of Assam leading to some Assamese influence on Sylheti. In the 19th century, the British tea-planters in the area referred to the vernacular spoken in Surma and Barak Valleys as Sylheti. Local names included Ujaniyo (northern tongue i.e. a northern form of Bengali) and Srihottiyo (Srihattan).[9] In Assam, the language is still referred to as Sylheti.

In 1868, a short glossary of Sylheti terms were written up and compared to standard Bengali to allow ease in understanding the dialect. This is most likely the earliest appearance of a Sylheti dictionary. Many terms listed here differ from modern Sylheti - highlighting the dialect's evolution.[11]

In the 20th century, Shibprosanna Lahiry wrote a book called Sylheti Bhasatattver Bhumika (A background of the Sylheti language).[12]

The language was primarily written in the Eastern Nagari script however an alternative script was also founded in the Sylhet region known as Sylheti Nagari. During the British colonial period, Moulvi Abdul Karim spent several years in London learning the printing trade. After returning home in the 1870a, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagari and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet town.

The British Bangladeshis living in England were mainly of Sylheti origin, and they started a campaign during the mid-1970s to mid-1980s to recognise Sylheti as a language in its own right. During the mid-1970s, when the first mother-tongue classes were established for Bangladeshis by community activists, the classes were given in standard Bengali rather than the Sylheti dialect which triggered the campaign. During the 1980s, a recognition campaign for Sylheti took place in the area of Spitalfields in the East End of London. One of the main organisations was the Bangladeshis' Educational Needs in Tower Hamlets (BENTH). However this organisation collapsed in 1985 and with its demise, the pro-Sylheti campaign in the borough lost impetus. Nonetheless, Sylheti remains very widespread as a domestic language in working-class as well as upper-class Sylheti households in the United Kingdom.[13]

Sylheti variation from Standard Bengali

There is also a written form of Sylheti which was used to write Puthis and was identical to puthis written in Dobhashi Bengali due to both lacking the use of tatsama and using Perso-Arabic vocabulary as a replacement. Similar to Dobhashi, those written in Sylheti Nagri were paginated from right to left.[14][15]

Vocabulary look

A phrase in:

  • Standard Bengali: এক দেশের গালি আরেক দেশের বুলি æk desher gali arek desher buli.
  • Sylheti: ꠄꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠉꠣꠁꠟ ꠀꠣꠞꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠝꠣꠔ/এক দেশর গাইল, আরক দেশর মাত ex deshôr gail arôx deshôr mat.

which literally means "one land's obscenity is another land's language", and can be roughly translated to convey that a similar word in one language can mean something very different in another. For example:

মেঘ megh in Standard Bengali means cloud .

ꠝꠦꠊ/মেঘ megh in Sylheti means rain.
In Pali मेघ megha means both rain and cloud.
In Sylheti cloud is called ꠈꠣꠟꠘꠤ/খালনি/khalni. Also referred as ꠢꠣꠎ/হাজ haz, ꠀꠡꠝꠣꠘꠤ ꠢꠣꠎ/আসমানি হাজ ashmani haz (decor of the sky). or badol/বাদল.
In Standard Bengali rain is called বৃষ্টি brishti.

নাড়া naṛa in Standard Bengali means to stir, to move or to shout.

In Sylheti, to stir is called ꠟꠣꠠꠣ laṛa and to shout is naṛa.

কম্বল kômbôl in Standard Bengali means blanket.

In Sylheti, blanket is called ꠞꠣꠎꠣꠁ/রাজাই razai.
ꠇꠝꠛꠟ/কম্বল xômbôl in Sylheti means buttock and in Bengali it means blanket.

