Swiss units of measurement
A number of units of measurement were used in Switzerland to measure length, mass, etc. Metric system was optional in 1868, and has been compulsory since 1877.^{[1]}^{[2]}
Contents
System before metric system
Units were varied and were not in fixed values. During the transition to the metric system, units were fixed.^{[1]} Before 1856, almost every canton had its own system of units.^{[3]}
Length
A number of units were used to measure length. One pied (1 fuss) was equal to 0.30 m, according to the fixed value defined during the transition to the metric system.^{[1]}^{[4]} Some other units and their fixed values are given below:
1 ligne = 1/144 pied
1 linie = 1/144 pied
1 pouce = 1/12 pied
1 zoll = 1/12 pied
1 aune = 2 pied (or 4 pied^{[3]})
1 elle = 2 pied
1 brache = 2 pied^{[3]}
1 toise = 6 pied
1 ruthe = 6 pied
1 perche = 16 pied (or 10 pied^{[3]})
1 lieue = 16 000 pied.^{[1]}^{[4]} Lieue was used as a road measure.^{[3]}
Area
One arpent was 400 pied^{2} or 1.44 ha
Mass
A number of units were used to measure mass.
Ordinary
One livre (pfund of the Zollverein) was equal to 0.500 kg according to the fixed value defined during the transition to the metric system.^{[1]}^{[3]}^{[4]} Some other units and their fixed values are given below:
1 loth = 1/32 livre^{[1]}^{[4]}
1 once = 1/16 livre^{[1]}^{[4]}
1 quintal = 100 livre.^{[3]}
Medicine (apothecary or pharmacy)
One livre was equal to 0.375 kg according to the fixed value defined during the transition to the metric system.^{[1]}^{[3]}^{[4]} Some other units and their fixed values are given below:
1 grain = 1/5760 livre
1 scruple = 1/288 livre
1 drachme = 1/96 livre
1 once = 1/12 livre.^{[1]}^{[4]}
Capacity
Two main systems, dry and liquid, were used.
Dry
Several units were used to measure dry capacity. Some units are given below:
1 quarteron (divided into 1/4 and 1/16) = 10 emine = 15 l (0.4257 bushel)
1 double quarteron = 2 quarteron
1 sac = 10 quarteron.^{[3]}
Quarteron is the volume of 30 livre of pure water at 4° Celsius.^{[3]} Quarteron was equal to 5/9 of a cubic pied.^{[3]}
Liquid
Several units were used to measure dry capacity. Some units are given below:
1 sctier = 25 pot
1 muid = 4 setiers
1 pot = 1.5 l (1.585 quarts).^{[3]} Pot was the bulk of 3 livres weight of pure water at the temperature of 4° Celsius. Pot was equal to 1/18 pied^{3} and was subdivided into 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8.^{[3]}
References
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} ^{e} ^{f} ^{g} ^{h} ^{i} Washburn, E.W. (1926). International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology. 1. New York: McGraw-Hil Book Company, Inc. p. 12.
- ^ Cardarelli, F. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London: Springer. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} ^{e} ^{f} ^{g} ^{h} ^{i} ^{j} ^{k} ^{l} ^{m} Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. pp. 72_73.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} ^{e} ^{f} ^{g} Cardarelli, F. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London: Springer. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.