Suramadu Bridge

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Suramadu Bridge
Jembatan Suramadu
Suramadu Bridge 5.JPG
The bridge as seen from the Surabaya coast
Coordinates 7°11′3″S 112°46′49″E / 7.18417°S 112.78028°E / -7.18417; 112.78028Coordinates: 7°11′3″S 112°46′49″E / 7.18417°S 112.78028°E / -7.18417; 112.78028
Carries Vehicles
Crosses Madura Strait, Indonesia
Official name Jembatan Nasional Surabaya – Madura
Characteristics
Design cable stayed bridge
box girder bridge
Total length 5,438 metres (17,841 ft)
Width 30 metres (98 ft)
Height 146 metres (479 ft)
Longest span 434 metres (1,424 ft)
History
Construction start 20 August 2003
Opened 10 June 2009
Statistics
Toll Yes

The Suramadu Bridge (Indonesian: Jembatan Suramadu), also known as the Surabaya–Madura Bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge between Surabaya on the island of Java and the town of Bangkalan on the island of Madura in Indonesia.[1] Opened in June 2009,[2] the 5.4-km bridge is the longest in Indonesia and the first bridge to cross the Madura Strait.[3]

The cable-stayed portion has three spans with lengths 192 m, 434 m and 192 m. The bridge has two lanes in each direction plus an emergency lane and a dedicated lane for motorcycles in each direction.[citation needed]

History

Early history

The idea of a bridge connecting Surabaya with Madura is said to have first been proposed in the early 1960s by the well-known Indonesian engineer Professor Sedyatmo from the Bandung Institute of Technology. Later, in the mid-1980s, there was renewed interest in the project when staff from the Indonesian National Planning Bureau (Bappnenas, or Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional Republik Indonesia) met with Japanese aid donors to discuss construction of a bridge.[4] A pre-feasibility study was prepared in early 1990 and in December 1990, president Suharto appointed a team of ministers and advisers to consider plans for the bridge[5] Later, a consortium consisting on the Indonesian state-owned firm PT Jasa Marga and other Indonesian firms along with Japanese firms (Mitsubish Corporation, Itochu, Shimizu, and the Long Term Credit Bank) was established to proceed with the bridge.

Further developments

In 1997-98, a range of problems arising from the Asian financial crisis in Indonesia led to suspension of activities. However within a few years the East Java Provincial Government took up a renewed interest in plans and in 2000 announced that further initiatives would be taken at the provincial level. These steps gained impetus when president Megawati issued a decree instructing ministers to take additional steps to support construction of the bridge and appointing PT Jawa Marga as the lead Indonesian firm for the project.[6].

The bridge was built by a consortium of Indonesian companies PT Adhi Karya and PT Waskita Karya working with China Road and Bridge Corp. and China Harbor Engineering Co. Ltd. The total cost of the project, including connecting roads, has been estimated at 4.5 trillion rupiah (US$445 million).[7]

Construction began in August 2003. In July 2004, a girder collapsed, killing one worker and injuring nine others. Work on the bridge halted at the end of 2004 due to lack of funds, but was restarted in November 2005. The main span of the bridge was connected on 31 March 2009[8] and the bridge was opened to the public on 10 June 2009.[9]

Within a week of the opening, it was discovered that nuts and bolts as well as maintenance lamps had been stolen and that there was evidence of vandalism of cables supporting the main span.[10]

The successful completion of the Suramadu bridge has encouraged interest in the possibility of constructing a much larger Sunda Strait Bridge across the Sunda Strait at the western end of Java.[citation needed] The bridge was shown both at the introduction and episode 2 of The Amazing Race 21.

Tariffs

As is often the case with public sector infrastructure facilities in Indonesia, there has been pressure to keep the tariffs for use of the bridge low. Tolls were initially set at Rp. 30,000 (US$3 in 2009) for four-wheeled vehicles and Rp. 3,000 (US$0.30) for two-wheelers.[11] However, in early 2016, it was announced that President Jokowi favoured a 50% cut in the tolls to help promote the competitiveness of industries on the Madura side of the bridge.

No details were available as to how the cuts in the tolls would be funded.[12] However, a spokesperson for the state-owned company P.T. Jasa Marga which operated the bridge said that the reductions in tariffs would not cause a problem for the operating firm itself because P.T. Jasa Marga was paid directly by the government to manage the bridge.[13]

References

  1. ^ Indra Harasputra, 'Special report:Suramadu bridge could last for 100 years', The Jakarta Post, 10 June 2009.
  2. ^ "The Suramadu Bridge". The Jakarta Post. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  3. ^ Taufiq, Rohman (2009-06-10). "Indonesia Launches First Inter-Island Bridge". Tempo. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  4. ^ Jack Spotten, 'Iniliah Sejarah Singkat Jembatan Suraamadu Yang Perlu Kita Tahu' (Need to Know: Short history of the Suramadu Bridge), #TandaPagar, 2 January 2016, accessed 22 July 2018.
  5. ^ Presidential Decision (Keputusan Presiden) No 55 of 1990, dated 14 December 1990.
  6. ^ Presidential Decision (Keputusan Presiden) No 79 of 1993, dated 27 October 2003.
  7. ^ Witular, Rendi A. (2009-06-10). "Special Report: 'Made in China' poses as RI's pride". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  8. ^ "Akhirnya, Bagian Tersulit Pada Jembatan Suramadu Tersambung" (in Indonesian). Suramadu Bridge Project. 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  9. ^ "Sebanyak 6.500 Undangan Hadiri Peresmian Jembatan Suramadu" (in Indonesian). Suramadu Bridge Project. 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  10. ^ Amir Tejo (2009-06-17). "Newly Opened East Java Bridge Gets Pilfered For Scrap Metal And Used Parts". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  11. ^ "Suramadu Toll Bridge Fares Announced". Kompas. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  12. ^ Ayomi Amindoni, 'Govt to cut Suramadu Bridge tolls', The Jakarta Post, 4 February 2016.
  13. ^ 'Govt cuts Suramadu bridge fee by 50 percent', The Jakarta Post, 1 March 2016.

External links

  • Suramadu Bridge Project official website (in Indonesian) (link broken as of 2014-05-30)
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