Grammar comparisons

The following is a sample text in Sylheti, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations:
Sylheti in Sylheti Nagari script

ꠗꠣꠞꠣ ১: ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘꠜꠣꠛꠦ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ‘ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠞꠣꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠄꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ।

Sylheti in Bengali script

ধারা ১: হকল মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে হমান ইজ্জত আর হক লইয়া পয়দা ‘অয়। তারার বিবেক আর আকল আছে। এর লাগি হকলর উচিত একজনে আরকজনর লগে বিরাদরির মন লইয়া আচরণ করা।

Sylheti in Phonetic Romanization

Dara ex: Hôxôl manuš šadinbabe hôman ijjôt ar hôx lôia fôeda ôe. Tarar bibex ar axôl ase. Er lagi hôxlôr usit exzône arôxzônôr lôge biradôrir môn lôia asôrôn xôra.

Sylheti in IPA

/d̪aɾa ex | ɦɔxɔl manuʃ ʃad̪ínbábe ɦɔman id͡ʒːɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔx lɔia fɔe̯d̪a ɔ́e̯ ‖ t̪aɾaɾ bibex aɾ axɔl asé ‖ eɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ usit̪ exzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔge birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔn lɔia asɔɾɔn xɔɾa ‖/

Bengali in Bengali script

ধারা ১: সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত।

Bengali in Phonetic Romanization

Dhara æk: Šômôsto manuš šadhinbhabe šôman môrjada æbông odhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. Tãder bibek æbông buddhi achhe; šutôrang šôkôleri æke ôpôrer prôti bhratrittôšulôbh mônobhab niye achôrôn kôra uchit.

Bengali in IPA

/d̪ʱara ɛk | ʃɔmɔst̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe ʃɔman mɔɾd͡ʒad̪a ɛbɔŋ od̪ʱikaɾ nije d͡ʒɔnmɔgɾɔɦɔn kɔɾe ‖ t̪ãd̪eɾ bibek ɛbɔŋ bud̪d̪ʱi at͡ʃʰe ‖ ʃut̪ɔɾaŋ ʃɔkɔleɾi ɛke ɔpɔɾeɾ prɔt̪i bʱɾat̪ɾit̪ːɔʃulɔbʱ mɔnobʱab nije at͡ʃɔɾɔn kɔɾa ut͡ʃit̪ ‖/

Below are the grammar similarities and differences appearing in a word to word comparison:
Sylheti word-to-word gloss

All humans' born happen free and dignity plus rights with. Their conscious, intelligent and judgement-clever staying bearing a-person another-person's with spiritual brotherhood conduct stays.

Bengali word-to-word gloss

All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.

English

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Phonology

Sylheti is distinguished by its tonal characteristics and a wide range of fricative consonants corresponding to aspirated consonants in closely related languages and dialects such as Bengali; a lack of the breathy voiced stops; word-final stress; and a relatively large set of loanwords from Assamese, Standard Bengali and other Bengali dialects. Sylheti has affected the course of Standard Bengali in the rest of the state.

Vowels
  Front Central Back
Close i   u
Close-mid e    
Open-mid     ɔ
Open   a  
Consonants
  Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palato-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n     ŋ  
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless unaspirated p , , ʈ , t͡ʃ , k ,  
voiced unaspirated b , , ɖ , d͡ʒ , ɡ ,  
Fricative voiceless fricative ɸ~f , s ,   ʃ x , ɦ
voiced fricative   z ,        
Flap   ɾ ɽ      
Approximant w l   j    

Tone

Sylheti is a tonal language. The Indo-Aryan languages are not generally recognised for tone, although at least one other Indo-Aryan language (Punjabi) is tonal. There are two types of tonal contrasts in Sylheti: the emergence of high tone in the vowels following the loss of aspiration, and a low tone elsewhere.[16]

  • at (ꠀꠔ) 'intestine'
  • át (‘ꠀꠔ) 'hand'
  • xali (ꠇꠣꠟꠤ) 'ink'
  • xáli (ꠈꠣꠟꠤ) 'empty'
  • guṛa (ꠉꠥꠠꠣ) 'powder'
  • gúṛa (ꠊꠥꠠꠣ) 'horse'
  • suri (ꠌꠥꠞꠤ) 'theft'
  • súri (ꠍꠥꠞꠤ) 'knife'
  • zal (ꠎꠣꠟ) 'net, web'
  • zál (ꠏꠣꠟ) 'pungent'
  • ṭik (ꠐꠤꠇ) 'tick'
  • ṭík (ꠑꠤꠇ) 'correct'
  • ḍal (ꠒꠣꠟ) 'branch'
  • ḍál (ꠓꠣꠟ) 'shield'
  • tal (ꠔꠣꠟ) 'palmyra, rhythm'
  • tál (ꠕꠣꠟ) 'plate'
  • dan (ꠖꠣꠘ) 'donation'
  • dán (ꠗꠣꠘ) 'paddy'
  • ful (ꠙꠥꠟ) 'bridge'
  • fúl (ꠚꠥꠟ) 'flower'
  • bala (ꠛꠣꠟꠣ) 'bangle'
  • bála (ꠜꠣꠟꠣ) 'good, welfare'
  • bat (ꠛꠣꠔ) 'arthritis'
  • bát (ꠜꠣꠔ) 'rice'

Sylheti continues to have a long history of coexisting with other Tibeto-Burman languages such as various dialects of Kokborok, Reang which are tonal in nature. Even though there is no clear evidence of direct borrowing of lexical items from those tonal languages into Sylheti, there is still a possibility that the emergence of Sylheti tones is due to an areal feature as the indigenous speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages by and large use Sylheti as a common medium for interaction.

Comparison

A notable characteristic of spoken Sylheti is the correspondence of the /x/ and /ɦ/, pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative to the /k/ or /kʰ/ of Bengali and voiceless glottal fricative to the /x/ of Assamese respectively.

Standard Bengali Assamese Sylheti IPA Transcription Meaning in English
চরণস্পর্শ
Côrônspôrshô
ভৰি চোৱা
Bhori süa
ꠇꠖꠝꠛꠥꠍꠤ
Xôdômbusi
/xɔdɔmbusi/ Touching the feet (A way showing respect)
ঢাকা
Dhaka
ঢাকা
Dhaka
ꠓꠣꠇꠣ
Daxa
/ɖáxa/ Dhaka
একজন লোক
Ēkjôn lōk
এজন লোক
Ezon lük
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ
Ēxzôn manush
/exzɔn manuʃ/ A person
একজন
Ekjôn
এজন
Ezon
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ
Exzôn
/exzɔn/ Someone
একজন পুরুষ
Ekjôn purush
এজন মানুহ
Ezon manuh
‌ꠄꠇꠐꠣ ꠛꠦꠐꠣ
Exta beta
/exʈa beʈa/ A man
কীসের
Kisher
কিহৰ
kihor
ꠇꠤꠅꠞ
Kior
/kiɔ́ɾ/ Informal of Whereof
কন্যা, মেয়ে
Kônna, Meye
জী, ছোৱালী
Zi, Süali
ꠇꠂꠘ꠆ꠘꠣ, ꠏꠤ, ꠙꠥꠠꠤ
Xôinna, Zi, Furi
/xoinna/, /zí/, /ɸuɽi/ Daughter
মানবজাতি
Manôbjati
মানৱজাতি, মানুহৰ জাতি
Manowzati, Manuhor zati
ꠝꠣꠁꠘꠡꠞ ꠎꠣꠔ
Mainshor zat
/mainʃɔɾ zat̪/ Mankind
অসমিয়া, অহমিয়া
Ôshômiya, Ôhômiya
অসমীয়া
Oxomiya
ꠅꠢꠝꠤꠀ
Ôhômia
/ɔɦɔmia/ Assamese people
আঙুল
Angul
আঙুলি
Anguli
ꠀꠋꠉꠥꠁꠟ
Anguil
/aŋguil/ Finger, toe
আংটি
Angti
আঙুঠি
Anguthi
ꠀꠋꠑꠤ
Angtí
/aŋʈi/ Ring
আগুনপোড়া
Agunpora
জুইত পোৰা, জুইত সেকা
Zuit püra, Zuit xeka
ꠀꠉꠥꠁꠘꠙꠥꠞꠣ
Aguinfura
/aguinfuɽa/ Baked, grilled
অসিধারী
Oshidhari
খৰ্গধৰ,চোকৰধৰা
Khorgodhor, Sükordhora
ꠔꠟꠥꠀꠞꠗꠣꠞꠤ
Tôluardari
/t̪ɔluaɾd̪aɾi/ Swordsman
পাখি, পক্ষী
Pakhi, Pôkkhi
চৰাই, পখী
Sorai, Pokhi
ꠙꠣꠈꠤ, ꠙꠣꠈꠤꠀ
Faki, Fakia
/ɸaki/, /ɸakia/ Bird
ভালোবাসা, প্রেম, পিরিতি
Bhalobasha, Prem, Piriti
মৰম, ভালপোৱা, প্রেম, পিৰিটি
Morom, Bhalpüwa, Prem, Piriti
ꠜꠣꠟꠣꠙꠣꠅꠣ, ꠙꠦꠞꠦꠝ, ꠙꠤꠞꠤꠔꠤ, ꠝꠢꠛ꠆ꠛꠔ
Balafawa, Ferem, Firiti, Môhôbbôt
Firiti /balaɸawa/, /ɸeɾem/, /ɸiɾit̪i/, /mɔɦɔbbɔt̪/ Love
পরে
Pôre
পিছত, পৰত
pisot, porot
ꠙꠞꠦ, ꠛꠣꠖꠦ
Fôre, Bade
/ɸɔɾe/, /bad̪e/ Later
সকল, সমস্ত, সব
Shôkôl, Shômôsto, Shôb
সকলো, সব, চব
Xokolü; Xob; Sob
ꠢꠇꠟ, ꠢꠇ꠆ꠇꠟ, ꠡꠛ
Hôxôl, Hôkkôl, Shôb
/ɦɔxɔl/, /ɦɔkkɔl/, /ʃɔb/ All
সারা
Shara
গোটেই
Gutei
ꠢꠣꠞꠣ
Hara
/ɦaɾa/ Whole
সাত বিল
Shat bil
সাত বিল
Xat bil
ꠢꠣꠔ ꠛꠤꠟ
Hat bil
/ɦat̪ bil/ Seven wetlands
সাতকড়া
Shatkôra
সাতকৰা
Xatkora
ꠢꠣꠔꠇꠠꠣ
Hatxôra
/ɦat̪xɔɽa/ Citrus macroptera fruit
সাতবার
Shatbar
সাতবাৰ
Xatbar
ꠢꠣꠔꠛꠣꠞ
Hatbar
/ɦat̪baɾ/ Seven-times (Sylheti term for lots of time)
সিলেটি
Sileṭi
ছিলঠীয়া
Silôṭiya
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
Silôṭi
/silɔʈi/ Sylheti
সৌভাগ্য
Shoubhaggô
সৌভাগ্য
Xoubhaiggô
ꠈꠥꠡꠘꠍꠤꠛ,
Shoubaiggô, Kushnôsib
/kuʃnɔsib/ Good luck (Sylheti: God's Authority)
ভালো করে খান।
Bhalo kôre khan.
ভালকৈ খাওক।
Bhalkoi khaük.
ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠇꠞꠤ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ, ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠑꠤꠇꠦ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ।
Bala xôri xaukka, Bala tike xaukka.
/bála xɔɾi xaukka/, /bála ʈike xaukka/ Bon appetit
স্ত্রী, পত্নী
Stri, Pôtni
ঘৈণী, পত্নী
Stri, Ghôini, Pôtni
ꠛꠃ
Bôu
/bɔu/ Wife
স্বামী, বর, পতি
Shami, Bôr, Pôti
গিৰি, পৈ, স্বামী
Swami, Giri, Pôti
ꠎꠣꠝꠣꠁ
Zamai
/zamai/ Husband
জামাই
Jamai
জোঁৱাই
Züai
ꠖꠣꠝꠣꠘ
Daman
/daman/ Son-in-law
শ্বশুর
Shôshur
শহুৰ
Xohur
ꠢꠃꠞ
Hôur
/ɦɔúɾ/ Father-in-law
শাশুড়ি
Shashuṛi
শাহু
Xahu
ꠢꠠꠣ
Hoṛi
/ɦɔɽi/ Mother-in-law
শালা
Shala
খুলশালা
Khulxala
ꠢꠣꠟꠣ
Hala
/ɦala/ Brother-in-law
শালী
Shali
খুলশালী
Khulxali
ꠢꠣꠟꠤ
Hali
/ɦali/ Sister-in-law
শেখা
Shekha
শিকা
Xika
ꠢꠤꠇꠣ
Hika
/ɦika/ Learn
সরষে
Shorshe
সৰিয়হ
Xorioh
ꠢꠂꠞꠧ
Hoiro
/ɦɔiɾo/ Mustard
শিয়াল
Shiyal
শিয়াল
Xial
ꠢꠤꠀꠟ
Hial
/ɦial/ Fox, Jackal
বেড়াল
Beral
মেকুৰী, বিৰালী
Mekuri, birali
ꠝꠦꠇꠥꠞ, ꠛꠤꠟꠣꠁ
Mékur, Bilai
/mekuɾ/, /bilai/ Cat
শুঁটকি
Shuṭki
শুকটি, শুকান মাছ
Xukoti, Xukan mas
ꠢꠥꠐꠇꠤ, ꠢꠥꠇꠂꠘ
Huṭki, Hukôin
/ɦuʈki/, /ɦukoin/ Sundried Fish
আপনার নাম কী?
Apnar nam ki?
আপোনাৰ নাম কি?
Apünar nam ki?
ꠀꠙꠘꠣꠞ ꠘꠣꠝ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?
Afnar nam kita?
/aɸnaɾ nam kit̪a/ What's your name?
ডাক্তার আসার পূর্বে রোগী মারা গেল।
Daktar ashar purbe rogi mara gelo
ডাক্তৰ অহাৰ আগতেই ৰোগী মৰি গ’ল।

Daktor ohar agotei rügi mori gól

ꠒꠣꠇ꠆ꠔꠞ ꠀꠅꠣꠞ ꠀꠉꠦꠃ ꠛꠦꠝꠣꠞꠤ ꠝꠞꠤ ꠉꠦꠟ।
Daxtôr awar ageu bemari môri gelo.
/ɖaxt̪ɔɾ awaɾ ageu bemaɾi mɔɾi gelo/ Before the doctor came, the patient had died.
বহুদিন দেখিনি।
Bôhudin dekhini.
বহুদিন দেখা নাই।
Bohudin dekha nai.
ꠛꠣꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ ꠖꠤꠘ ꠖꠦꠈꠍꠤ ꠘꠣ।
Bakka din dexsi na.
/bakka d̪in d̪exsi na/ Long time, no see.
আপনি কি ভালো আছেন?
Apni ki bhalo Achen?
আপুনি ভালে আছে নে?
Apuni bhale asê nê?
ꠀꠙꠘꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠀꠍꠂꠘ ꠘꠤ?
Afne bala asôin ni?
/aɸne bála asoin ni/ How are you?
আমি তোমাকে ভালোবাসি।
Ami tomake bhalobashi.
মই তোমাক ভাল পাওঁ।
Moi tümak bhal paü.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠔꠥꠝꠣꠞꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠙꠣꠁ।
Ami tumare bala fai.
/ami t̪umare bála ɸai/ I love you.
আমি ভুলে গিয়েছি।
Ami bhule giechi.
মই পাহৰি গৈছোঁ।
Môi pahôri goisü.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠙꠣꠅꠞꠤ ꠟꠤꠍꠤ।
Ami faûri lisi.
/ami ɸaʊɾi lisi/ I have forgotten.
মাংসের ঝোলটা আমার খুব ভালো লেগেছে।
Mangsher jholṭa amar khub bhalo legeche.
‍মাংসৰ তৰকাৰীখন মোৰ খুব ভাল লাগিছে।
Mangxor torkarikhon mür khub bhal lagise.
ꠉꠥꠍꠔꠞ ꠍꠣꠟꠝꠐꠣ ꠀꠝꠣꠞ ꠈꠥꠛ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠟꠣꠉꠍꠦ।
Gustôr salômṭa amar kub bala lagse.
/gust̪ɔɾ salɔmʈa amaɾ kúb bála lagse/ I liked the meat curry.
শিলচর কোনদিকে?
Shilcôr kondike?
শিলচৰ কোন ফালে/পিনে?
Xilsor kün fale/pine?
ꠢꠤꠟꠌꠞ ꠇꠥꠘ ꠛꠣꠄ/ꠛꠣꠁꠖꠤ/ꠝꠥꠈꠣ?
Hilcôr kun bae/baidi/muka?
/ɦil͡tʃɔɾ kun bae, baid̪i, muká/ Which way to Silchar?
শৌচাগার কোথায়?
Shôucagar kothay?
শৌচালয় ক’ত?
Xousaloy kót?
ꠐꠣꠐ꠆ꠐꠤ ꠇꠥꠘꠈꠣꠘꠧ/ꠇꠥꠘꠣꠘꠧ/ꠈꠣꠘꠧ/ꠇꠤꠀꠘꠧ/ꠇꠁ/ꠇꠥꠀꠁ?
ṭaṭṭi kunxano/kunano/xano/kiano/xoi/kuai?
/ʈaʈʈi kunxano, kunano, xano, kiano, xoi, kuai/ Where is the toilet?
এটা কী?

Eṭa ki?

এইটো কি?

Eitü ki?

ꠁꠉꠥ/ꠁꠇꠐꠣ/ꠁꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Igu/Ikṭa/Iṭa kita?

/igu, ikʈa, iʈa kit̪a/ What is this?
সেটা কী?

Sheṭa ki?

সেইটো কি?

Xeitü ki?

ꠢꠤꠉꠥ/ꠢꠤꠇꠐꠣ/ꠢꠤꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Higu/Hikṭa/Hiṭa kita?

/ɦigu, ɦikʈa, ɦiʈa kit̪a/ What is that?
শেষ
Shesh
শেষ
Xex/xeh
ꠢꠦꠡ
Hesh
/ɦeʃ/ End, finish

References

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sylheti". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b "Sylheti". Ethnologue.
  5. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  6. ^ Sebastian M. Rasinger (2007). Bengali-English in East London: A Study in Urban Multilingualism. pp.F 26–27. Retrieved on 2 May 2017.
  7. ^ Edward Gait, History of Assam, p. 274
  8. ^ George Grierson, Language Survey of India, Vol II, Pt 1, p224
  9. ^ a b Grierson, George A. (1903). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume V, Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. Eastern group. Specimens of the Bengali and Assamese languages. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
  10. ^ Chalmers (1996)
  11. ^ E M Lewis (1868). "Sylhet District". Principal Heads of the History and Statistics of the Dacca Division. Calcutta: Calcutta Central Press Company. pp. 323–325.
  12. ^ Mohammad Daniul Huq; Aminur Rahman. "Bangla Literature". Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  13. ^ Anne J. Kershen (2005). Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields, 1660–2000. Routledge. pp. 148–150. ISBN 978-0-7146-5525-3.
  14. ^ "Sylheti Nagri – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
  15. ^ d'Hubert, Thibaut (May 2014). "In the Shade of the Golden Palace: Alaol and Middle Bengali Poetics in Arakan".
  16. ^ Gope, Amalesh; Mahanta, Shakun (May 2014). "Lexical Tones in Sylheti". ResearchGate.

External links

Sylheti phrasebook travel guide from Wikivoyage

  • UK-Based Group that collects and republishes Sylheti literature
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